List of works by Charles Holden

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Charles Holden by Benjamin Nelson, 1910

Charles Holden (12 May 1875 – 1 May 1960) was an English architect best known for designing many London Underground stations during the 1920s and 1930s. Other notable designs were Bristol Central Library, the Underground Electric Railways Company of London's headquarters at 55 Broadway and the University of London's Senate House. Many of his buildings have been granted listed building status, indicating that they are considered to be of architectural or historical interest and protecting them from unapproved alteration.[note 1] He also designed over 60 war cemeteries and two memorials in Belgium and northern France for the Imperial War Graves Commission from 1920 to 1928.[1]

Holden's early architectural training was in Bolton and Manchester where he worked for architects Everard W. Leeson and Jonathan Simpson before moving to London.[2] After a short period with Arts and Crafts designer Charles Robert Ashbee, he went to work for Henry Percy Adams in 1899. He became Adams' partner in the firm in 1907 and remained with it for the rest of his career.[3]

Buildings[edit]

Holden's early buildings were influenced by the Arts and Crafts Movement, but for most of his career he championed an unadorned style based on simplified forms and massing that was free of what he considered to be unnecessary decorative detailing. He believed strongly that architectural designs should be dictated by the intended functions of buildings.[4][5] After the First World War he increasingly simplified his style and his designs became pared-down and modernist, influenced by continental European architecture.[6][7] This list includes all buildings for which Holden was commissioned to produce designs.

