List of musical works in unusual time signatures

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Listed here are musical compositions or pieces in Western music that have unusual time signatures. "Unusual" is here defined to be any time signature other than simple time signatures with top numerals of 2, 3, or 4 and bottom numerals of 2, 4, or 8, and compound time signatures with top numerals of 6, 9, or 12 and bottom numerals 4, 8, or 16.[1]

The conventions of musical notation typically allow for more than one written representation of a particular piece. The chosen time signature largely depends upon musical context, personal taste of the composer or transcriber, and the graphic layout on the written page. Frequently, published editions were written in a specific time signature to visually signify the tempo for slow movements in symphonies, sonatas, and concerti. The Piano Sonata No. 14 in C-sharp minor "Quasi una fantasia", Op. 27, No. 2, by Ludwig van Beethoven, popularly known as the Moonlight Sonata, includes two examples: in the relatively slow first movement the predominant rhythm is in triplet eighth notes (quavers), whereas in the second movement the basic tempo is faster but the music is notated in quarter notes (crotchets) and half notes (minims), giving a visual clue to the nature of the phrasing. The first movement could be written in 12
8
and still convey the same rhythm, phrasing, and tempo. Similarly, the second movement could be notated in 3
8
instead of 3
4
without changing the phrasing.[2] More to the point of the present article, a perfectly consistent unusual metrical pattern may be notated in a more familiar time signature that does not correspond to it. For example, the Passacaglia from Britten's opera Peter Grimes consists of variations over a recurring bass line eleven beats in length, but is notated in ordinary 4
4
time, with each variation lasting 2¾ bars, and therefore commencing each time one crotchet earlier than the preceding one.[3]

These examples are grouped by time signature, and listed alphabetically by title.

Contents

⅗/4[edit]

Partially in
4
[edit]

  • Mädchentotenlieder, by Bo Nilsson. Bar 97 is in
    4
    time.[4]

⅔/2 and ⅔/4[edit]

Partially in
2
or
4
[edit]

⅘/4[edit]

Partially in
4
[edit]

  • Mädchentotenlieder, by Bo Nilsson. Bar 112 is in
    4
    time.[7]

1/1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, or 1/16[edit]

Partially in 1
1
, 1
2
, 1
4
, 1
8
, or 1
16
[edit]

  • "Andantino", second movement of Alcancías by Silvestre Revueltas. Fifth bar after rehearsal 24, second bar of rehearsal 27, first bar of rehearsal 28, third bar of rehearsal 29, one bar before 31, and one bar before 32 are all 1
    4
    [8]
  • Appalachian Spring, by Aaron Copland. Third bar of rehearsal 46 and third bar of rehearsal 48 are in 1
    2
    .[9]
  • "Improvisation sur Mallarmé 2", from Pli selon pli by Pierre Boulez.[10]
  • "Lento–Allegro molto agitato", first movement of Symphony No. 17 in G-sharp minor by Nikolay Myaskovsky, has a 1
    2
    signature from rehearsal numbers 2–7, 25–35, 42–47, 59–66, and 70–74.[11]
  • Mädchentotenlieder, by Bo Nilsson. Bar 11 is in 1
    16
    time, bar 53 is in 1
    8
    time, bars 20, 22–27, 33–36, 38–40, 43, 49, 51, 54, 57, 65, 76–77, 80–81, 86, 90–93, 95, 99, 103–7, 115–16, 118, 120, 122, 124, 126, 130, 134–42, 145, 153, and 158 are in 1
    4
    time.[12]
  • Metropolis Part 1: The Miracle and the Sleeper, by Dream Theater. Third bar of rehearsal R is in 1
    4
    .[13]
  • A Nightmare to Remember, by Dream Theater. Measure 31 is in 1
    8
    .[14]
  • Petrushka by Igor Stravinsky, the bar before rehearsal 17 is in 1
    4
    .[15]
  • Piano Sonata No. 5, Op. 53, by Alexander Scriabin. Bars 251 to 262 (Presto giocoso) are in 1
    2
    .[16]
  • "Scherzo" (2nd Movement) from Alexander Borodin's Symphony No. 2 is in Prestissimo 1
    1
    , except for the trio section, which is in Allegretto 6
    4
    .[17]

4/3/2 or 4/3/4[edit]

Partially in 4/3
2
or 4/3
4
[edit]

2/1[edit]

Partially in 2
1
[edit]

2/16[edit]

2½/4[edit]

Partially in
4
[edit]

3/16[edit]

3/32[edit]

  • "Lilliputsche Chaconne", from Intrada, nebst burlesquer Suite, for two violins (the so-called "Gulliver Suite") by Georg Philipp Telemann.[26]

