625: Hind al-Hunnud is among fifteen women accompanying troops in a battle near Medina, singing songs to inspire warriors. She exults over the body of the man who killed her father, chews his liver, and makes jewellery from his skin and nails.
1087: Matilda of Tuscany personally leads a military expedition to Rome in an attempt to install Pope Victor, but the strength of the imperial counterattack soon convinced the pope to retire from the city.
1097: Florine of Burgundy participates in the first crusade with her spouse, and fell participating in actual combat by his side while their army was attacked and destroyed in Anatolia.
1130: Female Chinese general Liang Hongyu, wife of general Han Shizhong of the Song Dynasty, blocks the advance of the Jin army with her husband. Her drumming invigorated the Song army and rallied them to defeat the Jin.
1172-1218: Umadevi, consort of King Veera Ballala II, commanded Mysore armies against the rival Chalukyas on at least two occasions, allowing Bellala to concentrate on administrative matters and thus significantly contributing to the Hoysalas’ conquest of the Chalkyua at Kalyani (near present day Bidar).
1258: Doquz Khatun accompanies her husband Hulagu on campaigns. At the Sack of Baghdad in 1258, the Mongols massacred tens of thousands of inhabitants, but by the order of Doquz, the Christians were spared.
1261–1289: Reign of Indian queen Rudrama Devi. She leads her troops in battle, and may have been killed in battle in 1289.
1335: The Scots defeat a company led by the Count of Namur. Amongst the Count's casualties was a female lancer who had killed her opponent, Richard Shaw, at the same moment that he had killed her. Her gender was only discovered when the bodies were being stripped of their armor at the end of the engagement. "The chronicler Bower seems to have been at least as impressed by the rarity of two mounted soldiers simultaneously transfixing one another with their lances as with the fact that one of them was a woman."
1389: Frisian regent Foelke Kampana leads armies to assist her spouse Ocko Kenisna tom Brok, chief of Auricherland: after finding him dead on the battlefield, she returns to Aurich, and upon finding it taken by an enemy during her absence, she retakes it by military force
1429: Joan of Arc asserts that God has sent her to drive the English out of France, and is given a position in the French Royal army. She is supported by Yolande of Aragon, mother of Queen Marie d'Anjou (wife of King Charles VII).
^Hayward, John (1857). The Book of Religions: Comprising the Views, Creeds, Sentiments, Or Opinions of all the Principal Sects in the World, Particularly of All Christian Denominations in Europe and America to which are added Church and Missionary Statistics together with Biographical Sketches. Boston: Sanborn, Carter, Bazin and Company. p. 428.
^Hale, Sarah Josepha Buell (1853). Woman's Record: Or, Sketches of All Distinguished Women, from "The Beginning Till A.D. 1850, Arranged in Four Eras, with Selections from Female Writers of Every Age. Harper Brothers. p. 120.
^Peterson, Barbara Bennett, editor in chief; He Hong Fei; Wang Jiu; Han Tie; Zhang Guangyu; Associate editors (2000). Notable Women of China: Shang Dynasty to the Early Twentieth Century. M.E. Sharpe Inc., New York. p. 177. ISBN978-0-7656-0504-7.
^Hannoum, Abdelmajid (2001). Post-Colonial Memories: The Legend of the Kahina, a North African Heroine (Studies in African Literature). ISBN978-0-325-00253-8.
^Olsen, Kirstin (1994). Chronology of women's history. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 31. ISBN978-0-313-28803-6.
^Lindquist, Herman. Historien om Sverige ("History of Sweden"), Book (In Swedish).
^Ashley, Mike (1998). The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens. London: Robinson Publishing. p. 309.
^Golden, Peter (1980). Khazar Studies: An Historio-Philological Inquiry into the Origins of the Khazars. Budapest: Akademia Kiado.
^Regan, Geoffrey (2000). The Brassey's book of military blunders. Brassey's Inc, Dulles, Virginia. p. 68. ISBN1-57488-252-X.