Building[8] Location[note 2] Year
completed[8]
Listed Note
aaa14–15 Old Bond Street Westminster
1911
aab55 Broadway Westminster
1929
Grade I[9] First cruciform plan office building in Britain; includes St. James's Park tube station. Sculptures commissioned by Holden for the building include Jacob Epstein's Day and Night and Henry Moore's first public commission.
aac87 Harmer Green Lane Welwyn, Hertfordshire
1906
Holden's own home
aad127 & 129 High Holborn Holborn
1904
Grade II[10]
Acton Town tube station Acton
1932
Grade II[11]
Almshouses Woburn, Bedfordshire
1906
Alperton tube station Alperton
1931
Archway tube station Archway
1931
Replacement Portland stone and glazed screen entrance façade, since demolished
Arnos Grove tube station Arnos Grove
1932
Grade II*[12]
Balham tube station Balham
1926
Grade II[13]
Bedfordshire Cottages, Workhouse site Woburn, Bedfordshire
1901
Belgrave Hospital for Children Kennington
1903
Grade II*[14]
Birchmoor Lodge Woburn, Bedfordshire
1901
Bond Street tube station West End
1927
Replacement Portland stone and glazed screen entrance façade, since demolished
Boston Manor tube station Boston Manor
1934
Grade II[15] With Stanley Heaps
Bounds Green tube station Bounds Green
1932
Grade II[16]
Bristol Central Library Bristol
1906
Grade I[17] A Tudor revival exterior with classical interior. Furnishings also by Holden.
Bristol Royal Infirmary King Edward VII memorial extension Bristol
1912
British Medical Association Strand
1908
Grade II*[18] Now Zimbabwe House. Jacob Epstein's series of sculptures caused great controversy when unveiled. They were defaced in the 1930s to prevent pieces falling off.
British Seamen's Hospital Istanbul, Turkey
1903
Bushey Heath tube station Bushey, Hertfordshire
Unbuilt
Cavendish Laboratory, Austin Wing, University of Cambridge Cambridge, Cambridgeshire
1940
Chiswick Park tube station Chiswick
1932
Grade II[19]
Clapham Common tube station Clapham
1924
Grade II[20]
Clapham South tube station Clapham
1926
Grade II[21]
Clifton College Memorial Arch Bristol
1922
Grade II[22]
Colliers Wood tube station Colliers Wood
1926
Grade II[23]
Cockfosters tube station Cockfosters
1933
Grade II[24]
Cottages Port Sunlight, Merseyside
1898
Cottage Hospital Woburn, Bedfordshire
1903
Grade II[25] Listed as Henry P. Adams design
Crowholt Lodge Woburn, Bedfordshire
1914
Danvers Tower, Cheyne Walk Chelsea
Unbuilt design for artists' studios
Ealing Common tube station Ealing
1931
Grade II[26] With Stanley Heaps
Eastcote tube station Eastcote
1939
Grade II[27]
East Finchley tube station East Finchley
1939
Grade II[28] With Leonard Holcombe Bucknell
Elstree South tube station Elstree, Hertfordshire
Unbuilt
Evelyn House, Oxford Street West End
1909
Grade II[29]
Farm Cottages Mayland, Essex
1906
Finchley Central tube station Finchley
With Reginald Uren. Unbuilt.
Gants Hill tube station Gants Hill
1947
The platform level concourse was modelled after stations on the Moscow Metro
General Hospital Tunbridge Wells, Kent
1902
Green Park tube station Piccadilly
1932
New Portland stone entrance shelter adjacent to Green Park, since demolished
Grey Gables Bolton, Greater Manchester
1898
Hall of Remembrance (War Museum) London
Unbuilt
Hammersmith tube station Hammersmith
1931
New Portland stone and glazed screen secondary entrance façade, since demolished
Haresfoot Berkhamsted, Buckinghamshire
1920
Additions to existing house
Highgate tube station Highgate
1939
Partly built and partly disused
Holborn tube station Holborn
1933
Replacement Portland stone and glazed screen entrance façade
