List of wettest tropical cyclones by country

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a list of wettest tropical cyclones by country, using all known available sources. Data is most complete for Australia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Japan, Hong Kong, Mexico, Taiwan, Yap, Chuuk, and the United States, with fragmentary data available for other countries. The French region of Réunion holds several world records for tropical cyclone and worldwide rainfall, due to the rough topography and its proximity to the Indian ocean.[1]

A map of all tropical cyclone tracks, encompassing the period between the years 1985 and 2005.

Antigua and Barbuda[edit]

Hurricane Noel (2007)
Wettest tropical cyclones in Antigua and Barbuda
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 465.3 18.32 Lenny 1999 V. C. Bird International Airport [2]
2 252.5 9.94 Luis 1995 V. C. Bird International Airport [3]
3 245.8 9.68 Frederic 1979 V. C. Bird International Airport [3]
4 232.6 9.16 Omar 2008 V. C. Bird International Airport [3]
5 198.3 7.81 Earl 2010 V. C. Bird International Airport [3]
6 194.1 7.64 Jose 1999 V. C. Bird International Airport [3]
7 188.9 7.44 Hugo 1989 V. C. Bird International Airport [3]
8 163.6 6.44 Daisy 1962 V. C. Bird International Airport [3]
9 159.2 6.27 Iris 1995 V. C. Bird International Airport [3]
10 146.9 5.78 Rafael 2012 V. C. Bird International Airport [3]

Australia[edit]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Joan
Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants in Australia
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 1947 76.65 Peter 1979 Mt. Bellenden Ker [4]
2 1870 73.62 Rona-Frank 1999 Mt. Bellenden Ker [4]
3 1411 55.55 Mackay Cyclone 1918 Mackay [citation needed]
4 1318 51.89 Wanda 1974 Mt. Glorious [5]
5 1256.8 49.48 Fletcher 2014 Kowanyama [6][7]
6 1082 42.60 Aivu 1989 Dalrymple Heights [8]
7 1065 41.93 May 1998 Burketown [9]
8 ≥1000 ≥39.00 Justin 1997 Willis Island [10]
Ellie 2009 [11]
Oswald 2013 Tully [12]

Christmas Island[edit]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Gillian
Wettest tropical cyclones on Christmas Island
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 181 7.126 Gillian 2014 [13]
2 102.4 4.03 Jacob 2007 [14]

Cocos Islands[edit]

Although Tropical Low 11U in 2013 remained more than 120 km (75 mi) away from the Cocos Islands, wind shear displaced convection westward and over the islands for several days, resulting in record breaking rainfall.
Wettest tropical cyclones on the Cocos Islands
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 844.6 33.25 11U 2013 Cocos Island Airport [15]
2 298.0 11.73 Pedro 1989 [16]
3 170.0 6.69 Walter 2001 [17]
4 66.9 2.63 Annie 1973 [18]

Bahamas[edit]

Tropical Storm Noel over the Bahamas
Wettest tropical cyclones in the Bahamas
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 747.5 29.43 Noel 2007 Long Island [19]
2 436.6 17.19 Flora 1963 Duncan Town [20]
3 390.1 15.36 Inez 1966 Nassau Airport [20]
4 337.1 13.27 Fox 1952 New Providence [20]
5 321.1 12.64 Michelle 2001 Nassau [21]
6 309.4 12.18 Erin 1995 Church Grove [22]
7 260.0 9.88 Fay 2008 Freeport [23]
8 236.7 9.32 Floyd 1999 Little Harbor Abacos [24]
9 216.4 8.52 Cleo 1964 West End [20]
10 207.0 8.15 Betsy 1965 Green Turtle Cay [20]

Bangladesh[edit]

Cyclone Rashmi approaching Bangladesh on October 25, 2008

Bangladesh has been the scene of the greatest tropical cyclone casualties in recent times. The country is quite flat and generally lies near sea level.

Wettest tropical cycloneBangladesh
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 452 17.8 03B 2005 [25]
2 ~300 ~12.00 Rashmi 2008 [26]
3 280 11.02 Monsoon Depression — Sep. 2004 Barisal [27]
4 253 10.00 Mahasen 2013 Patuakhali [28]
5 227.2 8.94 Trop. Depression — Oct. 2004 Rangpur [29]
6 220.0 8.66 Bhola 1970 Maya Bandar [30]
7 200 7.87 Sidr 2007 [31]
8 130 5.11 Aila 2009 Chittagong [32]
9 129 5.07 Bijli 2009 [33]
10 53 2.13 Akash 2007 [34]

Belize[edit]

This country has terrain mainly across its southern sections, with elevations up to about 3,700 feet (1,100 m).[35] The highest reported rainfall in what was formerly British Honduras occurred during Hurricane Keith in 2000 when 32.67 inches (830 mm) of rain fell in a 24 hour period at Phillip Goodson International Airport in Belize City.[36] It should be noted that equally heavy rains could have fallen during Hurricane Hattie of 1961 and Hurricane Fifi of 1974.

Hurricane Keith (2000)
Wettest tropical cyclones in Belize
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 829.8 32.67 Keith 2000 Philip Goldson Airport [36]
2 546.6 21.52 Sixteen 2008 Baldy Beacon [37]
3 249.2 9.81 Chantal 2001 Towerhill [38]
4 246.0 9.69 Mitch 1998 Central Farm Meteorological Station [39]
5 241.0 9.49 Gert 1993 Hunting Caye [40]
6 179.0 7.05 Greta 1978 Central Farm Meteorological Station [39]
7 152.4 6.00 Fifi 1974 La Placencia [41]
8 131.0 5.16 Hermine 1980 Central Farm Meteorological Station [39]
9 101.6 4.00 Iris 2001 [42]
10 68.0 2.68 Opal 1995 Central Farm Meteorological Station [39]

Cambodia[edit]

Typhoon Linda (1997)
Wettest tropical cycloneCambodia
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 404.1 15.91 Linda 1997 Kompot [43]
2 240.0 9.45 Violet 1964 Paksa [44]
3 30.5 1.20 Faith 1998 Kompong Cham [45]

Canada[edit]

Extratropical cyclone Harvey near Nova Scotia

Tropical cyclones are usually in transition to extratropical cyclones by the time they reach Atlantic Canada, though occasionally they retain their tropical status. No tropical cyclone has ever hit Canada's Pacific coast.

Wettest tropical cyclones in Canada
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 302.0 11.89 Harvey 1999 Oxford [46]
2 249.9 9.84 Beth 1971 Halifax [47]
3 238.0 9.37 Igor 2010 St. Lawrence [48]
4 213.6 8.41 Hazel 1954 Snelgrove [49]
5 200.4 7.89 Chantal 2007 Argentia [50]
6 191.0 7.52 Bertha 1990 Hunters Mountain [51]
7 185.0 7.28 Sandy 2012 Charlevoix [52]
8 175.0 6.90 Gabrielle 2001 St. John's [53]
9 165.0 6.50 Cristobal 2008 Baccaro Point [54]
9 165.0 6.50 Leslie 2012 Shubenacadie [55]

China[edit]

China is a mountainous country, which leads to rapid dissipation of cyclones that move inland as well as significant amounts of rain from those dissipating cyclones. Typhoon Nina (1975) caused the collapse of two huge reservoirs and ten smaller dams when 1,062 millimetres (41.8 in) fell in Henan Province during a 24 hour period, which is the record for Mainland China. Typhoon Sam of the 1999 Pacific typhoon season became the wettest known tropical cyclone to impact Hong Kong since records began in 1884, breaking a 73 year old record.[56] Precipitation associated with tropical cyclones and their remains can bring snow to Tibet. An early October 2004 tropical depression brought daily precipitation of 6 centimetres (2.4 in) of liquid equivalent precipitation to Che-Ku county in the form of heavy snow, which was a new October daily precipitation record for both rain and snow. This led to a loss of 340,000 kg of food, 230,000 kg of forage grass, and 263 livestock in the snowstorm.[29]

Typhoon Chanchu/Caloy

Mainland[edit]

Wettest tropical cycloneMainland China
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 2749.0 108.21 Carla 1967 Hsin-Liao [57]
2 1248.0 49.13 Gloria 1963 Paishih [57]
3 1062.0 41.81 Nina 1975
4 831.1 32.72 Fitow 2001 [58]
5 703.5 27.70 Rananim 2004 [59]
6 >600.0 >24.00 Haikui 2012 Annui Province [60]
7 555.0 21.85 Chanchu 2006 [61]
8 >400.0 >15.74 Saola 2012 [62]
9 360.6 14.20 Bilis 2006 Guangdong [63]
10 355.6 14.00 Tasha 1990 [64]

Costa Rica[edit]

Tropical Storm Alma
Wettest tropical cycloneCosta Rica
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 920.0 36.22 Cesar 1996 Alto de Tinamaste[65]
2 466.6 18.37 Mitch 1998 Jaco[66]
3 376.4 14.82 Alma 2008 Quepos[67]
4 331.5 13.05 Gert 1993 Unknown[68]

Cuba[edit]

Hurricane Flora of October 1963 drifted across Cuba for four days, leading to extreme rainfall across the mountainous island country. During the heaviest 24 hour period of rainfall, 735 millimetres (28.9 in) of rain fell at Santiago de Cuba. Total amounts of 2,033 millimetres (80.0 in) over 4 days and 2,550 millimetres (100 in) over 5 days produced staggering loss of life in Cuba, where over 2000 perished.[69]

Hurricane Michelle
Wettest tropical cyclones in Cuba
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 2550 100.39 Flora 1963 [69]
2 1092 42.99 Dennis 2005 [69]
3 1025 40.34 T.D. #1 1988 [69]
4 1012 39.84 Alberto 1982 [69]
5 870 34.25 Frederic 1979 [69]
6 849 33.43 T.D. #1 1992 [69]
7 825 32.48 Laura 1971 [69]
8 800 31.50 Irene 1999 [69]
9 754 29.69 Michelle 2001 [69]
10 747 29.41 Lili 1996 [69]

Dominica, Eastern Caribbean[edit]

Jeanne near Dominica

The islands of the eastern Caribbean are constantly threatened by tropical storms and hurricanes, mainly between August and October. Dominica is a rugged island, with spots of elevation as high as nearly 4,750 feet (1,450 m).[70] As Hurricane Jeanne moved through the region, 422.3 millimetres (16.63 in) of rain fell during the 24 hour period ending on the morning of September 15, 2004.[27]

Wettest tropical cycloneon Dominica
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 422.3 16.63 Jeanne 2004 [27]
2 246.4 9.70 Edith 1963 [20]
3 150.1 5.91 Abby 1960 [71]
4 20.6 0.81 Flora 1963 [20]

Dominican Republic[edit]

Hurricane Noel near peak intensity

This country, taking up two-thirds of Hispaniola, has some of the highest terrain surrounding the Caribbean Sea, with Pico Duarte peaking at 10,700 feet (3,300 m) above sea level.[72] Most of the tropical cyclone rainfall totals on the list below are 24 hour maxima, which likely underrepresent the storm total.

Wettest tropical cyclonethe Dominican Republic
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 1001.5 39.43 Flora 1963 Polo Barahona [20]
2 905.0 35.63 Noel 2007 Angelina [19]
3 598.0 23.54 Cleo 1964 Polo [20]
4 528.0 20.79 Emily 2011 Neyba [73]
5 505.2 19.89 Jeanne 2004 Isla Saona [74]
6 479.8 18.89 Inez 1966 Polo [75]
7 445.5 17.54 Hurricane Four 1944 Hondo Valle [76]
8 391.4 15.41 Hurricane Five 1935 Barahona [77]
9 359.9 14.17 Hanna 2008 Oveido [78]
10 350.0 13.78 T.S. One 1948 Bayaguana [79]

El Salvador[edit]

Hurricane Mitch
Wettest tropical cyclones in El Salvador
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 406.4 16.00 Adrian 2005 [80]
2 >400 15.74 Agatha 2010 [81]
3 262.4 10.33 Mitch 1998 Acajutla/Sonsonate[82]

Federated States of Micronesia[edit]

Chuuk[edit]

Elevations of the islands surrounding Chuuk lagoon reach a height of about 1,450 feet (440 m).[83] Typhoon Chataan led to excessive rainfall on this island from June 23 – July 3 of 2002, when a total of 939 mm (37.0 in) fell. During the time frame when Chataan was declared a tropical cyclone from July 1–3, 622 mm (24.5 in) fell, with 506 mm (19.9 in) falling on the 2nd alone at the international airport.[84]

Typhoon Pongsona
Wettest tropical cycloneChuuk
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 939.0 36.96 Chataan 2002 Chuuk Int'l Airport [85]
2 447.0 17.60 Dale 1996 Chuuk WSO AP [20]
3 427.5 16.83 Sudal 2004 Chuuk WSO AP [20]
4 405.1 15.95 Andy 1989 Truk WSO Airport [20]
5 381.1 15.03 Jean 1968 Truk WSO Airport [20]
6 371.9 14.64 Karen 1962 Truk WSO Airport [20]
7 370.6 14.59 Pamela 1976 Truk WSO Airport [20]
8 344.7 13.57 Harriet 1959 Truk WSO Airport [20]
9 234.2 9.22 Kulap 2005 Chuuk WSO AP [20]
10 214.1 8.43 Pongsona 2002 Chuuk WSO AP [20]

Pohnpei[edit]

This mountainous island lies in the tropical northwest Pacific Ocean.

