List of women in the Heritage Floor
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This list documents all 999 mythical, historical and notable women who are displayed on the tiles of the Heritage Floor as part of Judy Chicago's The Dinner Party art installation. The names appear as they are spelled on the floor.
|Abella of Salerno||Flourished c. 1350||Salerno, Italy||Trotula||Taught medicine at Schola Medica Salernitana, focusing on embryology, and published two treatises.|
|Abigail||Flourished c. 965 BC||Israel||Judith||Earliest female pacifist in biblical record. Her husband defied King David and to avoid war, she went behind her husband's back and prepared food for David, in order to keep the peace. Her husband died from the shock of her actions, and she would go on to become the third wife of David.|
|Abigail Adams||1744||Massachusetts, United States||Anne Hutchinson||Abolitionist, women's education advocate, wife of John Adams.|
|Adela of Blois||c. 1067||France||Eleanor of Aquitaine||Filled as regent while her husband, Stephen Henry, participated in the First Crusade.|
|Adela Zamudio-Ribero||1854||Cochabamba, Bolivia||Virginia Woolf||Poet, intellectual and founder of the Bolivian feminist movement.|
|Adelaide||931||France||Theodora||Empress of the Holy Roman Empire.|
|Adelaide Labille-Guiard||1749||France||Artemisia Gentileschi||Portrait painter, member of the Académie Royale, women's education advocate.|
|Adelaide of Susa||c. 1016||Italy||Eleanor of Aquitaine||Philanthropist, heiress, countess of Savoy. She also led an army to defend Turin.|
|Adelberger||8th century||Italy||Trotula||Physician, member of the Guild of Lay Healers. Possibly Adelperga, daughter of Desiderius, who fought against Charlemagne. Little to no information is easily available about the lay healer, Adelberger.|
|Adelheid Popp||1869||Vienna, Austria||Susan B. Anthony||Leader of the Austrian Socialist Women's Movement, served in Austrian government.|
|Eudocia||c. 400||Athens; Jerusalem||Theodora||Philanthropist, politician, poet, was an Orthodox Christian who fought for the protection of Jews and pagans|
|Eudoxia||380||Constantinople||Theodora||Empress of Byzantium; wife of Arcadius whose political work she criticized and heavily influenced.|
|Aemilia||c. 300||Gaul||Hypatia||Poet and physician, rejected marriage as it was a hindrance to her career. Wrote books about gynecology and obstetrics.|
|Æthelburg||c. 673||England||Theodora||Queen of Wessex alongside husband King Ine of Wessex. Fought battles alongside Ine. In 728 they relinquished the crown to her brother and lived amongst the poor in Rome.|
|Ethelberga||c. 614||England||Hrosvitha||Daughter of Æthelberht of Kent and Bertha of Kent. After her husband, King Edwin of Northumbria, died, she founded the first Benedictine nunnery in England.|
|Æthelflæd||869||England||Theodora||Daughter of Alfred the Great, she led troops against the Vikings. After her husband, Æthelred died, she became the sole ruler of Mercia.|
|Agatha||c. 235||Sicily||Hypatia||Rejected the advances of Roman military officials and was tortured by having her breasts cut off, then, she was sentenced to burn at the stake but was saved by an earthquake. She died in prison and became a saint in the Catholic faith. She is the patron saint of breast cancer patients.|
|Aglaonice||Between 2nd and 4th century BC||Greece||Aspasia||Believed to be the first woman astronomer. She could predict lunar eclipses and was accused of sorcery; as people believed her ability to predict was actually the ability to create the eclipses.|
|Agnes d'Harcourt||13th century||France||Hildegarde of Bingen||Abbess of the Abbey of Longchamp and author. She wrote the first biography about Saint Isabel, whom she also served as personal assistant to.|
|Agnes||Flourished c. 1184||Germany||Hrosvitha||Abbess of St. Mary's in Quedlinburg, where fine needlework and weavings were created, as well as manuscript illustrations. Agnes encouraged artistic creation and supported a healthy art industry with her nuns' creations.|
|Agnes||1211||Bohemia||Hildegarde of Bingen||Former Bohemian princess who founded the Poor Clares religious order, an abbey, and a hospital. Canonized in 1989, she is the patron saint of Bohemia.|
|Agnes of Poitou||c. 1024||France||Eleanor of Aquitaine||Second wife of Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor; she governed the empire until her son, Henry IV came of age to rule. She opposed Pope Gregory VII and helped to elect Cadalus, her son, to throne. He was kidnapped, and as ransom to save his life, she resigned as regent and remained the rest of her life in a convent.|
|Agnes of Dunbar||1312||Scotland||Christine de Pisan||Known as "Black Agnes," she successfully defended her family's castle while her husband, Patrick V, Earl of March, was at war, in 1337.|
|Agnes Sampson||Scotland||Petronilla de Meath||A healer, she was a chief witness at the North Berwick witch trials. She was tortured, and forced to confess to conspiring with 200 other women to work with the devil to try to kill King James VI. She was found guilty and executed in 1591.|