Homeopathic Cottage Hospital Southport, Lancashire
1909
Arts and Crafts hospital building with sea view.
Hounslow West tube station Hounslow
1931
Grade II[30] With Stanley Heaps
House Delamere Forest, Cheshire
1898
Holden's first project, unknown location
House Holford, Somerset
1923
House Knight Bepton Common, Midhurst, West Sussex
1915
House Mayor Bicknoller, Somerset
1928
House Semon Great Missenden, Buckinghamshire
1910
Grade II[31] Now known as Rignalls
House Sixsmith Adlington, Lancashire
1907
Institution of Electrical Engineers Interiors, Savoy Place Westminster
1911
Isle of Thanet District Hospital Margate, Kent
1926
Grade II[32] Now part of Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother Hospital
Isolation Hospital for Infectious Diseases Ampthill, Bedfordshire
1903
King Edward VII Sanatorium Midhurst, West Sussex
1906
Grade II*[33] Chapel separately listed Grade II*[34]
Lodge Woburn, Bedfordshire
1908
Lodge, Birchmoor Drive Woburn, Bedfordshire
1914
Kings College for Women Kensington
1916
Grade II[35] Wren-influenced design for college for domestic science
Sir James Knott Memorial Flats Tynemouth
1939
With Tasker & Child
Law Society extension Holborn
1904
Grade II*[36] Listed with main building by Lewis Vulliamy
Leicester Square tube station West End
1933
New Portland stone entrance building including public house and sub-surface booking hall and concourse
London Underground Acton Works and Offices Acton
1932
Manor House tube station Manor House
1932
Mansion House tube station City of London
1930
Replacement Portland stone and glazed screen entrance façade, since demolished
Memorial Chapel, New College, Oxford Oxford, Oxfordshire
Unbuilt
Morden tube station Morden
1926
Mortuary Chapel, Richmond Hospital Richmond
1914
National Library of Wales Aberystwyth, Wales
1937
Grade II*[37] Front range (modified version of earlier design by Sidney Greenslade). Also the Central Hall (completed 1955).
Northfields tube station Northfields
1932
Grade II[38]
Oakwood tube station Oakwood
1932
Grade II*[39] The free-standing station sign is separately listed Grade II[40]
Orchestral Association London
1912
Osterley tube station Osterley
1934
Grade II[41] With Stanley Heaps
Piccadilly Circus tube station Piccadilly
1928
Grade II[42] Sub-surface booking hall and concourse beneath the roadway of Piccadilly Circus
Rayners Lane tube station Harrow
1938
Grade II[43] With Reginald Uren
Redbridge tube station Redbridge
1947
Grade II[44]
Royal Northern Hospital Holloway
1941
Demolished
Royal Victoria Infirmary Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear
1906
With W. L. Newcombe
Royal Westminster Ophthalmic Hospital Westminster
1926
St George's Hospital, Hyde Park Corner Westminster
Unbuilt
St Luke's Hospital Valletta, Malta
1939
School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London Bloomsbury
1946
Grade II[45]
Senate House, University of London Bloomsbury
1937
Grade II*[46] Tallest office building in London from 1937 to 1957. Remnant of a much grander unrealised scheme.
Shire Hall extension Bedford, Bedfordshire
1910
Grade II[47] Listed with main building by Alfred Waterhouse
Southgate tube station Southgate
1932
Grade II*[48] Station parade and lamp standards also by Holden separately listed Grade II and Grade II*[49][50]
South Harrow tube station South Harrow
1935
South Wimbledon tube station South Wimbledon
1926
Grade II[51]
SS Caldedonia, Interiors
1922
Interior design of principal rooms for Anchor Line ocean liner