3½/4[edit]

Partially in
4
[edit]

32/2/4[edit]

  • "Reverie der Laputier, nebst ihren Aufweckern", from Intrada, nebst burlesquer Suite, for two violins (the so-called "Gulliver Suite") by Georg Philipp Telemann.[27]

3⅔/4[edit]

4/16[edit]

4½/4[edit]

Partially in
4
[edit]

5/1, 5/2, 5/4, 5/8, 5/16, 5/32, 5/64, or 5/128[edit]

Main article: Quintuple meter

5½/4[edit]

Partially in
4
[edit]

6/2[edit]

Partially in 6
2
[edit]

  • "In the First Pentatonic Major Mode (En el 1er modo pentáfono mayor)", no. 12 from 12 American Preludes for piano (1944) by Alberto Ginastera (bar 23 in 6
    2
    ).[31]
  • "Molto adagio" (Adagio for Strings), second movement of Samuel Barber’s String Quartet, op. 11, bars 15 and 26 are in 6
    2
    .[32]

6½/8[edit]

Partially in
8
[edit]

  • Schism by Tool is described by the band as largely in
    8
    and includes numerous other times.[33]

7/1, 7/2, 7/4, 7/8, 7/16, 7/32, 7/64, or 7/128[edit]

Main article: Septuple meter

8/4 or 8/8[edit]

Note: 8
4
or 8
8
may refer to an evenly divided compound duple or quadruple meter. While this is arguably extremely common in music, the notations "8
4
" and "8
8
" themselves are not, so all divisions of this time signature are listed here.
  • "Six Dances in Bulgarian Rhythm" 4, from Béla Bartók's Mikrokosmos (no. 151), is in 3+2+3
    8
    .[34]
  • "Six Dances in Bulgarian Rhythm" 6, from Béla Bartók's Mikrokosmos (no. 153), is in 3+3+2
    8
    .[35]

Partially in 8
4
, 8
8
, or 8
16
[edit]

9/2, 9/4 or 9/8 (not ordinary triple-compound)[edit]

  • "Niska Banja," SATB choral arrangement by Nick Page of a Serbian Gypsy dance, is in 2+2+2+3
    8
    [56]
  • "Six Dances in Bulgarian Rhythm" 1, from Béla Bartók's Mikrokosmos (no. 148), is in 4+2+3
    8
    .[57]
  • "Six Dances in Bulgarian Rhythm" 5, from Béla Bartók's Mikrokosmos (no. 152), is in 2+2+2+3
    8
    .[58]

Partially in 9
2
, 9
4
, or 9
8
[edit]

10/4, 10/8 or 10/16[edit]

Partially in 10
4
, 10
8
or 10
16
[edit]

11/4 or 11/8[edit]

Partially in 11
4
or 11
8
[edit]

13/4, 13/8, or 13/16[edit]

Partially in 13
4
or 13
8
[edit]

15/8 or 15/16[edit]

Other than compound quintuple meter:

Partially in 15
4
, 15
8
or 15
16
[edit]

17/4 or 17/8[edit]

Partially in 17
4
or 17
8
[edit]

18/8 or 18/16[edit]

See also: Sextuple meter

19/4, 19/8, or 19/16[edit]

Partially in 19
4
, 19
8
, or 19
16
[edit]

20/4 or 20/8[edit]

Partially in 20
4
or 20
8
[edit]

21/4, 21/8, 21/16, or 21/32[edit]

See also: Septuple meter

Partially in 21
4
, 21
8
, 21
16
or 21
32
[edit]

  • "The Art Of Dying" by Gojira (2008) cycles from 4
    4
    to 2
    4
    to 21
    16
    (grouped 5+5+5+3+3) and repeats this pattern during the intro and beginning of the song.[127]
  • "Deux moulins", from Airs a III. IIII. V. et VI. parties (première livre, 1608) by Claude Le Jeune (first two sections, Rechant à 3 and Réprise à 5, are barred as 21
    4
    ; the last section of the piece is in 20
    4
    ).[124]
  • In the Dead of the Night suite by UK, "contains an instrumental refrain in 21
    16
    ".[85]
  • "Keep It Greasy" by Frank Zappa (On the studio album, first verse and guitar solo are counted in 19
    16
    and another part is in 21
    16
    ).[128]
  • Klavierstück IX (1954–55/61) by Karlheinz Stockhausen. Bars 6, 17, 120, and 149 are in 21
    8
    time.[129]
  • Sonata for Cello and Piano (1948), by Elliott Carter, includes 21
    32
    time.[130]

22/8[edit]

23/4 or 23/16[edit]

  • "Low Light" by Jacky Ligon from his Between Moments EP (2013) is in 23
    4
    .[132]