|Agnes Smedley||1892||United States||Virginia Woolf||Journalist, who traveled to Berlin in 1920 and helped opened Germany's first birth control clinic. She continued to travel the world, seeing human and political rights violations first hand. She wrote numerous books, including an autobiography and coverage on China during World War II.|
|Agnès Sorel||c. 1422||France||Isabella d'Este||Mistress of King Charles VII of France and the first to be publicly acknowledged. All four of their children were also acknowledged and she died of dysentery at age 28, but some believe she was poisoned.|
|Agnes Waterhouse||c 1503||England||Petronilla de Meath||She was the first woman executed for witchcraft in England.|
|Agnodice||c 505||Greece||Aspasia||The first female gynecologist. She disguised herself as a man in order to go to medical school. She became a gynecologist, and when male doctors realized women preferred her services, they charged her with malpractice. She outed herself, and they tried to pass a law prohibiting women to practice medicine. The law was eventually changed, due to women speaking out, until the 12th century AD.|
|Agrippina I||c 14 BC||Rome||Marcella||Married Germanicus and accompanied him into battle during wartime. After his death, she became a voice representing the political struggle of Rome, and her and her two teenage sons were accused of trying to over throw Tiberius and they were eventually exiled.|
|Agrippina II||15 AD||Rome||Marcella||Julia Agrippina, Roman noble women, the wife of the emperor Claudius and mother of Nero, who effectively ruled the empire for two decades through her influence over both her husband and son.|
|Aisha||12th century||Spain||Hrosvitha||Spanish poet whom presented her work at the Royal Academy of Córdoba, Andalusia.|
|Ajysyt||Mythical||Siberia||Primordial Goddess||The Siberian goddess of birth.|
|Albertine Necker de Saussure||1766||France||Emily Dickinson||The cousin of writer Germaine de Staël, whom she collaborated frequently with and wrote about. Women's rights advocate and supporter of physical education for girls.|
|Aleksandra Kollantay||1872||Russia||Margaret Sanger||Her surname is commonly spelled Kollontai. Women's rights activist, and socialist. She fled Russia in 1905 and lived in Germany, advocating women's issues. After the 1917 Revolution she returned to Russia and was elected Commissar of Social Welfare.|
|Alessandra Giliani||1307||Italy||Isabella d'Este||She invented a way to draw blood from veins and arteries of cadavers, and then replaced the blood with fluid dyes. These dyes allowed the veins to remain marked for students to study. She died suddenly at age 19. to make them more visible. She was a medical illustrator and assistant to Mondino de Liuzzi.|
|Aletta Jacobs||1854||Netherlands||Susan B. Anthony||The first woman to graduate from a Dutch university and the first female physician in the Netherlands. She was also a women's rights advocate and translated Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Women and Economics into Dutch, helping spread feminist ideals through the country. After World War I she created the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom.|
|Alexandra of Jerusalem||139 BC||Judea||Boadaceia||Took over the throne of Judea after the death of her husband, Alexander Jannaeus, in 76 BC. She was a peacekeeper in the region and led Judea into a prosperous period during her rule. Upon her death in 67 BC, civil war began immediately as her son came to the throne.|
|Alexandra van Grippenberg||c. 1857||Finland||Susan B. Anthony||An early advocate for temperance and women's rights. Established a branch of the International Council of Women in Finland.|
|Alfonsina Storni||1892||Argentina||Virginia Woolf||Storni was a poet, actress, educator and feminist. She founded the Argentine Society of Writers. She had breast cancer, which moved to her throat. Failed treatments curbed her interest in further treatment, and she went to the ocean and killed herself by walking into the water.|
|Alice Kyteler||c. 1324||Ireland||Petronilla de Meath||She was called the Witch of Kilkenny, and was one of the earliest women in Ireland to be accused of witchcraft. All of her husbands died during marriage, leaving her wealthy, and she was accused of murdering them. She was able to escape further accusations of witchcraft due to her aristocratic connections and escaped to England in 1325.|
|Alice Milliat||1884||France||Elizabeth Blackwell||She founded the Fédération Sportive Féminine Internationale and launched the Women's World Games, also called the Women's Olympics. The WWG led to the Olympic Committee to open up track-and-field events at the 1928 games to women.|
|Alice Paul||1885||United States||Susan B. Anthony||One of the most important leaders in the American suffragist movement, she wrote the Equal Rights Amendment and founded the National Woman's Party in the United States.|
|Alice Pike Barney||1857||United States||Natalie Barney||The mother of Natalie Barney, she was an advocate for the arts, an artist, and a philanthropist. She hosted salon evenings, with the who's who of Washington, D.C.'s society. She gave her home, fully intact, to the Smithsonian Institution, who proceeded to sell it and its contents.|