SS Cameronia, Interiors
1922
Interior design of principal rooms for Anchor Line ocean liner
SS Tuscania, Interiors
1922
Interior design of principal rooms for Anchor Line ocean liner
Sudbury Hill tube station Sudbury
1931
Grade II[52]
Sudbury Town tube station Sudbury
1931
Grade II*[53]
Sutton Valence School Sutton Valence, Kent
1914
Grade II[54]
Sutton Valence School, Chapel Sutton Valence, Kent
1928
Tomb of Oscar Wilde, Père Lachaise Cemetery Paris, France
1912
With Jacob Epstein
Tooting Bec tube station Tooting
1926
Grade II[55]
Tooting Broadway tube station Tooting
1926
Grade II[56]
Torbay Hospital Torbay, Devon
1927
Torbay Hospital Chapel Torbay, Devon
1929
Grade II[57]
Trent Park House Enfield
1926
Grade II[58] New façades to existing mansion
Turnpike Lane tube station Harringay
1932
Grade II[59]
Two Cottages Oakley, Bedfordshire
1905
Two Cottages Woburn, Bedfordshire
1907
Uxbridge tube station Uxbridge
1938
Grade II[60] With Leonard Holcombe Bucknell
Victoria Hospital Folkestone, Kent
1910
Ward extensions
Wanstead tube station Wanstead
1947
Warren Street tube station Euston
1933
Replacement station building
West Ham Hospital West Ham
1907
West Kensington tube station West Kensington
1928
New façade and ticket hall
Westminster Female Refuge Westminster
1902
Westminster Hospital, Clapham Common Clapham
Unbuilt
Westminster tube station Westminster
1924
Replacement side entrance and ticket hall, since demolished
Women's Hospital, Soho Square Soho
1908
Grade II[61] New façades and internal redesign of two existing houses
Woodcote Aspley Guise, Bedfordshire
1914
Wood Green tube station Wood Green
1932
Grade II[62]
Holden's competition-winning Tudor Revival design for Bristol Central Library was described by Andor Gomme as "one of the great masterpieces of the early Modern Movement".[17]
A typical Edwardian façade for the Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne, carried out with W. L. Newcombe.[8]
The series of sculptures commissioned from Jacob Epstein for the British Medical Association Building, Strand, Westminster were highly controversial and calls were made in the newspapers to have them removed.[64]
For the Bristol Royal Infirmary, King Edward VII Memorial wing, Holden designed simplified abstract façades of white Portland Stone.[65]
Clifton College Memorial Arch, Bristol was constructed in a Gothic style using limestone and gritstone to match the college buildings.[22]
South Wimbledon station, Merton, demonstrates the modernist glazed "folded screen" design that Holden developed for the seven new stations of the City and South London Railway's extension to Morden.[64]
The cruciform plan of the Underground Group's headquarters at 55 Broadway, Westminster, maximised the daylight entering the building without using light wells. It was the first British office building to be planned in this way.[66]
European architecture inspired a new style for the Piccadilly line described by Holden as "brick boxes with concrete lids".[67] Sudbury Town station, Sudbury, was the first of these.
The single-storey Southgate station, Enfield, features a canopied roof supported on a single central column above a band of clerestory windows that is topped by an illuminated glass and bronze feature.[68]
The designs for new buildings for the University of London, Bloomsbury, were gradually revised and cut back due to a shortage of funds.[69] The 19-storey, 210-foot (64 m) tall Senate House is the only part that was completed and was the tallest office building in London for 20 years.[70]