^Bury,J.B. (1922). Cambridge Medieval History. Macmillan. Vol. III, p. 58; Blair, John; J. Willoughby Rosse (1856). Blair's Chronological Tables, Revised and Enlarged: Comprehending the Chronology and History of the World from the Earliest Times to the Russian Treaty of Peace, April 1856. H.G. Bohn, York Street, Convent Garden, London. p. 300.
^King, William C. (1902). Woman; Her Position, Influence, and Achievement Throughout the Civilized World. Her Biography and History. The King-Richardson co., Springfield, Massachusetts. p. 177.
This paper was presented at the Asian Studies on the Pacific Coast Conference, June 16–18, 1995, at Forest Grove, Oregon, U.S.A. Research for this project was facilitated by a grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. (Although the link is to a forum, the paper is posted in its full length there since it is not available online as it was never published. The following links are to papers and articles where the original paper by Jennifer W. Jay was referenced in the bibliography)
^Kessler, David (1996). The Falashas: A Short History of the Ethiopian Jews. Routledge. p. 79. ISBN978-0-7146-4646-6.
^Thrapp, Dan L. (1991). Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography: In Three Volumes. University of Nebraska Press. p. 521. ISBN978-0-8032-9418-9.
^Campbell, James M; R E Enthoven (1904). Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, Volume I, Part II, History of the Konkan Dahkan and Southern Maratha Country. Govt. Central Press, Bombay, India. p. 435.
^De Pauw, Linda Grant (2000). Battle Cries and Lullabies: Women in War from Prehistory to the Present. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 86. ISBN978-0-8061-3288-4.
^Saunders, Corinne J.; Françoise Hazel Marie Le Saux, Neil Thomas (2004). Writing War: Medieval Literary Responses to Warfare. DS Brewer. p. 190. ISBN978-0-85991-843-5.Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
^Williams, Henry Smith (1908). The Historians' History of the World. Hooper & Jackson. p. 611.
^Waters, Clara Erskine Clement (1886). Stories of Art and Artists. Ticknor and company. pp. 86–87.
^The Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information, eleventh edition, volume XII. Cambridge, England, at the University Press, New York 35 West 32nd street. 1910. p. 793.
Blythe, James M. "Women in the Military: Scholastic Arguments and Medieval Images of Female Warriors," History of Political Thought (2001), v.22 pp. 242–69.
Edgington, Susan B. and Sarah Lambert, eds. Gendering the Crusades (2002), 13 scholarly articles
Hacker, Barton C. "Women and Military Institutions in Early Modern Europe: A Reconnaissance," Signs (1981), v6 pp. 643–71.
Hay, David. "Canon Laws Regarding Female Military Commanders up to the Time of Gratian: Some Texts and their Historical Contexts", in A Great Effusion of Blood’? Interpreting Medieval Violence, eds. Mark D. Meyerson, et al. (University of Toronto Press, 2004), pp. 287–313.
Hay, David. The Military Leadership of Matilda of Canossa, 1046-1115 (Manchester University Press, 2008).
Hingley, Richard, and Unwin, Christina. Boudica: Iron Age Warrior Queen (2006).
Illston, James Michael. 'An Entirely Masculine Activity’? Women and War in the High and Late Middle Ages Reconsidered (MA thesis, University of Canterbury, 2009) full text online, with detailed review of the literature
Lourie, E. "Black women warriors in the Muslim army besieging Valencia and the Cid’s victory: A problem of interpretation," Traditio, 55 (2000), 181–209
McLaughlin, Megan. "The Woman Warrior: Gender, Warfare and Society in Medieval Europe," Women’s Studies 17 (1990), pp. 193-209.
Maier, C.T. "The roles of women in the crusade movement: a survey" Journal of medieval history (2004). 30#1 pp 61-82
Nicholson, Helen. "Women on the Third Crusade," Journal of Medieval History 23 (1997), pp. 335-49.
Solterer, Helen. "Figures of Female Militancy in Medieval France," Signs 16 (1991), pp. 522-49.