|Alice Samuel||England||Petronilla de Meath||As an elderly woman, she was accused of being a witch by the children of her employer. Her trial was held in 1593, and she was hung, along with two relatives, as the results of the children's testimony.|
|Alice Stone Blackwell||1857||United States||Susan B. Anthony||Daughter of Lucy Stone, she edited the Woman's Journal and assisted with the formation of the National American Woman Suffrage Association.|
|Aliénor de Poitiers||Flourished late 15th century||France||Christine de Pisan||An author, she wrote Les honneurs de la cour, a book about court ritual and etiquette for all social classes. She was described as the Emily Post of the 15th century.|
|Alison Rutherford||1712||Scotland||Mary Wollstonecraft||A lyricist, Rutherford moved to Edinburgh in 1753 after becoming a widow and hung out in circles of Scotland's literary elite. She wrote a version of the Scottish folk song Flowers of the Forest.|
|Almucs de Castelnau||c. 1140||France||Eleanor of Aquitaine||She was a French troubadour.|
|Aloara||Italy||Trotula||After the death of her husband, Pandolf, in 981, she rules Capua until her death in 992.|
|Alpis de Cudot||c. 1156||France||Hildegarde of Bingen||Cudot, who suffered from leprosy, had visions incited by her illness. Often religious in nature, one vision led her to believe that the earth was flat. As she promoted the concept, people did not believe her. She was canonized in the 19th century.|
|Althea Gibson||1927||United States||Elizabeth Blackwell||The first African American woman to compete in the Wimbledon Championships and the US Open. She went on to play golf, and became the first African American woman to participate in the Ladies Professional Golf Association.|
|Alukah||Mythical||Canaan||Kali||A succubus or vampire, Alukah may be associated with Lilith.|
|Amat-Mamu||Flourished c. 1750 BC||Babylonia||Ishtar||She was a priestess and temple scribe in Sippar.|
|Amelia Earhart||1897||United States||Elizabeth Blackwell||Aviator and women's rights activist.|
|Amelia Holst||1758||Germany||Susan B. Anthony||Her name is actually spelled Amalia Holst. The German counterpart of Mary Wollstonecraft, she was an outspoken feminist and educator. She wrote the first book in German arguing for women's educational opportunities.|
|Amelia Villa||1900||Bolivia||Elizabeth Blackwell||The first female physician from Bolivia.|
|Amy Beach||1867||United States||Ethel Smyth||American pianist and first female composer in the United States.|
|Ana Betancourt||1832||Cuba||Sacajawea||She was a mambisa, and was one of the first generation Cuban feminists.|
|Anaconda||1474||Haiti||Sacajawea||The correct spelling of her name is Anacaona. She was a Taino chief, a poet and a songwriter.|
|Anahita||Mythical||Persia||Ishtar||Virgin goddess of fertility, love and war.|
|Anaïs Nin||1903||Europe, United States||Virginia Woolf||Author and diarist. One of the first female authors to write erotica.|
|Anastasia||Flourished c. 1400||France||Christine de Pisan||Manuscript illumination artist.|
|Anastasia||Flourished early 4th century AD||Rome||Marcella||She was arrested and prosecuted in the last wave of Christian persecutions, dying in 304. She was sainted in the 5th century.|
|Anath||Mythical||Canaan||Ishtar||Goddess of love and warfare.|
|Anasandra||Flourished 3rd century BC||Greece||Sappho||The correct spelling of her name is Anaxandra. She was a painter.|
|Andrea Villarreal||1881||Mexico; United States||Sacajawea||Teacher, poet, labor organizer and feminist who co-published La Mujer Moderna (English: The Modern Woman), with her sister.|
|Angela Merici||c. 1474||Italy||Christine de Pisan||Founded the Ursulines. She was canonized in 1807.|
|Angelberga||Flourished in 9th century.||Italy||Trotula||Empress of the Holy Roman Empire, co-ruled with her husband, Louis II of Italy. In 869 became abbess of San Sisto in Piacenza, which she had founded.|
|Angéle de la Barthe||c. 1230||France||Petronilla de Meath||A noblewoman, she was accused of witchcraft and under torture she confessed. She was convicted and burned alive. The city of Toulouse has no records of her trial and historians question the validity of the story.|
|Angelica Balabanoff||1878||Ukraine||Margaret Sanger||Russian socialist writer. She moved to Italy and became a leading member of the Italian Socialist Party then moved back to Russia to become active in the Bolshevik Party and worked with Emma Goldman, Lenin and Leon Trotsky.|
|Angelica Kauffman||1741||Switzerland-Italy||Artemisia Gentileschi||Italian painter and co-founder of the Royal Academy of Art.|
|Angelina Grimké||1805||United States||Sojourner Truth||Christian women's rights activist and abolitionist. Wrote the first tract in the United States about women's rights.|
|Angelique du Coudray||1712||France||Caroline Herschel||Court midwife to Louis XV of France who trained around 4,000 poor French women as midwives.|
|Ageltrude Benevento||9th century||Italy||Trotula||Holy Roman Empress. Her name was actually just Ageltrude; Benevento is a province in Italy.|