Cemeteries[edit]

Holden worked on the designs for 69 cemeteries for the dead of the First World War as part of his work for the Imperial War Graves Commission (IWGC, now the Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC)) between 1918 and 1928.[1] Up until 1920, he worked as senior design architect and his designs are thought to include two of the initial cemetery designs built at Forceville and Louvencourt where Reginald Blomfield was named as the principal architect.[71][72][note 3] In 1920, he became one of the four principal architects for the cemeteries on the Western Front.[1]

Cemetery Location Identified
casualties[note 4]
Note
Aubers Ridge British Cemetery[74][75] Aubers, France
278
Avesnes-le-Comte Communal Cemetery Extension[76] Avesnes-le-Comte, France
329
Awoingt British Cemetery[77] Awoingt, France
714
Bac-Du-Sud British Cemetery[78] Bailleulval, France
737
Bapaume Post Military Cemetery[79] Albert, France
229
Bellicourt British Cemetery[80] Bellicourt, France
892
Bienvillers Military Cemetery[77] Bienvillers-au-Bois, France
1,198
Boulogne Eastern Cemetery[81] Boulogne, France
5,743
Brown's Road Military Cemetery[82] Festubert, France
664
Busigny Communal Cemetery Extension[83] Busigny, France
697
Buttes New British Cemetery[84] Zonnebeke, Belgium
432
Cambrai East Military Cemetery[85] Cambrai, France
474
Cambrin Churchyard Extension[86] Cambrin, France
1,304
Cambrin Military Cemetery[87] Cambrin, France
816
Canada Cemetery, Tilloy-les-Cambrai[88] Cambrai, France
248
Caudry Military Cemetery[77] Caudry, France
654
Chapelle British Cemetery[77] Holnon, France
360
Corbie Communal Cemetery Extension[89] Corbie, France
918
Cross Roads Cemetery[77] Fontaine-au-Bois, France
638
Dadizeele New British Cemetery[90] Moorslede, Belgium
871
Doullens Communal Cemetery Extension No. 1[91] Doullens, France
1,366
Doullens Communal Cemetery Extension No. 2[92] Doullens, France
459
Dranoutre Military Cemetery[93] Heuvelland, Belgium
456
Forceville Communal Cemetery and Extension[94][95] Forceville, France
308
The principal architect was Reginald Blomfield, but aspects of the design have been attributed to Holden.
Gorre British and Indian Cemetery[96] Beuvry, France
901
Gouy-en-Artois Communal Cemetery Extension[97] Gouy-en-Artois, France
47
Grand Seraucourt British Cemetery[98][99] Seraucourt-le-Grand, France
496
Guards Cemetery, Windy Corner[100] Cuinchy, France
1,246
Ham British Cemetery[77][101] Muille-Villette, France
267
Highland Cemetery, Le Cateau[102] Le Cateau, France
560
Honnechy British Cemetery[77][103] Honnechy, France
347
Kandahar Farm Cemetery[104] Heuvelland, Belgium
435
Le Cateau Military Cemetery[105] Le Cateau, France
513
Lancashire Cottage Cemetery[106] Comines-Warneton, Belgium
265
La Plus Douve Farm Cemetery[107] Comines-Warneton, Belgium
345
Lindenhoek Chalet Military Cemetery[108] Heuvelland, Belgium
248
London Rifle Brigade Cemetery[109] Comines-Warneton, Belgium
343
Louvencourt Military Cemetery[94][110] Louvencourt, France
230
The principal architect was Reginald Blomfield, but aspects of the design have been attributed to Holden.
Marcoing British Cemetery[77][111] Marcoing, France
181
Messines Ridge British Cemetery[112] Messines, Belgium
577
Montay-Neuvilly Road Cemetery[113] Montay, France
418
Naves Communal Cemetery Extension[77][114] Naves, France
320
Pargny British Cemetery[77][115] Pargny, France
149
Passchendaele New British Cemetery[116] Zonnebeke, Belgium
501
Poelcapelle British Cemetery[73] Langemark-Poelkapelle, Belgium
1,248
Polygon Wood Cemetery[117] Zonnebeke, Belgium
88
Attached to Buttes New British Cemetery
Pond Farm Cemetery[118] Heuvelland, Belgium
297
Post Office Rifles Cemetery[119] Festubert, France
128
Premont British Cemetery[120] Prémont, France
561
Romeries Communal Cemetery Extension[121] Romeries, France
703
Rue-des-Berceaux Military Cemetery[77][122] Richebourg-l'Avoué, France
243
St. Aubert British Cemetery[123] Avesnes-les-Aubert, France
391
St. Quentin Cabaret Military Cemetery[124] Heuvelland, Belgium
455
St. Souplet British Cemetery[77][125] Saint-Souplet, France
591
St. Vaast Post Military Cemetery[98][126] Richebourg-l'Avoué, France
850
Savy British Cemetery[77][127] Savy, France
430
Strand Military Cemetery[128] Comines-Warneton, Belgium
802
Tancrez Farm Cemetery[129] Comines-Warneton, Belgium
328
Tournai Communal Cemetery Allied Extension[77][130] Tournai, Belgium
819
Trefcon British Cemetery[77][131] Trefcon, France
277
Unicorn Cemetery[132] Vendhuile, France
599
Valenciennes (St. Roch) Communal Cemetery[77][133] Valenciennes, France
882
Villers Hill British Cemetery[134] Villers-Guislain, France
385
Wailly Orchard Cemetery[135] Wailly, France
351
Warlincourt Halte British Cemetery[136] Saulty, France
1,286
Some sources list this as a Lutyens cemetery that Holden completed
Wimereux Communal Cemetery[137] Wimereux, France
3,022
Woburn Abbey Cemetery[77][138] Cuinchy, France
315
Wulverghem-Lindenhoek Road Military Cemetery[139] Heuvelland, Belgium
658
Zantvoorde British Cemetery[140] Zantvoorde, Belgium
449
The entrance pavilion at Dadizeele New British Cemetery, Moorslede, Belgium shows the simple style Holden used for the first of his war cemeteries. The Reginald Blomfield designed Cross of Sacrifice is a feature of all IWGC cemeteries.
Landscaping and horticulture, seen at Messines Ridge British Cemetery, Messines, Belgium, are key features of all IWGC cemeteries.[141] Edwin Lutyens' Stone of Remembrance features in larger cemeteries.
Holden enclosed the irregularly placed graves in the battlefield Cemetery at Polygon Wood, Zonnebeke, Belgium with a low wall of local stone capped with Portland stone. The grass path links it to the adjacent Buttes New British Cemetery.
The extremely simplified Portland stone buildings and memorial at Buttes New British Cemetery, Zonnebeke, Belgium are representative of Holden's later war cemeteries.