Wettest tropical cyclonePohnpei
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 247 9.73 Axel 1992 [86]

Yap[edit]

The wettest known tropical cyclone for the island was Ruby in 1982, which drifted in the island's vicinity for several days during its initial development phase.[87]

Typhoon Ruby (1982)
Wettest tropical cyclones on Yap Island
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 594.4 23.40 Ruby 1982 Yap Island WSO Airport [20]
2 390.9 15.39 Imbudo 2003 Yap Island WSO Airport [20]
3 318.5 12.54 Winnie 1969 Yap Island WSO Airport [20]
4 313.9 12.36 Fern 1996 Yap Island WSO Airport [20]
5 301.8 11.88 Wilda 1967 Yap Island WSO Airport [20]
6 289.1 11.38 Ophelia 1958 Yap Island WSO Airport [20]
7 288.5 11.36 Hope 1985 Yap Island WSO Airport [20]
8 250.2 9.85 Georgia 1962 Yap Island WSO Airport [20]
9 236.5 9.31 Fran 1976 Yap Island WSO Airport [20]
10 231.9 9.13 Faye 1963 Yap Island WSO Airport [20]

Fiji[edit]

Wettest tropical cyclones in Fiji
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 1,139 44.84 Wally 1980 Sakisa [88]
2 1,040 40.94 Kina 1992-93 Monasavu dam [89]
3 755 29.72 Bebe (1972) Suva [88][90]
4 615 24.21 Gavin (1997) Monasavu dam [91]
6 545 21.46 June (1997) Matei [92]
5 529 20.83 Evan 2012 Monasavu dam [93]
7 495 19.49 Mick (2009) Monasavu dam [94]
8 443 17.44 Rae (1990) Monasavu dam [95]
9 311 12.24 Ami (2003) Taveuni Island [96]
10 293 11.54 Tam (2006) Rotuma [97]

Orography from the volcanic islands of Fiji has led to significant rainfall during tropical cyclone passages, which occur roughly once a year. Cyclone Ami of January 2003 led to disastrous flooding across the northern and eastern sections of the island group. The coastal side of Vatuwiri on Taveuni Island measured 311 millimetres (12.24 in) of rainfall on January 13.[96]

France[edit]

French Polynesia[edit]

Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants in French Polynesia
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 550 21.65 02F 1998 Tahiti [98]
2 356 14.02 Judy 2004 Takaroa [99]
3 241 9.49 Wasa 1991 Uturoa [100]
4 149 5.87 Pam 1997 Rarotonga [101]
5 62.1 2.44 Zita 2007 Rurutu [102]

Guadeloupe[edit]

Hurricane Marilyn moved directly across the island in mid-September 1995,[103] bringing the highest known rainfall totals to the island from a tropical cyclone.

Hurricane Marilyn
Wettest tropical cyclones in Guadeloupe
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 582 22.91 Luis 1995 Dent de l'est (Soufrière)
1 508.0 20.00 Marilyn 1995 Saint-Claude [20]
3 466 17.28 Lenny 1999 Gendarmerie [104]
4 389 15.32 Hugo 1989
5 318 12.50 Hortense 1996 Maison du Volcan [105]
6 300 11.81 Jeanne 2004 [106]
7 223.3 8.79 Cleo 1964 Deshaies [20]
8 200 7.90 Erika 2009 [107]
9 165.3 6.55 Earl 2010 Sainte-Rose (Viard) [108]
10 53.6 2.11 Edith 1963 Basse Terre [20]
11 40.9 1.61 Emily 1987 Guadeloupe TFFR [109]

Martinique[edit]

Martinique is a mountainous island at the fringe of the eastern Caribbean Sea.

Wettest tropical cyclones in Martinique
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 680.7 26.80 Dorothy 1970 Fourniols [110]
2 450.1 17.72 Iris 1995 Ducos [111]
3 332.0 13.07 Dean 2007 Fort-de-France [112]
4 305.0 12.00 Cindy 1993 Le Prêcheur [113]
5 301.5 11.87 Edith 1963 Saint-Pierre [20]
6 230.1 9.06 Marilyn 1995 Le Morne-Rouge [114]
7 184.0 7.24 Debby 1994 Saint-Joseph [115]
8 150.0 5.90 Emily 2011 Le Raizet [116]
9 118.8 4.67 Chantal 2013 Anse D’Arlet [117]
10 101.3 3.99 Abby 1960 Le Morne des Cadets [71]
Tropical Storm Dorothy (1970)

New Caledonia[edit]

Wettest tropical cyclones in New Caledonia
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 813 32.01 Gyan 1981 La Ouinné [118]
2 750 29.53 Beatrice 1959 Tiwaka [118]
3 713 28.07 Anne 1988 Goro [118]
4 620 24.41 Unnamed 1962 Houaïlou [118]
5 528 20.79 Esau 1992 Kopéto [118]
6 474 18.66 Drena 1997 Dzumac [118]
7 450 17.72 Vania 2011 Goro (Station Vale NC) [118]
8 414 16.30 Frank 1999 Tango (Chaîne) [118]
9 411 16.18 Cliff 1981 La Ouinné [118]
10 407 16.02 Catherine 1961 Plum [118]

Réunion Island[edit]

Cyclone Hyacinthe.

The mountainous island of Réunion has experienced several of the highest rainfall totals on record from tropical cyclones and holds the rainfall world records for 12, 24, 48, 72 hours, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine and ten days as a result.[119][120][121] The 12 and 24 hourly rainfall records were set at Foc-Foc by Cyclone Denise in 1966, while an Unnamed Tropical Cyclone between April 8–10, 1958 set the record for 48 hours at Aurere. Tropical Cyclone Gamede between February 24–28, 2007 came close to beating the records for 12, 24 and 48 hours before setting the records for three, four, five, six, seven, eight and nine days that were held by Tropical Cyclone Hyacinthe 1980.[120][121] Hyacinthe 1980 currently holds the world records for ten and fifteen days with rainfall totals of 5,678 millimetres (223.5 in) and 6,083 millimetres (239.5 in) respectively recorded at Commerson Crater.[121][122]

Wettest tropical cyclones on the island of Reunion
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 6,433 253.27 Hyacinthe 1980 Commerson [121]
2 5,512 217.01 Gamede 2007 Commerson [120]
3 2,958 116.46 Diwa 2006 Grand-Ilet [120]
4 1,825 71.850 Denise 1966 Foc-Foc [121]
5 1,360 53.543 Dina 2002 Bellecombe [123]
6 1,196 47.087 Gael 2009 Commerson [124]
7 1,025 40.354 Bejisa 2013 Cilaos [125]
8 1,000 39.370 Gretelle 1997 Commerson [126]
9 875 34.45 Fame 2008 Grand-Ilet [127]

Saint Martin[edit]

Wettest tropical cyclones in Saint Martin
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 866.6 34.12 Lenny 1999 Gendarmerie [2]
2 349.3 13.75 Jose 1999 Point Blanche [128]
3 328.7 12.94 Otto 2010 Charlotte Amalie [129]
4 98.0 3.86 Earl 2010 Grand Case [130]
6 85.1 3.35 Marilyn 1995 [131]

Wallis and Futuna[edit]

Wettest tropical cyclones in Wallis and Futuna
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 674.9 26.57 Raja 1986 Maopoopo, Futuna Island [132]
2 556.7 21.92 Fran 1992 Hihifo, Wallis Island [132]
3 291.2 11.46 Val 1975 Hihifo, Wallis Island [132]
4 220.6 8.69 Hina 1997 Maopoopo, Futuna Island [132]
5 186.0 7.32 Evan 2012 Futuna Island [133]
6 180.0 7.09 Val 1980 Maopoopo, Futuna Island [132]
7 171.6 6.76 Keli 1997 Hihifo, Wallis Island [132]
8 160.8 6.33 Unnamed 1966 Malaetoli, Wallis Island [132]
9 119.0 4.69 Waka 2001 Hihifo, Wallis Island [132]
10 110.8 4.36 Unnamed 1969 Malaetoli, Wallis Island [132]

Great Britain[edit]

Anguilla[edit]

Hurricane Jose (1999)
Wettest tropical cycloneAnguilla
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 490.0 19.29 Lenny 1999 [134]
2 380.0 14.96 Jose 1999 [134]
3 250.0 9.84 Klaus 1990 [134]
4 171.5 6.75 Alice 1954 [135]

Bermuda[edit]

Bermuda has not historically received overwhelming rains out of tropical cyclones. This could be because of the rapid pace storms usually pass the island and the lack of mountains on the island.

Tropical Storm Cristobal
Wettest tropical cyclones on Bermuda
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 186.7 7.35 October 1939 Hurricane [136]
2 153.7 6.05 Arlene 1963 [20]
3 151.4 5.96 Cristobal 2002
4 148.0 5.86 Nicole 2004
5 134.1 5.28 T.D. #23A 1967 [20]
6 126.2 4.97 Franklin 2005
7 125.0 4.92 Emily 1981 [20]
8 124.0 4.88 Harvey 2005
9 123.2 4.85 September 1948 Hurricane [136]
10 120.90 4.76 Bertha 2008 Bermuda Airport [137]

Cayman Islands[edit]

Hurricane Isidore
Wettest tropical cyclonethe Cayman Islands
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 794.8 31.29 Pinar del Río, 1944 Grand Cayman Island [138]
2 577 22.72 Alberto, 2006 Owen Roberts International airport [139]
3 552.2 21.74 Isidore, 2002 Cayman Brac [140]
4 451.4 17.77 Paloma, 2008 Cayman Brac [141]
5 308.4 12.14 Ivan, 2004 Grand Cayman Island [142]
6 292.1 11.50 Hattie, 1961 Grand Cayman Island [143]
7 165.6 6.52 Michelle, 2001 Grand Cayman Island [144]

Guatemala[edit]

Tropical Storm Agatha in May 2010 became the second-wettest tropical cyclone in the nation's history when it slowly developed while remaining nearly stationary to the southwest of Guatemala, before turning northeast and dissipating across inland Central America.[145]

Tropical Storm Agatha (2010)
Wettest tropical cycloneGuatemala
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 600 23.62 Mitch 1998 Central Sierra de las Minas [146]
2 565.6 22.62 Agatha 2010 Mazatenango [147]
3 ~250 ~9.84 Stan 2005 [148]
4 ~200 ~7.87 Adrian 2005 [149]
5 184.6 7.27 Francelia 1969 [150]

Haiti[edit]

The mountainous country of Haiti has experienced some of the most powerful hurricanes on record, including Hurricane David. Its three mountain ranges have peaks as high as 8793 feet/2680 meters above sea level.[151]

Gordon dropping heavy rainfall on Haiti along its frontal-like band
Wettest tropical cyclones in Haiti
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 1447.8 57.00 Flora 1963 Miragoâne [152]
2 654.8 25.78 Noel 2007 Camp Perrin [153]
3 410 16 Lili 2002 Camp Perrin [154]
4 323.0 12.72 Hanna 2008 Camp Perrin [78]
5 273.0 10.75 Gustav 2008 Camp Perrin [155]
6 65.02 2.56 Fox 1952 Ouanaminthe [20]

Honduras[edit]

Hurricane Beta
Wettest tropical cycloneHonduras
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 912 35.89 Mitch 1998 Choluteca[156]
2 554 21.82 Beta 2005 Trujillo[157]
3 360 14.19 T.D. #16 2008 Roatan[158]
4 244 9.62 Felix 2007 Omoa Cortez[159]
5 113 4.46 Alma 2008 Choluteca[67]

Swan Island[edit]

Hurricane Alma (1966)
Wettest tropical cycloneSwan Island
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 362.7 14.28 Alma 1966 [20]
2 228.9 9.01 Debbie 1965 [20]
3 220.0 8.66 Ella 1970 [20]
4 178.6 7.03 Laurie 1970 [20]
5 167.1 6.58 Isbell 1964 [20]
6 105.2 4.14 Beulah 1967 [20]
7 98.8 3.89 Carla 1961 [20]
8 90.7 3.57 Francelia 1969 [20]
9 87.1 3.43 Hattie 1961 [20]
10 80.5 3.17 Fox 1952 [20]

Hong Kong[edit]

Typhoon Sam
Wettest tropical cyclones in Hong Kong
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 616.5 24.27 Sam 1999 Hong Kong Observatory [160]
2 597.0 23.50 July 1926 Typhoon Royal Observatory, Hong Kong [160]
3 562.0 22.13 June 1916 Typhoon Royal Observatory, Hong Kong [160]
4 530.7 20.89 Agnes 1965 Royal Observatory, Hong Kong [160]
5 519.0 20.43 Agnes 1978 Royal Observatory, Hong Kong [160]
6 516.1 20.32 Ellen 1976 Royal Observatory, Hong Kong [160]
7 497.5 19.59 Dot 1993 Royal Observatory, Hong Kong [160]
8 491.7 19.36 Dot 1982 Royal Observatory, Hong Kong [160]
9 480.9 18.93 Helen 1995 Royal Observatory, Hong Kong [160]
10 473.2 18.63 August 1904 Typhoon Royal Observatory, Hong Kong [160]

India[edit]

Cyclone Nisha

India can be struck by cyclones that form in the Bay of Bengal or the Arabian Sea.

Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants in India
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 2300 90.55 1968 Severe Cyclonic Storm Pedong, West Bengal [161]
2 1840 72.44 Severe Cyclonic Storm ARB 01 (2004) Aminidivi, Lakshadweep [162]
3 1340 52.76 Depression Six (1961) Cherrapunji, Meghalaya [163]
4 1280 50.39 Nisha (2008) Orathanadu, Tamil Nadu [164][165] [166]
5 1171 46.10 Phyan (2009) Kethi, Tamil Nadu [167]
6 1030 40.55 Ogni (2006) Avanigadda, Andhra Pradesh [168]
7 953 37.52 1943 Severe Cyclonic Storm Cuddalore, Tamil Nadu [169]
8 910 35.83 Deep Depression Four (1963) Cherrapunji, Meghalaya [170]
9 810 31.89 Cyclone 12 (1959) Bano [171]
10 800 31.50 Cyclone 5 (1968) Harnai [171]

Indonesia[edit]

Cyclone Inigo

The precursor tropical disturbance of Tropical Cyclone Inigo in April 2003 dropped heavy rainfall in eastern Indonesia. The rainfall caused flash flooding and mudslides, primarily in Flores but also on West Timor[172] and Sumba.[173] In some locations, the depth of the floodwaters reached 5 metres (16 ft). The Oessao River in West Timor exceeded its banks, which flooded seven villages. In Kupang in West Timor, the system destroyed hundreds of homes and large fields of corn, bean, and rice crop. Heavy damage was reported near Ende, where flooding and mudslides destroyed 20 houses and destroyed the roads connecting to East Flores. The city airport was flooded with one meter (3 ft) of water, preventing aerial transportation and which left the city temporarily isolated. In East Flores Regency in eastern Flores Island, the system left 75 destroyed houses, along with 77 severely damaged and a further 56 receiving light damage.[172]

Wettest tropical cyclones in Indonesia
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 223 8.78 Inigo 2003 Larantuka, Flores [174]

Iran[edit]

Cyclone Gonu
Wettest tropical cycloneIran
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 74 mm 2.91 inches Gonu 2007 Chabahar [175]

Jamaica[edit]

Hurricane Michelle

This mountainous island country of Jamaica can get lashed with rainfall by slow-moving tropical cyclones in the western Caribbean Sea. Its interior, the Blue Mountains, reach a height of 7,400 feet (2,300 m) above sea level.[176]

Wettest tropical cyclones in Jamaica
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 3429.0 135.00 Nov. 1909 Hurricane Silver Hill Plantation [57]
2 1524.0 60.00 Flora 1963 Silver Hill [177]
3 1057.9 41.65 Michelle 2001 [178]
4 950.0 37.42 Nicole 2010 Negril [179]
5 938.3 36.94 Gilda 1973 Top Mountain [177]
6 863.6 34.00 June 1979 T.D. Western Jamaica [180]
7 823.0 32.40 Gilbert 1988 Interior mountains [178]
8 720.6 28.37 Ivan 2004 Ritchies [181]
9 713.5 28.09 Sandy 2012 Mill Bank [182]
10 690.9 27.20 Isidore 2002 Cotton Tree Gully [183]

Japan[edit]

The mountainous island archipelago is constantly struck by typhoons recurving out of the tropics, which are normally in extratropical transition as they pass through Japan. Typhoon Wipha in 2013 produced a 24 hour total of 824 millimetres (32.4 in) on 15/16 October on Izu Oshima.[184][185] Typhoon Meari/Quinta of the 2004 Pacific typhoon season led to heavy rain at Owase with a total of 741 millimetres (29.2 in) ending at 1500 UTC on the 29th.[27] Typhoon Saomai in 2000 produced record rainfall at Nagoya, 584.2 millimetres (23.00 in) in 24 hours.[186] Fran of the 1976 Pacific typhoon season holds the national 24-hour precipitation record of 1,174 millimetres (46.2 in).[187]

Severe Tropical Storm Talas approaching Japan on September 2, 2011
Wettest tropical cycloneJapan
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 1805.5 71.08 Talas 2011 Kamikitayama [188]
2 1612.0 63.46 Fran 1976 Fukuharaasahi [189]
3 1518.9 59.80 Olive 1971 Ebino [190]
4 1322.0 52.04 Nabi 2005 Mikado [191]
5 1286.0 50.62 Kent 1992 Hidegadake [192]
6 1243.0 48.94 Namtheum 2004 Asahimaru [193]
7 1167.0 45.94 Judy 1989 Hidegadake [194]
8 1138.0 44.80 Abby 1983 Amagisan [195]
9 1124.0 44.25 Flo 1990 Yanase [196]
10 ~1092.0 ~43.00 Trix 1971 Yangitake [197]

Okinawa[edit]

Typhoon Muifa near Okinawa on August 5, 2011
Wettest tropical cycloneOkinawa
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 1065.0 41.92 Sinlaku 2008 Yonagunijima [198]
2 1059.0 41.70 Emma 1956 Kadena Air Force Base [57]
3 1014.0 41.00 Muifa 2011 [199]
4 575.6 22.66 Charlotte 1959 Naha Air Force Base [20]
5 535.0 21.06 Bolaven 2012 Kunigami [200]
6 473.7 18.65 Cora 1969 Kadena Air Force Base [20]
7 452.0 17.80 Sinlaku 2002 Oku [201]
8 407.2 16.03 Grace 1961 Kadena Air Force Base [20]
9 345.0 13.50 Conson 2004 Tarama [202]
10 342.0 13.46 Kujira 2003 [203]

Ryukyu Islands[edit]

Typhoon Rusa caused 409 millimetres (16.1 in) of rain to fall at Naze on August 29–30, 2002.[201] Typhoon Aere dropped 314.5 millimetres (12.38 in) of rain in the 65 hour period ending at 1400 UTC on August 25, 2004 at Ishigakihima.[59] Typhoon Agnes in August 1957 dropped 586.2 millimetres (23.08 in) of rainfall on Marcus Island.[20] In 1972, Typhoon Rita dumped 31.87 in (809 mm) on Okinoerabu Shima.[204]

Johnston Atoll[edit]

Tropical cyclones occasionally threaten this central Pacific island. Hurricane Celeste of 1972 brought 6.21 inches (158 mm) to the isle around August 19.[205]

Korea[edit]

The Korean Peninsula experiences typhoons regularly. Tropical cyclones which impact southern China also lead to, on average, five heavy rainfall events per year across the Korean peninsula.[206]

North/DPR Korea[edit]

Very heavy rains fell across Tongchon and Kosong counties during Typhoon Rusa in 2002, where up to 510 millimetres (20 in) of precipitation fell in a 5-10 hour period.[201]

South Korea[edit]

Typhoon Rusa
Wettest tropical cyclones in South Korea
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 898.0 35.35 Rusa 2002 Gangneung [207]
2 660.4 26.00 Gladys 1991 [208]
3 634.0 24.96 Muifa 2011 Eorimok [209]
4 590.0 23.23 Nari 2007 Jeju [210]
5 491.0 19.33 Saomai 2000 [211]
6 374.0 14.72 Meari 2011 Boeun [212]
7 332.5 13.09 Megi 2004 Wando [59]
8 104.5 4.11 Haima 2004 Wando [27]

Madagascar[edit]

Cyclone Elita

The north end of the island, known as the Tsaratanana Massif region, contains terrain with elevations up to 9417 feet/2880 meters.[213]

Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants in Madagascar
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 891.0 35.07 Kesiny 2002 Toamasina [214]
2 715.0 28.14 Elita 2004 [215]
3 707.0 27.8 Guillaume 2002 Toamasina [216]
4 355.2 13.9 Indlala 2007 Antalaha [217]
5 300.0 12.0 Cela 2003 [218]
6 279.4 11.0 Chanda 2012 [219]
7 261.0 10.2 Ivan 2008 Toamasina [217]
8 255.4 10.0 Gafilo 2004 Nosy-be [220]
9 237.2 9.3 Ernest 2005 Toliara [220]
10 229.0 9.0 Jade 2009 Toamasina [221]

Malaysia[edit]

Tropical Storm Jelawat/Domeng
Wettest tropical cycloneMalaysia
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 220 8.66 Jelawat/Domeng 2006 Kampung[222]

Mauritius[edit]

Cyclone Crystal (2002)
Wettest tropical cycloneMauritius
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 745.2 29.34 Dina 2002 Pierrefonds [223]
2 711 27.99 Hollanda 1994 Mare-aux-Vacoas
3 227 8.937 Davina 1999 Arnaud [224]
3 202.8 7.98 Hennie 2005 Sans-Souci
4 192.8 7.59 Dumile 2013 Arnaud [225]
5 58.8 2.31 Crystal 2002 Providence [226]

Mexico[edit]

Hurricane Wilma of 2005 drifted over the northeast portion of the Yucatán peninsula for a couple of days, dropping significant rains. A report of 1,576 millimetres (62.0 in) was reported by the Servicio Meteorológico Nacional in Mexico,[227] which is the wettest known 24-hour rainfall amount ever measured in Mexico. Second on the list is from Tropical Storm Frances in 1998, which accumulated up to 1,019 millimetres (40.1 in) of rain at Independencia in southern Chiapas.[228] Below is a list of the highest known storm total rainfall amounts from individual tropical cyclones across Mexico. Most of the rainfall information was provided by the Mexico's National Weather Service, Servicio Meteorológico Nacional, which is a part of the National Water Commission, Comisión Nacional del Agua.

Hurricane Wilma
Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants in Mexico (Overall)
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 1576 62.05 Wilma 2005 Quintana Roo [229]
2 1119 44.06 Frances 1998 Escuintla [230]
3 1098 43.23 TD 11 (1999) Jalacingo [231]
4 1011 39.80 Juliette 2001 Cuadano/Santiago [232]
5 950 37.41 Dolly 1996 Igual [233]
6 941 37.06 Fifi/Orlene 1974 Tlanchinol [234]
7 890 35.04 Alex 2010 Monterrey [235]
8 805 31.69 Gert 1993 Aquismón [236]
9 791 31.15 Hermine 1980 San Pedro Tapanatepec [237]
10 774 30.49 Isidore 2002 Campeche [238]

Mozambique[edit]

Tropical Cyclone Eline

The elevation of the country increases to the west, with mountains on its highest plateau reaching nearly 8,000 feet (2,400 m).[239]

Wettest tropical cyclonein Mozambique
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 502 19.76 Eline 2000 Levubu [240]
2 281 11.06 Delfina 2003 [226]
3 200 7.87 Jokwe 2008 Nampula [241]
4 190 7.50 Japhet 2003 [242]

Myanmar[edit]

Cyclone Nargis near landfall
Wettest tropical cycloneMyanmar
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 ~600.0 mm 23.6 inches Nargis 2008 [243]
2 343.9 mm 13.54 inches T.D. #2 2007 [244]

Nepal[edit]

Some of the highest elevations on the planet lie in Nepal. Eight out of fourteen highest peaks in the world lie in the Nepalese Himalaya including the highest peak of the World, Mt. Everest (8848 m).[245] During a tropical depression that affected the Indian Subcontinent in 2004, 51.3 millimetres (2.02 in) of rain fell at Kathmandu airport in the 24 hour period ending at 1200 UTC on October 7.[29]

Netherlands Antilles[edit]

Saba[edit]

Wettest tropical cycloneSaba
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 286.3 mm 11.27 inches Alice (1954) [135]

St. Eustatius[edit]

Wettest tropical cycloneSt. Eustatius
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 203.2 mm 8.00 inches Alice (1954) [135]

Sint Maarten[edit]

This hilly island is partially owned by France and partially claimed by the Netherlands.

Hurricane Lenny
Wettest tropical cyclones in Sint Maarten
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 700.0 27.56 Lenny 1999 Meteorological Office, Phillpsburg [2]
2 280.2 11.03 Jose 1999 Princess Juliana International Airport [128]
3 165.1 6.50 Luis 1995 [246]
4 111.7 4.40 Otto 2010 Princess Juliana International Airport [247]
5 92.3 3.63 Rafael 2012 Princess Juliana International Airport [248]
6 7.9 0.31 Ernesto 2012 Princess Juliana International Airport [248]
7 7.0 0.28 Chantal (2013) Princess Juliana International Airport [249]
8 6.6 0.26 Dorian (2013) Princess Juliana International Airport [249]

New Zealand[edit]

Cyclone Wati (2006)

Most tropical cyclones which pass near New Zealand are in extratropical transition (ET), which can enhance their heavy rainfall threat.

Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants in New Zealand
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 970 38.19 Hilda 1990 North Egmont Visitor Centre [250]
2 917 36.10 Bola 1988 Glenross station [251]
3 762 30.00 Rewa 1994 Collier Creek [252]
4 426 16.77 Fergus 1996 The Pinnacles [253]
5 415 16.34 Delilah 1989 Puhipuhi [254]
6 321 12.64 Dinah 1967 Mangahoe [255]
7 311 12.24 Beti 1996 The Pinnacles [256]
8 306 12.05 Giselle 1968 Leatham [257]
9 290 11.42 Ivy 2004 The Pinnacles [258]
10 280 11.02 Wilma 2011 Northland [259]

Nicaragua[edit]

Hurricane Mitch
Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants in Nicaragua
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 1597 62.87 Mitch 1998 Picacho/Chinandega [260]
2 1447 57.36 Aletta 1982 Chinandega [261]
3 500 19.69 Joan 1988 [262]
4 447 17.60 Gert 1993 Chinandega [261]
5 368 14.49 Fifi 1974 Chinandega [261]
6 298 11.72 Alma 2008 Punto Sandino [67]
7 272 10.70 Cesar 1996 Bluefields [263]
8 231 9.10 Ida 2009 Puerto Cabezas [264]
9 181 7.11 Felix 2007 Puerto Cabezas [265]
10 162 6.39 Beta 2005 Puerto Cabezas [157]

Niue, Southwest Pacific[edit]

Cyclone Heta

During the passage of Tropical Cyclone Heta in January 2004, the Niue Meteorological Station reported a record 24-hour rainfall of 999.2 millimetres (39.34 in).[266]

Oman[edit]

Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants in Oman
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 610.0 24.02 Gonu 2007 [267][268]
2 488.0 19.21 Phet 2010 JabalHilm [267]
3 482.4 18.99 Masirah Cyclone 1977 Salala 40 km (25 mi) NE [269]
4 300.2 11.82 T.S. 02A (1996) Dhofar [270]
5 285.5 11.24 Muscat Cyclone 1890 Muscat [269]
6 251.0 9.88 Oman Cyclone 2002 Qairoon [271]
7 230.0 9.06 Salalah Cyclone 1963 Salalah [269]
8 82.0 3.23 Salalah Cyclone 1959 Salalah [269]

Pakistan[edit]

2A, category-3 hurricane making landfall in Pakistan in May 1999

Tropical cyclones for the Arabian Sea usually affect Pakistan. Tropical cyclones from the Bay of Bengal can affect Pakistan, though they usually weaken by the time they reach the Pakistani coastline.[272]

Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants in Pakistan
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 370 14.57 Phet (2010) Gwadar [273]
2 285 11.22 Cyclone (1999) Keti Bandar [274]
3 245 9.64 BOB 03 (2009) Karachi [275][276][277]
4 191 7.51 BOB 06 (2007) Karachi [278][279][280]
5 145 5.71 Onil (2004) Thatta [281]
6 110 3.94 Yemyin (2007) Karachi
7 43 1.69 BOB 04 (2007) Karachi [282][283]
8 18 0.70 BOB 03 (2009) Karachi [284]

Palau[edit]

Typhoon Mike

Palau consists of a string of islands that is rugged and surrounds a lagoon. Elevations up to 2,060 feet (630 m) exist within the island group.[285]

Wettest tropical cyclones in Palau
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 470.9 18.54 Marie 1976 Koror [286]
2 293.1 11.54 Nathan 1993 Nekken Forestry [20]
3 281.4 11.08 Ruby 1982 Koror [20]
4 248.9 9.80 Mike 1990 Koror [64]
5 121.7 4.79 Dianmu 2004 Koror [287]
6 47.8 1.88 Ewiniar 2006 Koror [288]

Panama[edit]

Inflow to the south of Hurricane Mitch brought impressive rainfalls to the Panama. Veledero de Tole recorded 695 millimetres (27.4 in) of rainfall between October 22 and 31 of 1998.