|Ann Lee||1736||United States||Anne Hutchinson||Joined the Shakers and moved to America after being placed in an English prison for a vision which influenced the Shaker belief system about celibacy. She went to jail again in New York for treason after refusing to pledge allegiance. She was called "Mother Ann" and preached New England. Her work inspired her followers to found the United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing.|
|Anna Dalassena Comnena||1025||Byzantine||Theodora||Byzantine noblewoman and mother to emperor Alexios I Komnenos. Ruled as empress during her son's absence in military campaigns.|
|Anna Comnena||1083||Byzantine||Wrote the Alexiad, which recounts the political and military history of the Byzantine empire under her father, Alexios I Komnenos|
|Anna Maria Schwägel||1729||Bavaria||Petronilla de Meath||Schwägel or Schwegelin was an alleged German (Bavarian) witch, who long considered the last person to be executed for witchcraft in Germany. It is now believed she died forgotten in prison.|
|Anne Ella Carroll||1815||United States||Sojourner Truth||American politician, pamphleteer and lobbyist who served as an advisor to Abraham Lincoln.|
|Anne of Beaujeu|
|Anne of Brittany|
|Annie Jump Cannon|
|Annie Smith Peck|
|Annie Wood Besant|
|Antigone||Legendary||Greece||Character in play by Sophocles|
|Antiope||13th century BC||Scythia||Amazon warrior queen|
|Antonia Padoani Bembo|
|Aphrodite||Mythical||Greece||Goddess of love and beauty|
|Arachne||Legendary||Greece||inventor of woven cloth and net making|
|Aretaphila of Cyrene|
|Arete of Cyrene|
|Ariadne||Mythical||Crete||Helped Theseus overthrow Minos and married him.|
|Arinitti||Mythical||Anatolia||Main deity, queen of Hatti, Heaven and earth. Also known as Arinna.|
|Artemis||Mythical||Greece||agricultural deity, moon goddess, watcher of forests ... many meanings in many cultures|
|Asherah||Mythical||Canaan||Goddess of sexuality and procreation|
|Ashtoreth||Mythical||Hebrew||Goddess of fertility and reproduction|
|Aspasia of Athens|
|Atalanta||Legendary||Greece||hunter, warrior, sportswoman|
|Athene||Mythical||Greece||virgin goddess, warrior and patron of culture, deity of artists and architects, weavers, protector of Athens|
|Atira||Mythical||North America||Goddess of the Earth in Pawnee mythology|
|Baba Petkova||1826||Bulgaria||Pioneer of women's education. Founded the first girls' schools in Bulgaria.|
|Babe Didrikson||June 26, 1911||United States||Excelled at multiple sports in the early-to-mid twentieth century. Olympic gold medalist; in the top ten of multiple "Greatest Athlete" lists.|
|Baranamtarra||c. 2500 BC||Sumer||Co-ruled w/husband city of Lagash, early philanthropist|
|Barbe de Verrue|
|Baroness de Beausoleil|
|Basilea||Mythical||Ancient Greece||Boadaceia||The first queen of the legendary Kingdom of Atlantis in ancient Greek folk tradition.|
|Beatrice de Die|
|Bel-Shalti-Narrar||c. 540 BC||Babylonia||high priestess|
|Bernarda de la Cerda|
|Bertha of England|
|Bertha of Sulzbach|
|Bertha von Suttner|
|Bertha of France|
|Bettina von Arnim|
|Blanche of Castile|
|Blodeuwedd||Mythical||Wales||Goddess of the white flower|
|Bona-Dea||Mythical||Rome||"Good Goddess", procreation, agriculture|
|Bridget Tott||1610||Denmark||Produced the first translations of Roman Classical literature into Danish.|
|Brigid||Mythical||Celtic Ireland||Fertility goddess|
|Britomartis||Mythical||Crete||Moon goddess, huntress, ruler of women's societies|
|Buto||Mythical||Egypt||Snake Goddess||Also called Wadjet. The patron and protector of Lower Egypt.|
|Camilla||Legendary||Rome||hunter, warrior, Diana avenged her death|
|Cardea||Mythical||Rome||Goddess of changing seasons|
|Carrie Chapman Catt|
|Cassandra||Legendary||Greece||Apollo fell in love with her, among other tales|
|Caterina van Hemessen|
|Catherine de Rambouillet|
|Catherine of Aragon|
|Catherine of Siena|
|Catherine II (The Great)|
|Cerridwen||Mythical||Wales||barley and moon goddess/life/death|
|Charlotte Perkins Gilman|
|Christina of Sweden|
|Circe||Legendary||Greece||Odyssey, turned men into swine, lived alone on her island|
|Clare of Assisi|
|Claudine de Tencin|
|Clytemnestra||Legendary||Greece||Sister of Helen of Troy, killed family|
|Coatlicue||Mythical||Mesoamerica||Aztec earth goddess|
|Corinna of Tanagra|
|Sibyl of Cumae||c. 500 BC||Rome||Prophet|
|Cybele||Mythical||Phrygia||Mountain mother, personification of earth|
|Danu (Irish goddess)||Mythical||Celtic Ireland||Goddess of plenty|
|Demeter||Mythical||Greece||Goddess of agriculture|
|Dido||c. 850 BC||North Africa||Phoenician princess, founded Carthage|
|Dorothea von Rodde|
|Douceline de Digne|
|Edna St. Vincent Millay|
|Egee||12th century BC||Libya||Leader of women's army|
|Elisabeth de La Guerre|
|Eliza Lucas Pinckney|
|Elizabeth Barrett Browning|
|Elizabeth Cady Stanton|
|Elizabeth Garrett Anderson|
|Elizabeth Gurley Flynn|
|Elizabeth of Schönau|
|Emilie du Chatelet|
|Encheduanna||c. 2050 BC||Sumer||earliest recorded poet|
|Ereshkigal||Mythical||Sumer||Goddess of death|
|Europa||Mythical||Crete||Carried off to Crete by Zeus, married King of Crete, Minos.|
|Eurynome||Mythical||Greece||Goddess of all things|
|Eurypyle||c. 1760 BC||Near East||Leader of women's expedition against Babylon|
|Flavia Julia Helena|
|Fortuna||Mythical||Rome||Goddess of turning wheel, divination, fertility|
|Frances Power Cobbe|