Memorials[edit]

Holden designed two memorials for the missing dead of the First World War as part of his work for the Imperial War Graves Commission between 1920 and 1928. Both are memorials to the missing from the New Zealand Expeditionary Force. They are located in Belgium and are within cemeteries also constructed to his design.

Memorial Location Number of missing Note
Buttes New British Cemetery (New Zealand) Memorial[142] Zonnebeke, Belgium
378
See also Buttes New British Cemetery
Messines Ridge (New Zealand) Memorial[143] Messines, Belgium
827
See also Messines Ridge British Cemetery
Linked pavilions and colonnades of the New Zealand Memorial, Buttes New British Cemetery, Zonnebeke, Belgium.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Listed buildings are granted one of three grades (II, II* and I in order of importance) representing their status as nationally or internationally important buildings. In England, the register of listed building is administered by English Heritage. A listed building may not be demolished, extended or altered without special permission from the local planning authority.
  2. ^ These buildings are located in London unless otherwise indicated.
  3. ^ The principal architects worked with assistant architects, also called architects in France, who worked from offices in St Omer, and in some cases did most of the design work, with the final design being approved or amended by the principal architect they were working with.
  4. ^ The CWGC records the number of identified casualties contained in a cemetery, although most cemeteries have additional graves containing the bodies of soldiers who could not be identified and whose grave stones carry no name. In some cases the number of unidentified burials is considerable – for example, Poelcapelle British Cemetery contains 6,231 such burials.[73]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Karol 2007, pp. 482–83.
  2. ^ Karol 2007, pp. 51–55.
  3. ^ Hutton & Crawford 2007.
  4. ^ Holden, quoted in Glancey 2007.
  5. ^ Holden, Charles (1957). "The Kind of Architecture we want in Britain". Architectural Review. Quoted in Karol 2007, p. 9.
  6. ^ Powers 2007.
  7. ^ Sutcliffe 2006, p. 166.
  8. ^ a b c Karol 2007, pp. 481–484.
  9. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1219790)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 5 May 2011. 
  10. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (478240)". Images of England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  11. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (432264)". Images of England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  12. ^ English Heritage. "Arnos Grove Underground Station (1358981)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  13. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (207204)". Images of England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  14. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (204143)". Images of England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  15. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1063901)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 
  16. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1393641)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 
  17. ^ a b English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (379311)". Images of England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  18. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (428225)". Images of England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  19. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (201104)". Images of England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  20. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (204563)". Images of England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  21. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (207206)". Images of England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  22. ^ a b English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (379327)". Images of England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  23. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (205125)". Images of England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  24. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (200811)". Images of England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  25. ^ "Marylands, Former Woburn Cottage Hospital Including Former Isolation Block and Mortuary to North, Woburn". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. August 8, 2003. Retrieved 14 October 2013. 
  26. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (432208)". Images of England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  27. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (422562)". Images of England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  28. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (199225)". Images of England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  29. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (422458)". Images of England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  30. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (440214)". Images of England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  31. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1124799)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 
  32. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (356674)". Images of England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  33. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1026020)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 
  34. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1232485)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 
  35. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1080680)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 
  36. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (209062)". Images of England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  37. ^ "National Library of Wales, Penglais Road, Penglais, Aberystwyth". British Listed Buildings. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  38. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (432209)". Images of England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  39. ^ English Heritage. "Oakwood Underground Station (1078930)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  40. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1358982)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 