Philippines[edit]

Typhoon Mindulle/Igme

This Philippines island archipelago is fairly mountainous, with the highest terrain found in Luzon.

Wettest tropical cyclonethe Philippines
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 2210.0 87.01 July 1911 cyclone Baguio City [57]
2 1216.0 47.86 Carla 1967 Baguio City [57]
3 1085.8 42.45 Utor/Feria 2001 Baguio City [289]
4 1012.7 39.87 Mindulle/Igme 2004 [287]
5 994.6 39.16 Zeb/Iliang 1998 Baguio City [287]
6 902.0 35.51 Kujira/Dante 2009 [290]
7 869.6 34.24 Dinah/Openg 1977 Western Luzon [291]
8 817.9 32.20 Elaine 1974 Baguio City [292]
9 782.3 30.80 Bess/Susang 1974 Baguio City [293]
10 723.0 29.46 Linfa/Chedeng 2003 Tondoligan Park, Dagupan, Pangasinan [294]

Singapore, South China Sea[edit]

Typhoon Vamei of December 20, 2001 was the only known storm to ever hit the island state. It dropped 165.1 millimetres (6.50 in) of rainfall.

South Africa[edit]

Tropical Cyclone Eline in February 2000 dropped significant rains on portions of South Africa. The highest amount noted was 480 mm (19 in) at Thohoyandou.[295]

Spain[edit]

The only tropical cyclone to reach mainland Europe was 2005's Hurricane Vince. It dropped 3.3 inches (84 mm) of rain on the plain near Cordoba.[296]

Sri Lanka[edit]

A tropical depression in early October 2004 led to heavy rains across Sri Lanka. The maximum was measured at Galle where 117.2 mm (4.61 in) fell in the 24 hour period ending at 0600 UTC on the 2nd.[29]

St. Brandon, South Indian Ocean[edit]

Tropical Cyclone Darius of New Year's Eve/Day of 2003/2004 passed about 45 miles (72 km) west-northwest of the island. Rainfall over the 24 hour period of closest approach was 135 mm (5.3 in).[297]

St. Kitts and Nevis[edit]

St. Kitts[edit]

Wettest tropical cycloneSt. Kitts
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 153.7 mm 6.05 inches Alice (1954) [135]

Nevis[edit]

Wettest tropical cycloneNevis
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 91.4 mm 3.60 inches Alice (1954) [135]

Taiwan[edit]

Typhoon Morakot
Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants in Taiwan
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 3060 120.5 Morakot 2009 Alishan, Chiayi [298]
2 2319 91.3 Nari 2001 Wulai, New Taipei [299]
3 2162 85.1 Flossie 1969 Beitou, Taipei [298]
4 1987 78.2 Herb 1996 Alishan, Chiayi [300]
5 1774 69.8 Saola 2012 Yilan City [301]
6 1672 65.8 Carla 1967 Dongshan, Yilan [302]
7 1611 63.4 Sinlaku 2008 Heping, Taichung [303]
8 1561 61.5 Haitang 2005 Sandimen, Pingtung [304]
9 1546 60.9 Aere 2004 Miaoli County [305]
10 1500 59.1 Parma 2009 Yilan County [306]

Thailand[edit]

Typhoon Zeke (1991)

Tropical cyclones occasionally cross the Malay Peninsula from the northwest Pacific into the Bay of Bengal.

Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants in Thailand
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 493.8 19.44 Zeke 1991 Khlong Yai [20]
2 470.0 18.50 Tilda 1962 At Somat [44]
3 342.0 13.46 Vae 1952 Chantaburi [44]
4 328.7 12.94 Ira 1990 Lop Buri [20]
5 322.6 12.70 Ed 1990 Takua Pa [20]
6 279.5 11.00 18W (2013) Muang district [307]
7 273.6 10.77 Fred 1991 Khon Kaen [20]
8 257.3 10.13 Brian 1989 Takua Pa [20]
9 251.5 9.902 Muifa 2004 Prachaup Khirikhan [308]
10 239.5 9.429 Nell 1990 Ko Samui [20]

Tonga[edit]

Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants in Tonga
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 200.0 7.87 Waka 2001
2 153.0 6.02 Lin 2009 Niuafo’ou [309]
3 152.2 6.00 Mick 2010 Fua'amotu
4 149.0 5.87 Rene 2011 Fua'amotu
5 120.0 4.72 Isaac 1982 [310]
5 120.0 4.72 Jasmine 2012 Tongatapu [311]
6 97.7 3.85 Vaianu 2006 Fuaʻamotu [312]
7 44.8 1.76 Cyril 2011 Vava’u [313]
8 37.5 1.48 Wilma 2010 Fua'amotu [314]
9 35.9 1.41 Cliff 2007 Fua'amotu [315]

United States[edit]

Wettest tropical cyclones in the United States
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 1321 52.00 Hiki 1950 Kanalohuluhulu Ranger Station [316]
2 1219 48.00 Amelia 1978 Medina, Texas [20]
3 1148 45.20 Easy 1950 Yankeetown, Florida [20]
4 1143 45.00 Claudette 1979 Alvin, Texas [20]
5 1058.7 41.68 TD 19 (1970) Jayuya, Puerto Rico [20]
6 1033 40.68 Allison 2001 Northwest Jefferson County, Texas [20]
7 985 38.76 Paul 2000 Kapapala Ranch 36 [317]
8 977 38.46 Georges 1998 Munson, Florida [20]
9 932 36.71 Danny 1997 Dauphin Island Sea Lab, Alabama [20]
10 856.0 33.70 Pamela 1976 Guam WSMO [20]

Vanuatu[edit]

Wettest tropical cyclones in Vanuatu
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 847.6 33.37 Bola 1988 Lamap [318]
2 545.0 21.46 Dani 1999 Bauerfield Airport [319]
3 369.1 14.53 Vania 2011 Aneityum Island [320]
4 266.6 10.50 Sarah 1994 Pekou Airport [321]
5 254.4 10.02 Ivy 2004 Bauerfield Airport [322]
6 247.6 9.75 Anne 1988 Pekou Airport [321]
7 246.4 9.70 Nigel 1985 Pekou Airport [321]
8 223.7 8.81 Zuman 1998 Pekou Airport [321]
9 219.3 8.63 Esau 1992 Pekou Airport [321]
10 171.5 6.75 Lili 1989 Pekou Airport [321]

Venezuela[edit]

A few tropical cyclones have skimmed the northern coast of South America over recent decades. Tropical Storm Bret (1993) dropped 339 millimetres (13.3 in) of rain in ten hours at Guanare, Portuguesa, Venezuela.[323]

Vietnam[edit]