|Francesca of Salerno|
|Francisca de Lebrija|
|Françoise de Maintenon|
|Freya||Mythical||Norway||Goddess of love, marriage, fertility|
|Frija||Mythical||Germany||Goddess of marriage, love and home|
|Gaia (mythology)||Mythical||Greece||Earth mother|
|George Eliot||22 November 1819||England||Author, translator, journalist. Wrote Middlemarch, Silas Marner, Daniel Deronda, Adam Bede, among much else.|
|Germaine de Staël|
|Gertrude of Hackeborn|
|Gertrude of Nivelles|
|Gertrude the Great|
|Gisela of Kerzenbroeck|
|Giustina Renier Michiel|
|Glueckel von Hameln|
|Hannahanna||Mythical||Hittite Empire||"grandmother" major deity|
|Harlind||d.750||Belgium||Saint and Benedictine abbess, created illuminated manuscript of the Christian Gospels with her sister Relindis of Maaseik|
|Reinhild||d.750||Belgium||Saint and Benedictine abbess, created illuminated manuscript of the Christian Gospels with her sister Herlindis of Maaseik|
|Harriet Beecher Stowe|
|Hartense Lepaute||1723–1788||France||Mathematician and astronomer. Full name is Nicole-Reine Lepaute, known as Hortense Lepaute.|
|Hashop||c. 2420 BC||Egypt||Queen|
|Hathor||Mythical||Egypt||mother of sun god|
|Hecate||Mythical||Greece||goddess of the moon and underworld|
|Hecuba||Legendary||Greece||In Iliad, Queen of Troy|
|Hel (being)||Mythical||Norway||goddess of underworld|
|Helen of Troy||Legendary||Greece||Husband's attempts to lure her back started Trojan War|
|Hera||Mythical||Greece||chief feminine deity, married to Zeus|
|Hermine Veres||1815–1895||Hungary||Educator and feminist, founded the first secondary school for girls in Hungary|
|Herrad of Landsberg|
|Hersilia||c. 800 BC||Rome||Hero of the Rape of the Sabine Women|
|Hestiaea||Alexandrea Troas near modern Turkey||Greek grammarian and Homeric scholar, influenced Strabo's Homeric scholarship|
|Hiera||c. 1184 BC||Asia Minor||General of army of Mysian women who fought in Trojan War|
|Hilda of Whitby|
|Hippolyte||13th century BC||Scythia||Co-ruler with sisters of Amazon capital of Themiscyra|
|Hortensia von Moos||1659||Switzerland||Anna van Schurman||Swiss scholar who had extensive knowledge of many subjects, including theology and medicine. Known for her writings on the status of women and is regarded as a precursor by the Swiss women's movement.|
|Ida B. Wells|
|Ilmatar||Mythical||Finland||Virgin daughter of air|
|Iltani||c. 1685 BC||Babylonia||wealthy priestess|
|Inanna||Mythical||Sumer||Queen of heaven|
|Irkalla||Mythical||Babylonia||Babylonian goddess of the Underworld|
|Isabel de Guevara|
|Isabel of France|
|Isabella Bird Bishop|
|Isabella de Forz|
|Isabella de Joya Roseres|
|Isabella I of Castile|
|Isabella of Lorraine|
|Isis||Mythical||Egypt||Mother of Heaven/Queen of all Gods|
|Jane of Sutherland|
|Jeanne de Montfort|
|Jeanne de Pompadour|
|Jeanne Louise Farrenc|
|Jeanne Manon Roland|
|Jeanne Marie Guyon|
|Jeanne of Navarre|
|Joan of Arc|
|Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez|
|Julia Margaret Cameron|
|Juliana of Norwich|
|Julie de Lespinasse|
|Kate Campbell Hurd-Mead|
|Khuwyt||c. 1950 BC||Egypt||One of first female musicians recorded in history|
|Kubaba||c. 2573 BC||Sumer||former innkeeper and beer seller, came to throne, founded 3rd dynasty, queen|
|Lampedo||13th century BC||Greece||Daughters of Mars with sister, Amazon queens|
|Laura Battiferri Ammanati|
|Leela of Granada|
|Leoparda||late 4th–early 5th century,||Rome||Physician|
|Louise Le Gras|
|Lucretia||c. 600 BC||Etruria||Killed herself after being raped due to fear of being accused as an adulteress|
|Luisa de Carvajal|
|Lysistrata||Legendary||Greece||Heroine of the play|
|Macha||Mythical||Celtic Ireland||Fertility goddess|
|Madderakka||Mythical||Lapland||Goddess of childbirth|
|Madeleine de Demandolx|
|Madeleine de Sable|
|Madeleine de Scudéry|
|Mahaut of Artois|
|Makeda||b. 1020 BC||North Africa||Queen of Sheba|
|Mama Oclo||c. 12th century||Peru||Co-founder of Inca Dynasty|
|Margaret of Lincoln|
|Margaret Fell Fox|
|Margaret Murray Washington|
|Margaret of Austria|
|Marguerite of Bourgogne|
|Margaret of Desmond|
|Margaret of Porète|
|Margaret of Scandinavia|
|Margaret of Navarre|
|Maria Antonia Walpurgis|
|Maria Christine de Lalaing|
|Maria de Abarca|
|Maria de Agreda|
|Maria de Coste Blanche|
|Maria de Refugio Garcia|
|Maria de Ventadorn|
|Maria de Zozoya|
|Maria Luisa Sanchez|
|Maria Montoya Martinez|
|Maria Sibylla Merian|
|Maria Theresia von Paradis|
|Marie de France|
|Marie de l'Incarnation|
|Marie de Lafayette|
|Marie de Miramion|
|Marie de Sévigné|
|Marie de' Medici|
|Marie du Deffand|
|Maria Le Jars de Gournay|
|Marie of Champagne|
|Martesia||13th century BC||Greece||co-ruled with sister Lampedo|
|Martha of Bethany|
|Mary "Mother" Jones|
|Mary Ann Shadd Cary|
|Mary Baker Eddy|
|Mary Church Terrell|
|Mary Esther Harding|
|Mary Lou Williams|
|Mary Louise McLaughlin|
|Mary McLeod Bethune|
|Mary of Bethany|
|Mary of Hungary|
|Mary Shelley||1797||London||Mary Wollstonecraft||Author of Frankenstein and daughter of Mary Wollstonecraft.|
|Mary Wortley Montagu|
|Mathilda of Germany|
|Mathilde of Tuscany|
|Matilda of Flanders|
|Maude||877–968||Germany||Saint Matilda, Duchess Consort of Saxony and German Queen, founded several convents and a canonry|