  41. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (439350)". Images of England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  42. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (424376)". Images of England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  43. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (437567)". Images of England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  44. ^ English Heritage. "Redbridge Underground Station (1401101)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  45. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (478371)". Images of England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  46. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (477485)". Images of England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  47. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (35563)". Images of England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  48. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1188692)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  49. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1359011)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  50. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1079481)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  51. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (205063)". Images of England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  52. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (437587)". Images of England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  53. ^ English Heritage. "Sudbury Town Underground Station (1294594)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  54. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1060872)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  55. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (207205)". Images of England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  56. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (207207)". Images of England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  57. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (390724)". Images of England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  58. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (200528)". Images of England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  59. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (431905)". Images of England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  60. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (203046)". Images of England. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  61. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1264651)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 30 May 2011. 
  62. ^ English Heritage. "Wood Green Underground Station (1401120)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  63. ^ Stevens Curl, James (2006). "Holden, Charles Henry" (Subscription required). A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 8 May 2011. 
  64. ^ a b Powers, Alan (2007). "Holden, Charles (Henry)" (Subscription required). Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 8 May 2011. 
  65. ^ Foyle, Andrew; Cherry, Bridget; Pevsner, Nikolaus (2004). Bristol. Pevsner Architectural Guides. Yale University Press. pp. 150–51. ISBN 978-0-300-10442-4. Retrieved 8 May 2011. 
  66. ^ Karol 2007, p. 303.
  67. ^ Orsini, Fiona (2010). Underground Journeys: Charles Holden’s designs for London Transport. V&A + RIBA Architecture Partnership. Retrieved 8 May 2011. 
  68. ^ Day, John R; Reed, John (2008) [1963]. The Story of London's Underground. Capital Transport. p. 103. ISBN 1-85414-316-6. 
  69. ^ Karol, Eitan (2008). "Naked and unashamed: Charles Holden in Bloomsbury". Past and Future (The Institute of Historical Research) (4): pp. 6–7. Retrieved 8 May 2011. 
  70. ^ Wright, Herbert (2006). London High. Francis Lincoln. p. 34. ISBN 0-7112-2695-4. Retrieved 8 May 2011. 
  71. ^ Geurst 2010, p. 50.
  72. ^ Karol 2007, p. 217.
  73. ^ a b Poelcapelle British Cemetery:
  74. ^ Geurst 2010, p. 384.
  75. ^ Aubers Ridge British Cemetery:
  76. ^ Avesnes-le-Comte Communal Cemetery Extension:
  77. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Karol 2007, p. 483.
  78. ^ Bac-Du-Sud British Cemetery:
  79. ^ Bapaume Post Military Cemetery:
  80. ^ Bellicourt British Cemetery:
  81. ^ Boulogne Eastern Cemetery:
  82. ^ Brown's Road Military Cemetery:
  83. ^ Busigny Communal Cemetery Extension:
  84. ^ Buttes New British Cemetery:
  85. ^ Cambrai East Military Cemetery:
  86. ^ Cambrin Churchyard Extension:
  87. ^ Cambrin Military Cemetery:
  88. ^ Canada Cemetery:
  89. ^ Corbie Communal Cemetery Extension:
  90. ^ Dadizeele New British Cemetery:
  91. ^ Doullens Communal Cemetery Extension No.1:
  92. ^ Doullens Communal Cemetery Extension No.2:
  93. ^ Dranoutre Military Cemetery:
  94. ^ a b Geurst 2010, p. 49.
  95. ^ Forceville Communal Cemetery and Extension:
  96. ^ Gorre British and Indian Cemetery:
  97. ^ Gouy-en-Artois Communal Cemetery Extension:
  98. ^ a b Geurst 2010, p. 72.
  99. ^ Grand Seraucourt British Cemetery:
  100. ^ Guards Cemetery, Windy Corner:
  101. ^ Ham British Cemetery:
  102. ^ Highland Cemetery, Le Cateau:
  103. ^ Honnechy British Cemetery:
  104. ^ Kandahar Farm Cemetery:
  105. ^ Le Cateau Military Cemetery:
  106. ^ Lancashire Cottage Cemetery:
  107. ^ La Plus Douve Farm Cemetery:
  108. ^ Lindenhoek Chalet Military Cemetery:
  109. ^ London Rifle Brigade Cemetery:
  110. ^ Louvencourt Military Cemetery:
  111. ^ Marcoing British Cemetery:
  112. ^ Messines Ridge British Cemetery:
  113. ^ Montay-Neuvilly Road Cemetery:
  114. ^ Naves Communal Cemetery Extension:
  115. ^ Pargny British Cemetery:
  116. ^ Passchendaele New British Cemetery:
  117. ^ Polygon Wood Cemetery:
  118. ^ Pond Farm Cemetery:
  119. ^ Post Office Rifles Cemetery:
  120. ^ Premont British Cemetery:
  121. ^ Romeries Communal Cemetery Extension:
  122. ^ Rue-des-Berceaux Military Cemetery:
  123. ^ St. Aubert British Cemetery:
  124. ^ St. Quentin Cabaret Military Cemetery:
  125. ^ St. Souplet British Cemetery:
  126. ^ St. Vaast Post Military Cemetery:
  127. ^ Savy British Cemetery:
  128. ^ Strand Military Cemetery:
  129. ^ Tancrez Farm Cemetery:
  130. ^ Tournai Communal Cemetery Allied Extension:
  131. ^ Trefcon British Cemetery:
  132. ^ UNICORN Cemetery:
  133. ^ Valenciennes (St. Roch) Communal Cemetery:
  134. ^ Villers Hill British Cemetery:
  135. ^ Wailly Orchard Cemetery:
  136. ^ Warlincourt Halte British Cemetery:
  137. ^ Wimereux Communal Cemetery:
  138. ^ Woburn Abbey Cemetery:
  139. ^ Wulverghem-Lindenhoek Road Military Cemetery:
  140. ^ Zantvoorde British Cemetery:
  141. ^ "Horticulture". CWCG. Retrieved 17 May 2011. 
  142. ^ Buttes New British Cemetery (N.Z.) Memorial:
  143. ^ Messines Ridge (N.Z.) Memorial:

Bibliography[edit]