Flooding in Hue, Vietnam triggered by Typhoon Ketsana in 2009
Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants in Vietnam
Highest known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref
Rank mm in
1 1,773 69.80 Pepiah 2007 Nam Dong [324]
2 1,369 53.90 Tropical Depression 06W 2007 Huong Khe [324]
3 1,239 48.78 September 2009 Vietnam tropical depression Da Nang [325]
4 914 35.98 Ketsana 2009 Quang Nam [325]
5 788 31.02 Lekima 2007 [324]
6 699 27.52 Ira 1990 [64]
7 666 26.22 Mirinae 2009 Vân Canh [325]
8 550 21.65 Xangsane 2006 [326]
9 497 19.57 Tropical Depression 2009 Quang Ngai Province [327]
10 470 18.50 Eve 1999 Ky Anh District [328]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.imd.gov.in/doc/988_en-2.final.pdf
  2. ^ a b c Guiney, John L.; National Hurricane Center (December 9, 1999). Hurricane Lenny (Preliminary Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/1999lenny.html. Retrieved May 13, 2012.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Antiguan Tropical Cyclones 1851 – 2012". Antigua and Barbuda Meteorological Service. March 8, 2012. Archived from the original on May 13, 2012. Retrieved February 4, 2014. 
  4. ^ a b "Climate Education: Flood". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 2010. Retrieved January 18, 2011. 
  5. ^ Bureau of Meteorology. Tropical Cyclones in Queensland. Retrieved on 2 January 2008.
  6. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Fletcher Impacts". Bureau of Meteorology (Government of Australia). 2014. http://www.bom.gov.au/announcements/sevwx/qld/qldtc20140203.shtml. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
  7. ^ "Kowanyama, Queensland February 2014 Daily Weather Observations" (PDF). Bureau of Meteorology (Government of Australia). 2014. Archived from the original on 6 March 2014. http://www.webcitation.org/6NsDuwZXf. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  8. ^ Rainfall (PDF). "Report on Severe Tropical Cyclone Aivu". Bureau of Meteorology. Government of Australia. 6 June 1990. p. 17–18. Retrieved 13 March 2014. 
  9. ^ "Tropical Cyclone May". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 2013. Retrieved 29 January 2013. 
  10. ^ Queensland Tropical Cyclone Warning Centre (2014). "Tropical Cyclone Justin" (PDF). Australian Bureau of Meteorology (Government of Australia). http://www.bom.gov.au/cyclone/history/pdf/justin.pdf. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
  11. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Ellie". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 2009. Retrieved 27 January 2013. 
  12. ^ Brian Williams and Peter Michael (24 January 2013). "Ex-cyclone Oswald heads south with heavy rain tipped for long weekend". Australian Associated Press. The Courier Mail. Retrieved 24 January 2013. 
  13. ^ "Severe Tropical Cyclone Gillian". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 9 April 2014. 
  14. ^ Padgett, Gary. "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary March 2007". Retrieved June 6, 2012. 
  15. ^ "Tropical Low 11U" (PDF). Bureau of Meteorology. 2013. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  16. ^ Perth Tropical Cyclone Warning Centre. "Tropical Cyclones Affecting the Cocos Islands and Christmas Island". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Archived from the original on July 22, 2012. 
  17. ^ Perth Tropical Cyclone Warning Centre (June 12, 2009). Severe Tropical Cyclone Walter April 1 - 8, 2001 (Individual Cyclone Reports). Australian Bureau of Meteorology. pp. 1-2. Archived from the original on July 22, 2012. http://www.webcitation.org/69LpU6JsO. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
  18. ^ Perth Tropical Cyclone Warning Centre (August 13, 2009). Tropical Cyclone Annie November 21, 1973 to December 8, 1973 (Individual Cyclone Reports). Australian Bureau of Meteorology. p. 2. Archived from the original on July 22, 2012. http://www.webcitation.org/69LwULwJq. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
  19. ^ a b Brown, Daniel P; National Hurricane Center (December 17, 2007) (PDF). Hurricane Noel 2007 (Tropical Cyclone Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. p. 4. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/TCR-AL162007_Noel.pdf. Retrieved June 10, 2012.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn Roth, David M; Hydrometeorological Prediction Center (November 16, 2012). "Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Point Maxima". Tropical Cyclone Point Maxima. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved December 7, 2012. 
  21. ^ Beven III, John L; National Hurricane Center (January 23, 2002). Hurricane Michelle 2001 (Tropical Cyclone Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/2001michelle.html. Retrieved June 10, 2012.
  22. ^ Rappaport, Edward N; National Hurricane Center (November 26, 1995). Hurricane Erin 1995 (Preliminary Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/1995erin.html. Retrieved June 10, 2012.
  23. ^ Beven III, John L; Stewart, Stacey R; National Hurricane Center (February 8, 2009). Tropical Storm Fay 2008 (Tropical Cyclone Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/TCR-AL062008_Fay.pdf. Retrieved June 10, 2012.
  24. ^ Pasch, Richard J; Kimberlain, Todd B; Stewart, Stacey R; National Hurricane Center (November 18, 1999). Hurricane Floyd 1999 (Preliminary Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/1999floyd.html. Retrieved June 10, 2012.
  25. ^ http://www.dawn.com/2005/10/06/welcome.htm
  26. ^ "Bangladesh: Tropical Cyclone Rashmi" (PDF). United Nations. 2008. Retrieved March 30, 2010. 
  27. ^ a b c d e Padgett, Gary; Kevin Boyle; John Wallace; Huang Chunliang; Simon Clarke (2005-05-17). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary September 2004". Australian Severe Weather Index. Jimmy Deguara. Retrieved 2007-01-13. 
  28. ^ "Crops on 1.28 lakh hectares land damaged". The Daily Star. May 18, 2013. Retrieved May 18, 2013. 
  29. ^ a b c d Padgett, Gary; Kevin Boyle; John Wallace; Huang Chunliang; Simon Clarke (2005-05-17). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary October 2004". Retrieved 2007-01-13. 
  30. ^ (PDF) 1970 Annual Summary Part C — Storms & Depressions (India Weather Review). India Meteorological Department. p. 10. Archived from the original on 2012-06-01. http://docs.lib.noaa.gov/rescue/cd024_pdf/005ED281.pdf#page=10. Retrieved 2012-06-01.
  31. ^ "Cyclone Sidr Rainfall Total". NASA. 2007. Retrieved June 15, 2009. 
  32. ^ Staff Writer (2009). "Cyclone Aila Preliminary Report" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Retrieved June 15, 2009. 
  33. ^ Hal Pierce and Rob Gutro (April 20, 2009). "Hurricane Season 2009: Bijli (Northern Indian Ocean)". NASA. Retrieved May 23, 2009. 
  34. ^ International Federation of Red Cross And Red Crescent Societies (2007). "Bangladesh: Cyclonic Storm Information Bulletin No. 01/2007". Retrieved 2007-05-17. 
  35. ^ Biological-Diversity.info. Biological Diversity in Belize. Retrieved on 2007-02-19.
  36. ^ a b Beven II, John L (January 29, 2001). "Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Keith: September 28 - October 6, 2000". National Hurricane Center (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). Archived from the original on July 29, 2014. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/2000keith.html. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
  37. ^ Brown, Daniel P (January 29, 2001). "Tropical Cyclone Report: Tropical Depression Sixteen: October 14-15, 2008" (PDF). National Hurricane Center (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration): 4. Archived from the original on July 29, 2014. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/TCR-AL162008_Sixteen.pdf. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
  38. ^ Franklin, James L (September 6, 2001). "Tropical Cyclone Report: Tropical Storm Chantal: August 14 - 21, 2001". National Hurricane Center (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). Archived from the original on July 29, 2014. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/2001chantal.html. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
  39. ^ a b c d Geology. List of Appendices. Retrieved on 2007-04-08.
  40. ^ Hunting Caye Automatic Weather Station (1993). "Hourly Data during passage of Tropical Storm Gert". Retrieved 2008-12-21. 
  41. ^ National Hurricane Center (1974). "Hurricane Fifi Preliminary Report Page 2". Retrieved 2008-12-21. 
  42. ^ Pan American Health Organization (2001-10-08). "Hurricane Iris Situation Report 3". Retrieved 2008-12-21. 
  43. ^ Daily Rainfall from Kompot, Cambodia in 1997. Retrieved on 2008-03-14.
  44. ^ a b c Hydrometeorological Branch, Office of Hydrology, United States Weather Bureau (May 1970). "Hydrometeorological Report Number 46: Probable Maximum Precipitation, Mekong River Basin". United States Government Printing Office. pp. 142–145. Retrieved 2012-06-06. 
  45. ^ Daily Rainfall from Kompong Cham, Cambodia in 1998. Retrieved on 2008-03-14.
  46. ^ "1999-Harvey". Environment Canada. September 14, 2010. Retrieved September 14, 2011. 
  47. ^ Environment Canada. Canadian Hurricane Centre: Impacts of Hurricanes. Retrieved on 2007-03-08.
  48. ^ "Hurricane Igor drenches Newfoundland peninsula". Toronto Star. September 21, 2010. Retrieved September 21, 2010. 
  49. ^ Environment Canada. Remembering Hurricane Hazel: Storm Information. Retrieved on 2007-03-08.
  50. ^ Gary Padgett. Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary: July 2007. Retrieved on 2007-12-28.
  51. ^ Dr. Hal Garrish. Hurricane Bertha Statistics. Retrieved on 2007-03-08.
  52. ^ "2. Super Storm Sandy and Another Active Hurricane Season". Environment Canada. December 20, 2012. Retrieved December 24, 2012. 
  53. ^ Canadian Hurricane Centre (2002). "2001 Tropical Cyclone Season Summary". Retrieved February 27, 2007. 
  54. ^ Chris Fogarty and Peter Bowyer. TROPICAL STORM CRISTOBAL INFORMATION STATEMENT. Retrieved on 2008-07-31.
  55. ^ Chris Fogarty and Peter Bowyer. Post-Tropical Cyclone Leslie Information Statement Retrieved on 2012-12-24.
  56. ^ Hong Kong Observatory. Weather Cases: Typhoon Sam Retrieved on 2007-06-23.
  57. ^ a b c d e f J. L. H. Paulhaus (1973). World Meteorological Organization Operational Hydrology Report No. 1: Manual For Estimation of Probable Maximum Precipitation. World Meteorological Organization. p. 178. 
  58. ^ Padgett, Gary (2006-12-27). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary August 2001". Australian Severe Weather Index. Jimmy Deguara. Retrieved 2007-01-13. 
  59. ^ a b c Padgett, Gary; Kevin Boyle; John Wallace; Huang Chunliang; Simon Clarke (2005-05-17). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary August 2004". Australian Severe Weather Index. Jimmy Deguara. Retrieved 2007-01-13. 
  60. ^ "China: Floods - Information Bulletin no 2". International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. ReliefWeb. August 10, 2012. Retrieved August 10, 2012. 
  61. ^ AIRcurrents. "AIR Post-Disaster Survey for Typhoon Chanchu Documents the Vulnerability of the Chinese Building Stock to Wind and Flood". Retrieved 2007-02-25. 
  62. ^ "China: 13 killed, three missing after heavy rains". Xinhua General News. Zee News. August 7, 2012. Retrieved August 7, 2012. 
  63. ^ "Bilis brings heavy rains to Fujian, Guangdong, and other places". China Meteorological Administration. 2006-07-15. 
  64. ^ a b c Joint Typhoon Warning Center (1991). "Northwest Pacific and North Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclones of 1990". United States Navy. Retrieved 2007-03-12. 
  65. ^ MSc. Gulliermo Vega G. (June 3, 2004). "Conferencia 1. Aspectos Hidrometeorologicos del Huracan Cesar". p. 43. Retrieved November 7, 2009. [dead link]
  66. ^ Naciones Unidas a Centroamérica (March 16, 1999). "Costa Rica: Evaluación de los Daños Ocasionados por el Huracán Mitch, 1998: Sus implicaciones para el desarrollo económico y social y el medio ambiente". United Nations. p. 10. 
  67. ^ a b c Daniel P. Brown. Tropical Cyclone Report: Tropical Storm Alma. Retrieved on 2008-11-29.
  68. ^ Fallas, Jorge; Valverde, Carmen (2005). "Evidence-based Policy for Integrated Control of Forested River Catchments in Extreme Rainfall and Snowmelt" (PDF). Epic-Force. p. 5. Retrieved October 8, 2011. 
  69. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Instituto Nacional de Recursos Hidráulicos (2003). "Lluvias intensas observadas y grandes inundaciones reportadas" (in Spanish). Retrieved February 10, 2007. 
  70. ^ WorldAtlas.com. Dominica. Retrieved on 2007-02-19.
  71. ^ a b "Preliminary Report on Hurricane Abby, July 10–15, 1960". National Hurricane Center. p. 1. 
  72. ^ Dominican Republic Page. Dominican Republic Geography. Retrieved on 2007-02-19.
  73. ^ (Spanish) "Lluvias dejan 3 muertos y 7.000 evacuados". Hoy (Periódico Hoy). Associated Press. 2011-08-05. Retrieved 2011-08-05. 
  74. ^ (Spanish) Hugo del Jesus Segura Soto (2005-07-18). "Inundaciones rápidas en la República Dominicana". Centro de Estudios Hidrográficos. p. 57. 
  75. ^ ONAMET. Boletin Climatologico Mensual: Septiembre. Retrieved on 2007-03-09.
  76. ^ ONAMET. Boletin Climatologico Mensual: Agosto. Retrieved on 2007-03-09.
  77. ^ ONAMET. Boletin Climatologico Mensual: Octubre. Retrieved on 2007-03-09.
  78. ^ a b Brown, Daniel P; Kimberlain, Todd B; National Hurricane Center (2009-03-27) (PDF). Hurricane Hanna (Tropical Cyclone Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/TCR-AL082008_Hanna.pdf. Retrieved 2012-06-01.
  79. ^ ONAMET. Boletin Climatologico Mensual: Mayo. Retrieved on 2007-03-09.
  80. ^ Richard D. Knabb (November 24, 2005). "Tropical Cyclone Report Hurricane Adrian: 17–21 May 2005". National Hurricane Center. p. 4. 
  81. ^ (Spanish) Staff Writer (May 30, 2010). "Agatha tocó tierra, pero las lluvias siguen hoy". El Salvador.com. Retrieved May 30, 2010. 
  82. ^ National Climatic Data Center. Mitch: The Deadliest Atlantic Hurricane Since 1780. Retrieved on 2008-11-29.
  83. ^ Colorado State University. Topography of Chuuk (Truk) Lagoon. Retrieved on 2007-02-19.
  84. ^ Padgett, Gary; John Wallace; Kevin Boyle (December 27, 2006). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary: July 2002". Australian Severe Weather Index. Jimmy Deguara. Retrieved January 13, 2007. 
  85. ^ Padgett, Gary. "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary: July 2002". Retrieved April 22, 2012. 
  86. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Summary of Western North Pacific and North Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclones. Retrieved on 2007-03-12.
  87. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Typhoon Ruby. Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  88. ^ a b Campbell, John R (1984). Dealing with disaster: hurricane response in Fiji. p. 55. Archived from the original on July 23, 2014. Retrieved July 23, 2014. 