|Mechthild of Hackeborn|
|Mechthild of Magdeburg|
|Medusa||c. 1290 BC||Greece||Leader of Gorgons, Amazon|
|Mentuhetop||c. 2300 BC||Egypt||Queen of 11th Dynasty at Thebes|
|Mercy Otis Warren|
|Millicent Garrett Fawcett|
|Morrigan||Mythical||Celtic Ireland||great queen|
|Myrine||13th century BC||Libya||Led 30,000 Libyan women to battle against Gorgons, another Amazon tribe|
|Nammu||Mythical||Sumer||"Controller of Primeval Waters"|
|Naqi (queen)||Could be Naqi'a-Zakutu, Assyrian queen c. 704-626|
|Nefertiti||c. 1300 BC||Egypt||Queen, wife of Akhenaten|
|Neith||Mythical||Egypt||Wove the world on her loom, virgin goddess|
|Nephthys||Mythical||Egypt||goddess of death|
|Nicaula||c. 980 BC||Ethiopia||Scholar, queen|
|Aruru||Mythical||Babylonia||Helped create humans out of clay|
|Ninhursaga||Mythical||Sumer||Mother of the Land|
|Ninon de l'Enclos|
|Ninti||Mythical||Sumer||healing deity, cured Enkin's rib, related to myth of Adam's rib|
|Nitocris||6th century BC||Assyria||Queen, 3rd pyramid at Giza|
|Nofret||c. 1900 BC||Egypt||Queen, wife of Sesostris II, "ruler of all women", progressive leader of Egyptian women's rights|
|Nut (goddess)||Mythical||Egypt||Goddess of the sky|
|Ofelia Uribe de Acosta|
|Olympe de Gouges|
|Omeciuatl||Mythical||Mesoamerica||Creator of spirit of human life|
|Orithya||13th century BC||Scythia||co-ruled with sisters Antiope and Hippolyte|
|Penthelia||Exact date uncertain,||Memphis, ancient Egypt||Sappho||an Egyptian priestess-musician who served the creator god Ptah, the god of fire, in the temple of Memphis Ancient Egypt. Some sources ascribe to her the true authorship of the Iliad and the Odyssey.|
|Penthesilea||d. 1187 BC||North Africa||last Amazon queen|
|Pernette Du Guillet|
|Kore||Mythical||Greece||Persephone, raped by Zeus, many stories|
|Phantasia||12th century BC||Egypt||storyteller, musician, poet|
|Philippa of Hainault|
|Praxagora||Legendary||Greece||Leader of group of cross dressing women in play by Aristophanes|
|Properzia de' Rossi|
|Puduchepa||c. 1280–1250 BC||Hittite Empire||Queen, priestess|
|Pythia||Legendary||Greece||Consulted by psychics in temple named after her|
|Python (mythology)||Mythical||Greece||Female serpent lived near temple of Delphi|
|Rahonem||Old Kingdom||Egypt||Queen, priestess, music leader|
|Rhea (mythology)||Mythical||Crete||earth mother|
|Rhea Silva||Legendary||Rome||priestess, mother of Romulus and Remus|
|Rosalia of Palermo|
|Rose de Burford|
|Sabina von Steinbach|
|Sarah of St. Gilles|
|Semiramis||9th century BCE||Assyria||Hatshepsut||Queen, one of two women to lead Babylon|
|Shibtu||c. 1700 BCE||Babylonia||Ishtar||Queen of Mari|
|Shub-Ad of Ur||c. 2500 BCE||Sumer||Ishtar||Queen of 1st Dynasty of Ur|
|Simone de Beauvoir|
|Sophie de Condorcet|
|Sophia of Mecklenburg|
|Sor Juana de la Cruz|
|Stephanie de Genlis|
|Stephanie de Montaneis|
|Susan la Flesche Piccotte|
|Tanaquil||c. 570 BC||Etruria||Roman queen, prophet, artist|
|Tanith||Mythical||Carthage||Ishtar||Goddess of heaven and the moon. Also spelled Tanit.|
|Tefnut||Mythical||Egypt||Goddess of dew and rain|
|Tellus Mater||Mythical||Rome||goddess of fecundity|
|Teresa de Cartagena|
|Tetisheri||c. 1650 BC||Egypt||Mother of the New Kingdom|
|Thalestris||c. 325 BC||Asia Minor||Amazon queen|
|The Furies||Mythical||Greece||killed Clytemnestra, among other tales|
|The Norns||Mythical||Norway||goddesses of fate|
|Theano||Flourished circa 550 B.C.||Ancient Greece||Aspasia||The pupil, and daughter or wife of Pythagoras. She directed Pythagoras's school after his death and is credited with writing the treatise on the Golden Mean.|
|Thecla||2nd century AD||Turkey||Saint Bridget||A saint of the early Christian Church, and a reported follower of Paul the Apostle.|
|Theoclea||flourished 6th century BC||Delphi in Ancient Greece||Aspasia||A Greek priestess, she was a tutor of the philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras.|
|Theodelinda||c. 570||Lombardy||Theodora||Queen of the Lombards she played a major role in establishing Nicene Christianity in Lombardy and Tuscany.|
|Theodora III||980||Byzantine Empire||Theodora||A Byzantine Empress who was the last of the Macedonian dynasty that ruled the Byzantine Empire for almost two hundred years, she was co-empress with her sister Zoe and then sole empress.|
|Theodora the Senatrix||c 870||Rome||Trotula||Theodora was a powerful Roman senatrix (female senator) during a period labeled the Pornocracy, or Rule of the Harlots (circa 904–963), by some later Roman Catholic scholars.|
|Theodora II||c. 815||Byzantine empire||Theodora||Theodora was the wife of Byzantine emperor Theophilus (ruled 829–842). She was canonized after her death for reversing the policy of Iconoclasm (prohibition on the worship of icons).|
|Theresa of Avila||1515||Ávila, Spain||Hildegarde of Bingen||A mystic and a major figure in the Catholic Church, she is credited as a leader of the Counter Reformation and with reviving religious spirit in Spain .|
|Theroigne de Mericourt||1762||France||Mary Wollstonecraft||A French woman who was a predominant figure in the French Revolution. An eloquent speaker, she delivered fiery orations in clubs, before the National Assembly, and in the streets.|
|Thoma||d 1127||Spain||Hrosvitha||Legal scholar and author of books on grammar.|
|Tiamat||Mythical||Babylonia||Primordial Goddess||The Chaos goddess in Babylonian mythology, Tiamat is a chaos monster, a primordial goddess of the salt water ocean, who mated with Abzû, the god of fresh water, to produce the first generation of deities.|
|Timarete||5th century BC||Ancient Greece||Sappho||An ancient Greek painter, the daughter of the painter Micon the Younger of Athens. According to Pliny the Elder, she "scorned the duties of women and practised her father's art." She is best known for a panel painting of the goddess of Diana that was kept at Ephesus.|
|Tituba||circa 1650||Massachusetts||Petronilla de Meath||Tituba was a 17th-century Carib Indian slave from Barbados or Guiana, belonging to Samuel Parris of Salem, Massachusetts. Tituba was one of the first three people accused of practicing witchcraft during the Salem witch trials which took place in 1692. Tituba confessed and implicated other women in the colony in order to save herself from execution. She was later sold by Parris and relocated outside of Salem.|
|Tiy||c. 1398 BC||Egypt||Hatshepsut||Queen of Egyptian pharaoh Amenhotep III. Her mummy was identified as The Elder Lady found in the Tomb of Amenhotep II. Amenhotep III seems to have relied on Tiy's political advice, being more interested in sports and the outdoors than in his pharaonic duties.|
|Tomyris||circa 530 BC||Central Asia||Boadaceia||A queen who reigned over the Massagetae, an Iranic people of Central Asia east of the Caspian Sea. She defeated the Persian king Cyrus II in war.|
|Tuchulcha||Mythical||Etruria||Kali||A half human, half donkey, daemon of the Etruscan underworld. She had a vulture's beak, wings, and hair made of serpents.|
|Tullia d'Aragona||c. 1510||Renaissance Italy||Isabella d'Este||An upper-class courtesan, author and philosopher, she published a Neoplatonic essay on the nature of love in which she insists on women's autonomy in romantic relationships.|
|Urraca||1151||Portugal||Trotula||A Portuguese infanta (princess), daughter of Afonso I, 1st King of Portugal and his wife Maud of Savoy. She married Ferdinand II of León. The marriage did not stop her father declaring war on her husband and this eventually led to the annulment of the marriage in 1175.|
|Ursley Kempe||c. 1525||England||Petronilla de Meath||An English woman accused of causing the death of three people and hung for witchcraft.|
|Valada||1001||Córdoba, Spain||Hrosvitha||A poet during Córdoba's golden age under Islamic rule, she hosted a vibrant literary salon. Her father's death when she was at the age of thirty gave her a rich legacy which allowed her to live independently and flout many of the conventions imposed on women of her time. She composed satirical, often caustic verse, much of it dedicated to her lover, the poet Ibn Zaydún.|
|The Valkyries||Mythical||Germany||Kali||Minor female deities, dressed as warriors, who conducted the souls of the most heroic German warriors after their deaths, to join Odin's army.|
|Vashti||Biblical, flourished c 450 BCE||Persia||Judith||Vashti is mentioned in the Old Testament Book of Esther as the wife of King Ahasuerus of Persia. The king boasted to other men that his wife was the most beautiful and he ordered her to appear naked before them. Vashti refused and was consequently banished from his household and possibly beheaded. The king took Esther as his wife in her place.|
|Veleda||Flourished circa A.D. 50||North Germany||Boadaceia||A celebrated virgin prophet of the Bructeri, a tribe from northern Germany. In A.D. 69/70, she correctly prophesied the initial successes of the Batavian Rebellion against Roman rule.|
|Vera Figner||1852||Russia||Margaret Sanger||Russian revolutionary and narodnik born in Kazan. She was leader of Narodnaya Volya (the People's Will), a revolutionary socialist organization which aimed to depose the state regime through terrorism and was involved in the planning of several terrorist acts, including the assassination of Czar Alexander II in 1881.|
|Vera Zasulich||1849||Russia||Margaret Sanger||Russian Marxist writer and revolutionary. In 1883, she helped found the Liberation of Labor, the first Russian Marxist group. Later, she served on the editorial board of Iskra, a revolutionary Marxist newspaper. After the Russian Social Democratic Party split in 1903, Zasulich became a leader of the Menshevik faction.|
|Veronica Gambara||1485||Italy||Isabella d'Este||Italian poet, stateswoman and political leader. Married to the lord of Correggio, after his death in 1518 she took charge of the state as well as the education of her two children.|
|Vesta||Mythical||Rome circa 753 B.C.– A.D. 476||Sophia||The virgin goddess of the hearth, home, and family in Roman religion.|
|Victoria Woodhull||1838||USA||Susan B. Anthony||American leader of the woman's suffrage movement. She was a radical who advocated the eight-hour day, a progressive income tax, profit sharing, and social welfare programs. In 1872, she ran for president of the United States.|