  89. ^ Prasad, Rajendra (February 19, 1992). Tropical Cyclone Kina, December 26, 1992 – January 5, 1993 (Tropical Cyclone Report 92/1). Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on October 26, 2013. http://www.webcitation.org/6Ke6bi063. Retrieved October 26, 2013.
  90. ^ Thompson, Russell D (1986). "Hurricanes in the Fiji Area: Causes and Consequences". New Zealand Journal of Geography 81 (1): 7–12. doi:10.1111/j.0028-8292.1986.tb00222.x. 
  91. ^ Terry, James P; Raj, Rishi (1999). "Island Environment and Landscape Responses to 1997 Tropical Cyclones in Fiji". Pacific Science (University of Hawai'i Press) 53 (3): 257–272. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  92. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (May 27, 1997). Preliminary Report on Tropical Cyclone "June" — May 3 - 5, 1997 (Report). Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on March 21, 2014. http://www.webcitation.org/6OFXqDA7Z. Retrieved March 21, 2014.
  93. ^ Climate Services Division (January 7, 2013) (PDF). Fiji Islands Climate Summary December 2012 Volume 33 Issue 12 (Report). Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on January 7, 2013. http://www.webcitation.org/6DVe7en6n. Retrieved January 8, 2013.
  94. ^ Climate Services Division (January 13, 2010) (PDF). Fiji Islands Climate Summary December 2009 Volume 30 Issue 12 (Report). Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on February 12, 2010. http://www.webcitation.org/5nQ9JNIq0. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
  95. ^ Prasad, Rajendra; Fiji Meteorological Service (1990). DeAngellis, Richard M. ed. Tropical Cyclone Rae (Mariners Weather Log: Volume 34, Issue 3: Summer 1990). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Oceanographic Data Service. p. 43. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/uiug.30112104094245. Retrieved May 15, 2013.
  96. ^ a b Terry, James P.; McGree, Simon; Raj, Rishi (September 1, 2004). "The exceptional flooding in Vanua Levu Island during Tropical Cyclone Ami in January 2003". Journal of Natural Disaster Science (Japan Science and technology information aggregator) 26 (1): 27–36. doi:10.2328/jnds.26.27. Archived from the original on January 4, 2013. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  97. ^ Climate Services Division (February 15, 2006) (PDF). Fiji Islands Climate Summary January 2006 Volume 27 Issue 1 (Report). Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on April 10, 2012. http://www.wamis.org/countries/fiji/fiji200601.pdf. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
  98. ^ Padgett, Gary. "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary December 1999". Archived from the original on April 1, 2012. Retrieved April 1, 2012. 
  99. ^ Padgett, Gary (December 1, 2005). "Monthly Tropical Cyclone Summary — December 2004". Australian Severe Weather. Retrieved February 22, 2010. 
  100. ^ http://horizon.documentation.ird.fr/exl-doc/pleins_textes/doc34-05/35797.pdf
  101. ^ Padgett, Gary (December 1, 1998). "Monthly Tropical Cyclone Summary — December 1997". Australian Severe Weather. Retrieved February 22, 2010. 
  102. ^ Météo-France French Polynesia (June 24, 2008). Review of the 2006-07 and 2007-08 tropical cyclone seasons. World Meteorological Organization. http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/tcp/Meetings/RA%20V%20TCC-12/documents/Doc_05-2.doc. Retrieved February 22, 2010.
  103. ^ National Hurricane Center (1996). Hurricane Marilyn Prelimary Report (Report). National Hurricane Center. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/1995marilyn.html. Retrieved February 14, 2007.
  104. ^ Service Régional de METEO-FRANCE en Guadeloupe. COMPTE RENDU METEOROLOGIQUE: Passage de l’Ouragan LENNY du 17 au 19 novembre 1999 sur l’archipel de la Guadeloupe. Retrieved on 2007-02-19.
  105. ^ Avila, Lixion A; National Hurricane Center (October 23, 1996). Hurricane Hortense 3-16 September 1996 (Preliminary Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/1996hortense.html. Retrieved June 17, 2012.
  106. ^ World Meteorological Organization. Review of the Past Hurricane Season. Retrieved on 2007-02-24.
  107. ^ (French) AFP, France Antilles (2009-09-03). "07 - La Tempête tropicale Erika affecte la Guadeloupe". Catastrophes Naturalles. Retrieved 2009-09-04. 
  108. ^ http://www.meteo.fr/temps/domtom/antilles/pack-public/cyclone/saison2010/earl_%20gd_idn.pdf
  109. ^ Gerrish, Harold P; National Hurricane Center (November 12, 1987). Hurricane Emily 20 - 26 September, 1987 (Preliminary Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. p. 8. Archived from the original on February 2, 2014. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1987-prelim/emily/prelim08.gif. Retrieved June 17, 2012.
  110. ^ (French) Perrusset, Marcell; Bouguen, Pierre (1970). La Tempête Tropicale Dorothy (Report). Météo-France. table 1 as archived by the National Hurricane Center in its Storm Wallet for Tropical Storm Dorothy, 1970. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/cdmp/dvd0032-jpg/1970/atlantic/dorothy/postevent/servicemeterologique.01.jpg. Retrieved January 24, 2012.
  111. ^ Rappaport, Edward N. (November 2, 2000). Preliminary Report Hurricane Iris: 22 August – 4 September 1995 (Report). 1995 Atlantic Hurricane Season Preliminary Reports. National Hurricane Center. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/1995iris.html. Retrieved January 24, 2012.
  112. ^ Franklin, James L (January 31, 2008). Hurricane Dean (AL042007): 13–23 August 2007 (Tropical Cyclone Report). 2007 Atlantic Hurricane Season Tropical Cyclone Reports. National Hurricane Center. p. 4. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/TCR-AL042007_Dean.pdf. Retrieved January 24, 2012.
  113. ^ Mayfield, Max (October 25, 1993). Tropical Storm Cindy: 14–17 August 1993 (Preliminary Report). Storm Wallet for Tropical Storm Cindy, 1993. National Hurricane Center. p. 2. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1993/cindy/prenhc/prelim02.gif. Retrieved December 1, 2011.
  114. ^ Rappaport, Edward N. (January 17, 1996). Hurricane Marilyn: 12–22 September 1995 (Preliminary Report). 1995 Atlantic Hurricane Season Preliminary Reports. National Hurricane Center. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/1995marilyn.html. Retrieved January 24, 2012.
  115. ^ Rappaport, Edward N. (October 17, 1994). Tropical Storm Debby: 9–11 September 1994 (Preliminary Report). Storm Wallet for Tropical Storm Debby, 1994. National Hurricane Center. p. 2. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/atlantic/atl1994-prelim/debby/prelim02.gif. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
  116. ^ Kimberlain, Todd B; Cangialosi, John P. (January 13, 2012) (PDF). Tropical Storm Emily (AL052011): 2–7 August 2011 (Tropical Cyclone Report). 2011 Atlantic Hurricane Season Tropical Cyclone Reports. National Hurricane Center. table 3, p. 6. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/data/tcr/AL052011_Emily.pdf. Retrieved January 13, 2012.
  117. ^ Kimberlain, Todd B (8 October 2013) (PDF). Tropical Storm Chantal: July 7– 10, 2013 (Tropical Cyclone Report). National Hurricane Center. p. 7. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/data/tcr/AL032013_Chantal.pdf. Retrieved February 1, 2013.
  118. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Nouvelle-Calédonie Cyclone Passes De 1880 à nos jours". Meteo France New Caledonia. Retrieved 2012-05-14. 
  119. ^ Lyons, Steve (February 17, 2010). "La Reunion Island's Rainfall Dynasty!". The Weather Channel. Archived from the original on February 4, 2014. Retrieved February 4, 2014. 
  120. ^ a b c d Quetelard, Hubert; Bessemoulin, Pierre; Cerveny, Randall S; Peterson, Thomas C; Burton, Andrew; Boodhoo, Yadowsun. "Extreme Weather: World-Record Rainfalls During Tropical Cyclone Gamede". Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (American Meteorological Society) 90 (5): 603–608. doi:10.1175/2008BAMS2660.1. 
  121. ^ a b c d e Landsea, Christopher W; Hurricane Research Division (March 12, 2007). "Subject: E4) What are the largest rainfalls associated with tropical cyclones?". Tropical Cyclone Frequently Asked Questions:. Archived from the original on February 3, 2014. Retrieved April 12, 2013. 
  122. ^ Précipitations extrêmes (Report). Meteo France. http://www.meteo.fr/temps/domtom/La_Reunion/meteoreunion2/climatologie/records/rec_RR1.html. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
  123. ^ Padgett, Gary (December 27, 2006). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary January 2002". Australian Severe Weather Index. Jimmy Deguara. Retrieved January 16, 2007. 
  124. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20090221185655/http://www.meteo.fr/temps/domtom/La_Reunion/Evenement_du_mois/AccueilEvenement.html
  125. ^ RSMC La Reunion (January 22, 2014). "Cyclone Tropical Bejisa (du 1 er au 3 janvier 2014)" (in French). Meteo France. p. 1. Archived from the original on March 2, 2014. Retrieved February 3, 2014. 
  126. ^ p45
  127. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20080210024558/http://www.meteo.fr/temps/domtom/La_Reunion/Evenement_du_mois/AccueilEvenement.html
  128. ^ a b Pasch, Richard J; National Hurricane Center (November 22, 1999). Hurricane Jose: October 17 - 25, 1999 (Preliminary Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/1999jose.html. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
  129. ^ Cangialosi, John P; National Hurricane Center (November 17, 2010). Hurricane Otto October 6 - 10 (Tropical Cyclone Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. p. 6-7. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/TCR-AL172010_Otto.pdf. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
  130. ^ "Passage De L’ouragan Earl sur la Guadeloupe et Les Iles du north es 29 et 30 août 2010" (in French). Météo-France. November 5, 2010. p. 5. Retrieved December 7, 2012. 
  131. ^ Rappaport, Edward N; National Hurricane Center (January 17, 1996). Hurricane Marilyn: September 12 - 22, 1995 (Preliminary Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/1995marilyn.html. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
  132. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Wallis and Futuna Cyclone Passes De 1880 à nos jours" (in French). Meteo France New Caledonia. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  133. ^ "156 km/h : Record de rafales battu à Wallis" (in French). Meteo France: New Caledonia. December 22, 2012. Archived from the original on December 22, 2012. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  134. ^ a b c World Weather Traveler's Guide. Handy Information About Anguilla Weather For Travelers. Retrieved on 2008-11-17.
  135. ^ a b c d e Jose A. Colon (1956). ON THE FORMATION OF HURRICANE ALICE, 1955 With Notes on Other Cold-Season Tropical Storms. Retrieved on 2008-11-17.
  136. ^ a b Terry Tucker (1966). Beware the Hurricane! The Story of the Cyclonic Tropical Storms That Have Struck Bermuda and the Islanders' Folk-lore Regarding Them (1 ed.). The Hamilton Press. p. 206. 
  137. ^ Rhome, Jamie R (October 15, 2008) (PDF). Hurricane Bertha (Tropical Cyclone Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. p. 7. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/TCR-AL022008_Bertha.pdf. Retrieved June 1, 2012.
  138. ^ Jay Barnes (1999). Florida's Hurricane History. University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill. pp. 165.
  139. ^ Knabb (2006). "Tropical Depression One Public Advisory Two". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2007-05-10. 
  140. ^ Cayman Islands Government. Section 6: Strengthening Environmental Protection. Retrieved on 2007-01-27.
  141. ^ Michael J. Brennan (2009). Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Paloma. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved on 2009-01-27.
  142. ^ Stacey R. Stewart (2005). Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Ivan 2-24 September 2004. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved on 2008-03-25.
  143. ^ Preliminary Report: Hurricane Hattie: Page 7. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved on 2009-02-09.
  144. ^ Jack Beven (2002). Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Michelle - 29 October - 5 November 2001. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved on 2008-11-29.
  145. ^ "Death toll from storm Agatha rises in Central America". BBC News. May 31, 2010. Retrieved May 31, 2010. 
  146. ^ Robert C. Bucknam, Jeffrey A. Coe, Manuel Mota Chavarria, Jonathan W. Godt, Arthur C. Tarr, Lee-Ann Bradley, Sharon A. Rafferty, Dean Hancock, Richard L. Dart, Margo L. Johnson (2001). "Landslides triggered by Hurricane Mitch in Guatemala − inventory and discussion". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved November 7, 2009. 
  147. ^ http://www.insivumeh.gob.gt/meteorologia/agatha.pdf
  148. ^ Earth Observatory (September 22, 2008). "Hurricane Stan Floods Central America". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved November 7, 2009. 
  149. ^ Earth Observatory (May 25, 2005). "Tropical Storm Adrian May 16–21 Rainfall Totals". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved November 7, 2009. 
  150. ^ Michigan Technological University Volcanoes Page (August 15, 1994). "Rainfall". Retrieved November 7, 2009. 
  151. ^ Nation's Encyclopedia. Haiti. Retrieved on 2007-02-19.
  152. ^ Dunn, Gordon E; Moore, Paul L; Clark Gilbert B; Frank, Neil L; Hill, Elbert C; Kraft, Raymond H.; Sugg, Arnold L. (1964). "The Hurricane Season of 1963" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review (American Meteorological Society) 92 (3): 136. doi:10.1175/1520-0493-92.3.128. ISSN 0027-0644. Archived from the original on June 9, 2012. Retrieved May 13, 2012. 
  153. ^ Brown, Daniel P; National Hurricane Center (December 17, 2007) (PDF). Hurricane Noel (Tropical Cyclone Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. p. 4. Archived from the original on June 9, 2012. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/TCR-AL162007_Noel.pdf. Retrieved June 1, 2012.
  154. ^ Finnigan, Sean (October 4, 2002) (PDF). Hurricane Lili almost drowns Camp-Perin, Haiti (Report). Organisation for the Rehabilitation of the Environment. p. 1. Archived from the original on June 9, 2012. http://oreworld.org/flood/campperrinfloodsenglish.pdf. Retrieved June 9, 2012.
  155. ^ Beven II, John L; Kimberlain, Todd B; National Hurricane Center (January 22, 2009) (PDF). Hurricane Gustav (Tropical Cyclone Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. p. 4. Archived from the original on June 9, 2012. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/TCR-AL072008_Gustav.pdf. Retrieved June 1, 2012.