|Vida Goldstein||1869||Australia||Susan B. Anthony||A pioneering Australian feminist politician who campaigned for women's suffrage and social reform. She stood for parliament five times, was a vocal opponent of capitalism and the White Australia policy, and a staunch pacifist, campaigning for peace during World War I.|
|Violante||c1365||France||Eleanor of Aquitaine||French noblewoman who married John I of Aragon and became queen of the medieval Iberian kingdom of Aragon. John's ill-health, meant she wielded considerable power on his behalf. She transformed the Aragonese court into a center of culture, especially cultivating Provençal troubadours.|
|Virgin Mary||Biblical, New Testament||Galilee||Eleanor of Aquitaine||Identified in the New Testament and in the Quran as the mother of Jesus who conceived through divine intervention. Revered for centuries as the feminine aspect of the divine.|
|Virginia||c465 BCE||Rome||Sophia||Commonly known as Verginia, her honor killing by her father inspired political revolt in Rome which overthrew the decemviri ruling council and restored the republic.|
|Vita Sackville-West||1892||England||Virginia Woolf||Author, poet and gardener whose successful 50-year bisexual open marriage scandalised society.|
|Vittoria Colonna||1490||Italy||Isabella d'Este||Italian noblewoman and poet, considered the most influential woman of the Italian Renaissance and friend and muse to Michelangelo.|
|Wanda Landowska||1879||Polish, later naturalized French||Ethyl Smyth||Musical prodigy who's harpsichordist performances, teaching, recordings and writings played a large role in reviving the popularity of the harpsichord in the early 20th century.|
|Wetamoo||c. 1635||Wampanoag people, Rhode Island||Sacajawea||Native American noblewoman whose life was recorded in the 1653 children's historical novel The Royal Diaries'|
|Willa Cather||1873||United States||Virginia Woolf||American author who famous for her novels of frontier life on the Great Plains.|
|Witch of Endor||c 1000 BCE||Kingdom of Israel||Judith||A woman seer who called up the ghost of the recently deceased prophet Samuel, at the demand of King Saul.|
|Xochitl||c. 11th century AD||Mesoamerica||Sacajawea||Wife of Tecpancaltzin, Toltec King from 990 to 1040. She helped him forge the Toltec state and legend says she died in battle.|
|Yekaterina Breshkovskaya||1844||Russia||Margaret Sanger||Russian socialist revolutionary nicknamed The "Babushka" (Little Grandmother) of the Russian Revolution.|
|Yekaterina Dashkova||1743||Russia||Mary Wollstonecraft||The closest female friend of Empress Catherine the Great and a major figure of the Russian Enlightenment. One of the best educated women of her time.|
|Yolanda of Aragon (sic)||1384||France||Isabella d'Este||Chicago's description fits Yolande of Aragon, an important figure in French history who supported Joan of Arc's army financially.|
|Yvette||1158||Belgium||Hildegarde of Bingen||A religious figure and prophet in the town of Huy, Belgium|
|Zenobia||240||Palmyrene Empire||Boadaceia||Queen of the breakaway Palmyrene Empire in Roman Syria. She led a revolt against Rome expanding her empire, by conquering Egypt and expelling the Roman prefect. She ruled over Egypt until 274, when she was defeated and taken as a hostage to Rome by the Emperor Aurelian.|
|Zipporah||c. 1500 BCE||Hebrew||Judith||Zipporah or Tzipora is described in the Book of Exodus as the wife of Moses. She is described as dark skinned, possibly African. She came to Moses' aid by speedily circumcising their son at a critical juncture.|
|Siva||Mythical||Russia||Primordial Goddess||Slavic goddess of life, love, and fertility. Commonly spelled Živa.|
|Zoe||c. 978||Constantinople||Theodora||Reigned as co-empress of the Byzantine Empire with her sister Theodora from April 19 to June 11, 1042|
|Zora Neale Hurston||1891||United States||Sojourner Truth||Harlem Renaissance writer|
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- : Anna Maria Schwagel Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Accessed March 2012
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- Penthelia Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Penthelia. Accessed April 2012
- Theano Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor, Brooklyn Museum. Accessed June 2012
- Thecla Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor, Brooklyn Museum. Accessed June 2012
- Theoclea Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor, Brooklyn Museum. Accessed 14 February 2012
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- Theroigne de Mericourt Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Accessed April 2012.
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- Timarete Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Accessed April 2012.
- Tituba Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Accessed April 2012
- Tiy Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Accessed April 2012
- Tomyris Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Accessed April 2012
- Tuchulcha Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Accessed April 2012
- Tullia d'Aragona Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor. Accessed April 2012
- Urraca Brooklyn Museum Dinner, Party Heritage Floor. Accessed March 2012
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