  156. ^ John L. Guiney and Miles B. Lawrence. Hurricane Mitch. Retrieved on 2007-02-24.
  157. ^ a b Richard J. Pasch and David P. Roberts. Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Beta - October 26–31, 2005. Retrieved on 2008-11-29.
  158. ^ Dan Brown. Tropical Cyclone Report for Tropical Depression Sixteen (2008). Retrieved on 2008-11-26.
  159. ^ Jack Beven. Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Felix. Retrieved on 2008-01-18.
  160. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Tropical Cyclones in 2010 (Report). Hong Kong Observatory. pp. 98. http://www.weather.gov.hk/publica/tc/tc2010.pdf. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
  161. ^ http://docs.lib.noaa.gov/rescue/cd024_pdf/005ED280.pdf
  162. ^ Alarming Rise in the Number and Intensity of Extreme Point Rainfall Events over the Indian Region under Climate Change Scenario. Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology. August 2009. 
  163. ^ India Meteorological Department (1961). "Annual Summary — Storms & Depressions: Depression in the Bay of Bengal" (PDF). India Weather Review (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration): 10–11. 
  164. ^ IMD. "IMD Pune Climate Bulletin Nov 2008". 
  165. ^ The Hindu (2008-11-28). "Rain-related death toll rises to 51". Retrieved 2010-06-08. 
  166. ^ Regional Specialized Meteorological Center New Delhi, India (January 2009). "Report on Cyclonic Disturbances over North Indian Ocean during 2008". India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on April 5, 2010. Retrieved January 17, 2013. 
  167. ^ "Record Rainfall over Ketty Valley, Nilgiri, Tamil Nadu". MAUSAM (IMD) 63 (1). January 2012. 
  168. ^ M M Nayak (2007). "Cyclone Ogni". Andhra Pradesh Disaster Management. Retrieved 2010-06-08. 
  169. ^ http://docs.lib.noaa.gov/rescue/cd019_pdf/00462691.pdf
  170. ^ India Meteorological Department (1963). "Annual Summary — Storms & Depressions: Deep depression in the Bay of Bengal" (PDF). India Weather Review (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration): 9–11. Retrieved May 13, 2013. 
  171. ^ a b U.S.De, R.K.Dube and G.S.Prakasa Rao (July 2005). "Extreme Weather Events over India in the last 100 years". J. Ind. Geophys. Union 9 (3): 184. Retrieved 2010-06-08. 
  172. ^ a b United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (April 3, 2003). "Indonesia — Landslides OCHA Situation Report No. 1". ReliefWeb. Retrieved January 6, 2008. 
  173. ^ Bureau of Meteorology Special Services Unit (2003). "Tropical Cyclone Inigo (March 30 - April 8)". Government of Australia. Retrieved January 5, 2008. 
  174. ^ Gary Padgett (2003). "April 2003 Worldwide Tropical Weather Summary". Retrieved January 5, 2008. 
  175. ^ Padgett, Gary. "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary June 2007". Retrieved May 14, 2012. 
  176. ^ Nation's Encyclopedia. Jamaica. Retrieved on 2007-02-19.
  177. ^ a b Evans, C. J.; Royal Meteorological Society (1975). "Heavy rainfall in Jamaica associated with Hurricane Flora 1963 and Tropical Storm Gilda 1973". Weather (Blackwell Publishing Ltd) 30 (5): 157 – 161. doi:10.1002/j.1477-8696.1975.tb03360.x. ISSN 1477-8696. 
  178. ^ a b Ahmad, Rafi; Brown, Lawrence; Jamaica National Meteorological Service (January 10, 2006). "Assessment of Rainfall Characteristics and Landslide Hazards in Jamaica". University of Wisconsin. pp. 24–27. Retrieved June 6, 2012. 
  179. ^ Blake, Eric S.; National Hurricane Center (March 7, 2011). Tropical Storm Nicole (Tropical Cyclone Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/TCR-AL162010_Nicole.pdf. Retrieved May 13, 2012.
  180. ^ Frank, Neil L.; Clark, Gilbert B. (1980). "Atlantic Tropical Systems of 1979". Monthly Weather Review (American Meteorological Society) 108 (7): 971. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1980)108<0966:ATSO>2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0027-0644. Retrieved May 13, 2012. 
  181. ^ Stewart, Stacey R.; National Hurricane Center (December 16, 2004). Hurricane Ivan (Tropical Cyclone Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/2004ivan.shtml?. Retrieved May 13, 2012.
  182. ^ Blake, Eric S; Kimberlain, Todd B; Berg, Robert J; Cangialosi, John P; Beven II, John L (February 12, 2013) (PDF). Hurricane Sandy: October 22 – 29, 2012 (Tropical Cyclone Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Archived from the original on February 17, 2013. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/data/tcr/AL182012_Sandy.pdf. Retrieved January 29, 2014.
  183. ^ Avila, Lixion A.; National Hurricane Center (December 20, 2002). Hurricane Isidore (Tropical Cyclone Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/2002isidore.shtml. Retrieved May 13, 2012.
  184. ^ JMA. Oshima observations October 15th 2013 Retrieved on 2013-10-17.
  185. ^ JMA. Oshima observations October 16th 2013 Retrieved on 2013-10-17.
  186. ^ Tropical Storm Risk. Summary of the 2000 NW Pacific Typhoon Season and Verification of Author's Seasonal Forecasts. Retrieved on 2007-02-19.
  187. ^ Kitamoto Asanobu. Digital Typhoon: Link Collection. Retrieved on 2007-02-19.
  188. ^ "Typhoon Talas". Japan Meteorological Agency. 2011. Retrieved September 6, 2011. 
  189. ^ (Japanese) "台風197617号 (Fran) - 災害情報". National Institute of Informatics. 2011. Retrieved December 31, 2011. 
  190. ^ Climatological Data: National Summary 22 (1). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. January 1971. p. 771. Retrieved April 12, 2013. 
  191. ^ (Japanese) "台風200514号 (Nabi) - 災害情報". National Institute of Informatics. 2011. Retrieved December 31, 2011. 
  192. ^ (Japanese) "台風199211号 (Kent) - 災害情報". National Institute of Informatics. 2011. Retrieved December 31, 2011. 
  193. ^ Padgett, Gary; Kevin Boyle; John Wallace; Huang Chunliang; Simon Clarke (2005-05-17). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary: July 2004". Australian Severe Weather Index. Retrieved 2007-01-26. 
  194. ^ (Japanese) "アメダス日出岳(64211)@台風198911号". National Institute of Informatics. 2011. Retrieved December 31, 2011. 
  195. ^ (Japanese) "台風198305号 (Abby) - 災害情報". National Institute of Informatics. 2011. Retrieved December 31, 2011. 
  196. ^ (Japanese) "台風199019号 (Flo) - 災害情報". National Institute of Informatics. 2011. Retrieved December 31, 2011. 
  197. ^ "Annual Tropical Cyclone Report: Typhoon Trix" (PDF). Joint Typhoon Warning Center. United States Navy. 1972. pp. 183–192. Retrieved April 12, 2013. 
  198. ^ http://agora.ex.nii.ac.jp/cgi-bin/dt/dsummary.pl?id=200813&basin=wnp&lang=en
  199. ^ Dave Ornauer (August 6, 2011). "USFJ-AFL division title games postponed (Updated)". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved August 6, 2011. 
  200. ^ (Japanese) "【台風15号】国頭で総雨量535ミリ 大宜味床下浸水24件". 琉球新報. Yahoo! News. August 28, 2012. Retrieved August 29, 2012. 
  201. ^ a b c Padgett, Gary; Kevin Boyle; John Wallace; Huang Chunliang; Simon Clarke (May 17, 2005). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary August 2002". Australian Severe Weather Index. Jimmy Deguara. Retrieved January 1, 2007. 
  202. ^ (Japanese) "Rainfall from Typhoon Conson". National Institute of Informatics. 2004. Retrieved April 17, 2010. 
  203. ^ Gary Padgett (June 12, 2003). "Monthly Tropical Cyclone Summary for April 2003". Typhoon 2000. Retrieved March 15, 2008. 
  204. ^ "1972 Annual Tropical Cyclone Report" (PDF). Joint Typhoon Warning Center. p. 31. Retrieved 2014-04-06. 
  205. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 1972 Annual Typhoon Report: Annex A. Retrieved on 2008-10-11.
  206. ^ Kye-Hwan Kim and S.-Y. Hong. P1.3 Role of Tropical Cyclone in Southern China on the Heavy Rainfall over Korea. Retrieved on 2007-07-01.
  207. ^ Hidetaka Chikamori. Rainfall-Runoff Analysis of Flooding Caused by Typhoon RUSA in 2002 in the Gangneung Namdae River Basin, Korea. Retrieved on 2007-02-19.
  208. ^ "Summary of Western North Pacific and North Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclones" (PDF). Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Retrieved 2007-03-12. 
  209. ^ (Korean) http://www.newsis.com/ar_detail/view.html?ar_id=NISX20110808_0008916573&cID=10505&pID=10500
  210. ^ Al Jazeera. Typhoon Nari lashes South Korea. Retrieved on 2008-03-15.
  211. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Super Typhoon 22W Saomai. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  212. ^ Kim Hee-jin (June 27, 2011). "2 rescuers, 4 others are swept away in typhoon". JoongAng Daily. ReliefWeb. Retrieved December 4, 2011. 
  213. ^ Library of Congress Country Studies and CIA World Factbook. Madagascar Topography. Retrieved on 2007-02-19.
  214. ^ RSMC La Reunion Tropical Cyclone Centre. Cyclone Season 2001–2002 (Report). Météo-France. p. 91. http://www.meteo.fr/temps/domtom/La_Reunion/webcmrs9.0/anglais/archives/publications/saisons_cycloniques/index20012002.html. Retrieved November 21, 2012.
  215. ^ Climate Prediction Center (2004). "Cyclone Elita (09S) Cumulative Track and rainfall" (PDF). United States National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 10, 2011. 
  216. ^ Padgett, Gary (2002). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary: February 2002". Archived from the original on November 21, 2012. Retrieved November 21, 2012. 
  217. ^ a b Madagascar Direction de la Météorologie et de l'Hydrologie (September 5, 2008). "Madagascar: Review of the 2005/2006, 2006/2007 and 2007/2008 Cyclone Seasons". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved September 23, 2012. 
  218. ^ United States Agency for International Development (December 23, 2003). "Africa: Drought and floods hazards assessment December 23, 2003". Relief Web. Retrieved July 6, 2009. 
  219. ^ "Tropical Storm Chanda Drenches Madagascar". Earthweek. January 13, 2012. Retrieved January 13, 2012. 
  220. ^ a b Madagascar Direction de la Météorologie et de l'Hydrologie (2006). "Madagascar: Review of the 2003-04, 2004-05 Cyclone Seasons". World Meteorological Organization. pp. 46–57. Retrieved September 23, 2010. 
  221. ^ Madagascar Direction de la Météorologie et de l'Hydrologie (September 17, 2010). "Madagascar: Review of the 2008-09 & 2009-10 Cyclone Seasons". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved September 23, 2010. 
  222. ^ Gary Padgett. Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary: June 2006. Retrieved on 2007-12-28.
  223. ^ Gary Padgett (December 27, 2006). "January, 2002". Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary. Australian Severe Weather. Retrieved October 21, 2012. 
  224. ^ http://www.meteo.fr/temps/domtom/La_Reunion/webcmrs9.0/anglais/archives/publications/saisons_cycloniques/index19981999.html p42
  225. ^ (French) "Dumile: Plus de pluies que de dégâts". Le Mauricien. January 4, 2013. Retrieved February 14, 2013. 
  226. ^ a b Padgett, Gary; John Wallace; Kevin Boyle; Simon Clarke (December 27, 2006). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary December 2002". Australian Severe Weather Index. Jimmy Deguara. Retrieved January 13, 2007. 
  227. ^ Comisión Nacional del Agua. Resumen del Huracán "Wilma" del Océano Atlántico: October 15–25, 2005. Retrieved on 2007-02-19.
  228. ^ Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. Tropical Storm Frances Retrieved on 2007-01-13.
  229. ^ Roth, David M. Maximum Rainfall Caused By Tropical Cyclones and their remnants per Mexican state (1981-2010). "Tropical Cyclone Point Maxima". Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2012-09-10. 
  230. ^ Roth, David M. Tropical Storm Frances (1998) Rainfall Graphic (GIF). "Tropical Cyclone Point Maxima". Hydrometeorological Prediction Center (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). Retrieved 2012-09-10. 
  231. ^ Roth, David M. Tropical Depression Eleven (1999) Rainfall Graphic (GIF). "Tropical Cyclone Point Maxima". Hydrometeorological Prediction Center (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). Retrieved 2012-09-10. 
  232. ^ Roth, David M. Hurricane Juliette (2001) Rainfall Graphic (GIF). "Tropical Cyclone Point Maxima". Hydrometeorological Prediction Center (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). Retrieved 2012-06-08. 
  233. ^ Roth, David M. Hurricane Dolly (1996) Rainfall Graphic (GIF). "Tropical Cyclone Point Maxima". Hydrometeorological Prediction Center (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). Retrieved 2012-09-10. 
  234. ^ Roth, David M. Hurricane Fifi/Orlene (1974) Rainfall Graphic (GIF). "Tropical Cyclone Point Maxima". Hydrometeorological Prediction Center (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). Retrieved 2012-09-10. 
  235. ^ Roth, David M. Hurricane Alex (2010) Rainfall Graphic (GIF). "Tropical Cyclone Point Maxima". Hydrometeorological Prediction Center (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). Retrieved 2012-09-10. 
  236. ^ Roth, David M. Hurricane Gert (1993) Rainfall Graphic (GIF). "Tropical Cyclone Point Maxima". Hydrometeorological Prediction Center (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). Retrieved 2012-09-10. 
  237. ^ Roth, David M. Tropical Storm Hermine (1980) Rainfall Graphic (GIF). "Tropical Cyclone Point Maxima". Hydrometeorological Prediction Center (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). Retrieved 2012-06-08. 
  238. ^ Roth, David M. Hurricane Isidore (2002) Rainfall Graphic (GIF). "Tropical Cyclone Point Maxima". Hydrometeorological Prediction Center (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). Retrieved 2012-09-10. 
  239. ^ Nation's Encyclopedia. Mozambique. Retrieved on 2007-02-19.
  240. ^ South African Weather Service. Tropical Cyclone Eline: February 2000. Retrieved on 2007-02-19.
  241. ^ South African Weather Service. Tropical Cyclone 'Jokwe' brings Hurricane Force Winds, Heavy Rain to Northern Mozambique. Retrieved on 2008-06-16.
  242. ^ National Climatic Data Center. Climate of March 2003. Retrieved on 2007-12-29.
  243. ^ NASA (May 4, 2008). "Cyclone Nargis". Earth Observatory. Retrieved November 7, 2009. 
  244. ^ Reuters. Heavy rains kill five in Myanmar's main city. Retrieved on 2008-03-24.
  245. ^ Nations online. [1] Retrieved on 2011-10-20.
  246. ^ Lawrence, Miles B; National Hurricane Center (January 8, 1996). Hurricane Luis: August 27 - September 11, 1995 (Preliminary Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/1995luis.html. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
  247. ^ Cangialosi, John P; National Hurricane Center (November 17, 2010). Hurricane Otto October 6 - 10 (Tropical Cyclone Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. p. 6-7. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/TCR-AL172010_Otto.pdf. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
  248. ^ a b Connor, Desiree; Etienne-LeBlanc, Sheryl (January 2013). Climatological Summary 2012. Meteorological Department St. Maarten. p. 10. Archived from the original on February 5, 2014. http://www.sintmaartengov.org/Government/Ministry%20of%20Tourism%20Economic%20Affairs%20Transport%20and%20Telecommunication/Documents/Climatological%20Summary%202012.pdf. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
  249. ^ a b 2013 Atlantic Hurricane Season Summary Chart. Meteorological Department St. Maarten. January 2013. Archived from the original on February 5, 2014. http://www.meteosxm.com/wp-content/uploads/Summary-Chart.pdf. Retrieved February 5, 2013.
  250. ^ March 1990 North Island Ex-tropical Cyclone Hilda (NZ Historic Weather Events Catalog). National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research. November 7, 2013. Archived from the original on February 4, 2014. http://www.webcitation.org/6N8yVdJgX. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
  251. ^ March 1988 North Island Ex-tropical Cyclone Bola (NZ Historic Weather Events Catalog). National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research. November 7, 2013. Archived from the original on February 4, 2014. http://www.webcitation.org/6N8z6kwP5. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
  252. ^ January 1994 South Island Ex-tropical Cyclone Rewa (NZ Historic Weather Events Catalog). National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research. November 7, 2013. Archived from the original on February 4, 2014. http://www.webcitation.org/6N8xwCBm5. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
  253. ^ December 1996 Upper North Island Ex-tropical Cyclone Fergus (NZ Historic Weather Events Catalog). National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research. November 7, 2013. Archived from the original on February 4, 2014. http://www.webcitation.org/6N8xQ4OOu. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
  254. ^ January 1989 Northland Cyclone Delilah (NZ Historic Weather Events Catalog). National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research. November 7, 2013. Archived from [January 1989 Northland Cyclone Delilah the original] on February 4, 2014. http://www.webcitation.org/6N8yjJsyC. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
  255. ^ February 1967 North Island Ex-tropical Cyclone Dinah (NZ Historic Weather Events Catalog). National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research. November 7, 2013. Archived from the original on February 4, 2014. http://www.webcitation.org/6N90vHkAX. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
  256. ^ March 1996 Eastern North Island Ex-Tropical Cyclone Beti (NZ Historic Weather Events Catalog). National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research. November 7, 2013. Archived from the original on February 4, 2014. http://www.webcitation.org/6N8xgkx1G. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
  257. ^ April 1968 New Zealand Ex-tropical Cyclone Giselle (NZ Historic Weather Events Catalog). National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research. November 7, 2013. Archived from the original on February 4, 2014. http://www.webcitation.org/6N90daGNy. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
  258. ^ February-March 2004 North Island Ex-tropical Cyclone Ivy (NZ Historic Weather Events Catalog). National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research. November 7, 2013. Archived from the original on February 4, 2014. http://www.webcitation.org/6N8vTFFAJ. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
  259. ^ January 2011 Upper North Island Storm (NZ Historic Weather Events Catalog). National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research. November 7, 2013. Archived from the original on February 4, 2014. http://www.webcitation.org/6N8tU5gPs. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
  260. ^ U. S. Geological Survey. "Landslide Response to Hurricane Mitch Rainfall in Seven Study Areas in Nicaragua". Retrieved 2007-02-19. 
  261. ^ a b c Dr. Wilfried Strauch (November 2004). "Evaluación de las Amenazas Geológicas e Hidrometeorológicas para Sitios de Urbanización". Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER). p. 11. Retrieved 2009-11-07. 
  262. ^ "Nicaragua - Hurricane Joan". ReliefWeb. 1988-10-26. Retrieved 2009-11-07. 
  263. ^ Lixion Avila. "Preliminary Report: Hurricane Cesar - 24-29 July 1996". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-11-29. 
  264. ^ Lixion A. Avila and John Cangialosi (January 14, 2010). "Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Ida" (PDF). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved January 14, 2010. 
  265. ^ Jack Beven. "Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Felix". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-01-18. 
  266. ^ Gary Padgett (2004). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary: January 2004". Australian Severe Weather. Retrieved September 23, 2010. 
  267. ^ a b Haggag, Mohammed; Badry, Hesham (2012). "Hydrometeorological Modeling Study of Tropical Cyclone Phet in the Arabian Sea in 2010". Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (Scientific Research Publishing) 02 (2): 174–190. doi:10.4236/acs.2012.22018. ISSN 2160-0414. 
  268. ^ El Rafy, Mostafa; Hafez, Yehia (April 23, 2008). "Anomalies in meteorological fields over northern Asia and it's impact on Hurricane Gonu". 28th Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology. American Meteorological Society. Retrieved June 6, 2012. 
  269. ^ a b c d Membery, David (July 2002). "Monsoon Tropical Cyclones: Part 2". Weather (Royal Meteorological Society) 57 (7): 249–255. doi:10.1256/004316502760195911. 
  270. ^ Membery, David (April 1998). "Famous for 15 minutes: An investigation into the causes and effects of the tropical storm which struck southern Arabia in June 1996". Weather (Royal Meteorological Society) 53 (4): 106–110. doi:10.1002/j.1477-8696.1998.tb03972.x. 
  271. ^ Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (March 10, 2003). "2002 Annual Tropical Cyclones Review" (PDF). World Meteorological Organization. p. 52. Retrieved July 15, 2008. 
  272. ^ http://pakistanweatherportal.com/2011/03/31/history-of-cyclones-in-pakistan/
  273. ^ http://www.centralasiaonline.com/cocoon/caii/xhtml/en_GB/newsbriefs/caii/newsbriefs/2010/06/04/newsbrief-04
  274. ^ http://www.heatisonline.org/contentserver/objecthandlers/index.cfm?id=3330&method=full
  275. ^ http://www.pakmet.com.pk/FFD/cp/fr2009.pdf
  276. ^ http://www.wunderground.com/history/airport/OPKC/2009/7/17/DailyHistory.html
  277. ^ http://hamariweb.com/myreport/report.aspx?id=199
  278. ^ http://www.accuweather.com/world-news-blogs.asp?blog=andrews&partner=accuweather&pgUrl=/mtweb/content/andrews/archives/2007/08/will_the_arabia.asp
  279. ^ http://www.webcitation.org/5QwDsh3rS
  280. ^ http://www.dawn.com/2007/08/12/local1.htm
  281. ^ http://archives.dawn.com/dawnftp/72.249.57.55/dawnftp/fixed/arch/arch_2004/arch_oct_04.htm
  282. ^ http://www.webcitation.org/5Q0T8juTq
  283. ^ http://www.dawn.com/2007/07/01/local2.htm
  284. ^ http://news.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/the-newspaper/local/karachi-heavy-rains-forecast-579
  285. ^ Nations Encyclopedia. Palau. Retrieved on 2007-02-25.
  286. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center. TROPICAL CYCLONES AFFECTING PALAU. Retrieved on 2007-02-25.
  287. ^ a b c Padgett, Gary. "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary June 2004". Retrieved January 13, 2007. 
  288. ^ National Weather Service (Tiyan, Guam) (July 9, 2006). "PRELIMINARY POST-STORM REPORT...TROPICAL STORM EWINIAR (04W)". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on August 7, 2006. Retrieved August 7, 2006. 
  289. ^ Leoncio A. Amadore, Ph.D. Socio-Economic Impacts of Extreme Climatic Events in the Philippines. Retrieved on 2007-02-25.
  290. ^ Steve Lang (May 7, 2009). "Hurricane Season 2009: Kujira (Western Pacific Ocean)". NASA. Retrieved December 23, 2011. 
  291. ^ Narciso O. Itoralba (December 1981). Annual Tropical Cyclone Report 1977. Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. p. 65. 
  292. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Typhoon Elaine. Retrieved on 2007-02-25.
  293. ^ "Annual Tropical Cyclone Report: Bess" (PDF). Joint Typhoon Warning Center. United States Navy. 1975. pp. 39–40. Retrieved May 2, 2013. 
  294. ^ "JTWC Annual tropical cyclone report: 2003". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 2004. Retrieved 2010-01-22. 
  295. ^ South African Weather Service. Tropical Cyclone Eline: February 2000. Retrieved on 2006-10-11.
  296. ^ James Franklin (February 22, 2006). "Tropical Cyclone Report Hurricane Vince" (PDF). National Hurricane Center. p. 2. Retrieved May 7, 2008. 
  297. ^ Padgett, Gary; Kevin Boyle; Simon Clarke (October 26, 2006). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary: December 2003". Australian Severe Weather Index. Jimmy Deguara. Retrieved January 19, 2007. 
  298. ^ a b Central Weather Bureau (2010). "侵台颱風資料庫". Retrieved 2011-10-19. 
  299. ^ Unattributed (2009-09-09). "莫拉克颱風暴雨量及洪流量分析". Water Resources Agency, Ministry of Economic Affairs, Republic of China. Retrieved 2011-07-17. 
  300. ^ Unattributed (2009-09-09). "莫拉克颱風暴雨量及洪流量分析". Water Resources Agency, Ministry of Economic Affairs, Republic of China. Retrieved 2011-07-17. 
  301. ^ Chen Zhi (August 2, 2012). "Typhoon Saola dumps heavy downpours around Taiwan". Xinhua General News. Retrieved August 2, 2012. 
  302. ^ Lianshou, Chen. "Topic 2.1 Observing and forecasting rainfall". Fifth International Workshop on Tropical Cyclones. Retrieved August 4, 2012. 
  303. ^ "Typhoon Sinlaku Central emergency operation center No.12". Central emergency operation center. 2008-09-16. Retrieved 2009-01-13. 
  304. ^ Chiu Yu-Tzu (July 20, 2005). "Haitang fizzles out, leaves Taiwan wet". Taipei Times. Retrieved April 11, 2010. 
  305. ^ Padgett, Gary. "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary: November 2004". Retrieved 2012-06-10. 
  306. ^ "Agricultural losses from Typhoon Parma total NT$29.5 million". Taiwan News. 2009-10-06. Retrieved 2009-10-06. 
  307. ^ Thailand Meteorological Department (November 28, 2013). "Member Report: Thailand". ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee: 8th Integrated Workshop/2nd TRCG Forum. ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee. p. 9. Archived from the original on November 29, 2013. Retrieved February 4, 2014. 
  308. ^ Padgett, Gary. "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary November 2004". Retrieved June 5, 2012. 
  309. ^ Tonga Meteorological Services (April 9, 2009). Cyclone Lin (Meteorological Report). Tongan Ministry of Transport. http://www.met.gov.to/index_files/meteorological%20report%20tc_lin.pdf. Retrieved June 7, 2012.
  310. ^ Woodroffe, Colin D. (1983). "The Impact of Cyclone Isaac on the Coast of Tonga". Pacific Science (University of Hawaii) 37 (3): 181–210. ISSN 0030-8870. hdl:10125/675. 
  311. ^ "Tonga cyclone brings 2 weeks of rain in one day". Matangi Tonga Magazine — Pacific Islands report (Pacific Islands Development Program/East-West Center). February 16, 2012. Retrieved June 7, 2012. 
  312. ^ Tonga Meteorological Services (March 30, 2006). Cyclone Vainau (Meteorological Report). Ministry of Civil Aviation. Archived from the original on June 7, 2012. http://www.met.gov.to/index_files/tc_vaianu_report_2006.pdf. Retrieved June 7, 2012.
  313. ^ Tonga Meteorology & Coast Watch Services (February 11, 2012). Tropical Cyclone "Cyril" (Meteorological report). Ministry of Transport. Archived from the original on February 12, 2012. http://www.met.gov.to/index_files/TC_Cyril_report.pdf. Retrieved June 7, 2012.
  314. ^ Tonga Meteorology & Coast Watch Services (January 21, 2011). Tropical Cyclone "Wilma" (Meteorological report). Ministry of Transport. p. 3. Archived from the original on June 7, 2012. http://www.met.gov.to/index_files/tc%20wilma%20report.pdf. Retrieved June 7, 2012.
  315. ^ "Review of the 2006-07 & 2007-08 Tropical Cyclone Seasons (Tonga)". World Meteorological Organization. 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  316. ^ Central Pacific Hurricane Center. Tropical Cyclones During the Years 1900-1952 (Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/1900-52.php. Retrieved 2007-01-26.
  317. ^ Roth, David M.; Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. "Remains of Paul" (GIF). Tropical Cyclone Point Maxima. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved 2007-12-28. 
  318. ^ Longworth, W. Mike (1988). Final report on Tropical cyclone Bola ; 26 February - 4 March, 1988 (Climatological Publication No. 23). Vanuatu Meteorological Service. http://www.pacificdisaster.net/pdnadmin/data/original/JM_DM518b_VUT_1988_final_report_on_cycone_Bola.pdf.
  319. ^ Oates, Sue (September 3, 2000). "The South Pacific and southeast Indian Ocean tropical cyclone season 1998–99". Australian Meteorological Magazine, (Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Journal) (Australian: Bureau of Meteorology) (49): 225, 235 – 237. Archived from the original on February 18, 2012. 
  320. ^ Vanuatu Tropical Cyclone Warning Centre (2011). Tropical Cyclone Season Report 2010 to 2011. Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department. http://www.meteo.gov.vu/VMSLinks/Publications/tabid/179/Default.aspx. Retrieved May 16, 2012.
  321. ^ a b c d e f Terry, James P. (2007). "Chapter 5 - Meteorological conditions". Tropical cyclones: climatology and impacts in the South Pacific. Springer. pp. 75–77. ISBN 978-0-387-71542-1. Retrieved August 18, 2011. 
  322. ^ Padgett, Gary. "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary February 2004". Archived from the original on May 16, 2012. Retrieved May 16, 2012. 
  323. ^ Pasch, Richard J. (November 22, 1993). "Casualty and Damage Statistics" (GIF). Preliminary Report: Tropical Storm Bret - 4–11 August 1993. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved January 17, 2007. 
  324. ^ a b c "Typhoon Committee Country report 2007: Vietnam". Vietnam Hydro meteorological Service. World Meteorological Organization. November 19, 2007. Retrieved June 5, 2010. 
  325. ^ a b c "Typhoon Committee Country report 2009: Vietnam". Vietnam Hydro meteorological Service. World Meteorological Organization. January 25, 2010. Retrieved June 5, 2010. 
  326. ^ International Children Assistance Network. VIETNAM: SUMMARY REPORT ON THE TYPHOON NO.6 - XANGSANE. Retrieved on 2008-03-23.
  327. ^ Tuoi Tre (October 19, 2009). "Tropical low triggers heavy rains, floods in central Vietnam". Thanh Nien Daily. Retrieved November 3, 2009. [dead link]
  328. ^ "The Role in Local Institutions in Reducing Vulnerability to Recurrent Natural Disasters and in Sustainable Livelihoods Development". Food and Agriculture Organization. March 14, 2008. Retrieved June 5, 2010. 

External links[edit]