Partially in 23
4
or 23
16
[edit]

24/1 or 24/16[edit]

25/8 or 25/16[edit]

Partially in 25
8
or 25
16
[edit]

  • "Tenemos Roads", by National Health includes "some extremely intricate passages in 25
    16
    ".[85]

26/8[edit]

32/8[edit]

Partially in 32
8
[edit]

33/8[edit]

Partially in 33
8
[edit]

34/8[edit]

Partially in 34
8
[edit]

42/8[edit]

Partially in 42
8
[edit]

59/48[edit]

Partially in 59
48
[edit]

  • Evol by Damian LeGassick alternates a rhythm notated as five beats in the time of seven with another in 59
    48
    time.[145]

79/8[edit]

"Gendhing Boehme" by Kraig Grady uses a 79-beat pattern throughout subdivided 8+8+8+5+8+8+8+5+8+8+5 based on Horogram patterns.[146][not in citation given]

87/8[edit]

Partially in 87
8
[edit]

142/8[edit]

Partially in 142
8
[edit]

Combined unusual signatures[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Ian Waugh first lists 2
    2
    , 2
    4
    , 2
    8
    , 3
    2
    , 3
    4
    , 3
    8
    , 4
    2
    , 4
    4
    , 4
    8
    , 6
    4
    , 6
    8
    , 6
    16
    , 9
    4
    , 9
    8
    , 9
    16
    , 12
    4
    , 12
    8
    , and 12
    16
    (Waugh 2003, 76), then says "we've listed all the popular time signatures" (Waugh 2003, 77).
  2. ^ Ted Ross, The Art of Music Engraving and Processing: A Complete Manual, Reference and Text Book on Preparing Music for Reproduction and Print, 3rd edition, revised (Miami: Hansen Books; Santa Rosa, CA: NPC Imaging/Shattinger International Music Corporation, 2001),[page needed].
  3. ^ Britten 1945b.
  4. ^ Nilsson 1958, 10; Read 1964, 172.
  5. ^ Boulez 1957, 19–20.
  6. ^ Nilsson 1958, 10 & 12; Read 1964, 172.
  7. ^ Nilsson 1958, 11; Read 1964, 172.
  8. ^ Revueltas 1971, 32, 34–38.
  9. ^ Copland 1945, 56–59.
  10. ^ a b c d Read 1964, 158.
  11. ^ Myaskovsky 1947, 4–8, 23–30, 41–44, 59–65, 70–73.
  12. ^ Nilsson 1958, 3–15.
  13. ^ Dream Theater Keyboard Anthology. Transcribed by Chris Romero and Jordan Baker 2004, 30.
  14. ^ Dream Theater Black Clouds and Silver Linings Authentic Guitar TAB. 2009, 7.
  15. ^ Stravinsky n.d., 26.
  16. ^ Piano Sonata No. 5 (Scriabin): Scores at the International Music Score Library Project. Leipzig: Edition Peters, 1971, plate E.P. 12588.
  17. ^ Borodin [8888], 44–86.
  18. ^ Boulez 1957, 18.
  19. ^ Nilsson 1958, 8; Read 1964, 172.
  20. ^ Johann Bach (1985). Hans Bischoff, ed. Six Partitas and Overture in French Style. Alfred Music Publishing. p. 92. ISBN 978-0-7692-8604-4. 
  21. ^ Alkan n.d. (ca.1861),[page needed].
  22. ^ a b c d http://petrucci.mus.auth.gr/imglnks/usimg/f/f3/IMSLP14991-Stanchinksy_-_12_Sketches.pdf
  23. ^ "Category:Stanchinsky, Aleksey". Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  24. ^ a b c d e f g Read 1964, 170.
  25. ^ http://conquest.imslp.info/files/imglnks/usimg/9/91/IMSLP289811-PMLP02189-Schumann__Robert_Werke_Breitkopf_Gregg_Serie_7_Band_2_RS_51_Op_13_scan.pdf
  26. ^ Telemann 1728, 32; Telemann 1970, 13; Zohn 2004, 247: "The ‘Lilliputsche Chaconne’ is anything but stately as it flashes by (at least on the page) in a blur of demisemiquavers in 3/32 time. . . ."
  27. ^ Telemann 1728, 40; Zohn 2004, 247: "The ‘Reverie der Laputier, nebst ihren Aufweckern’ . . . teases the reader with a nonsensical time signature, 32/2
    4
    , in an apparent allusion to the Laputians’ love for, and incompetence in, mathematics." Dietz Degan, the editor of Telemann 1970, transcribes this piece simply in 2
    2
    .
  28. ^ Strait 2000, 56.
  29. ^ Revueltas 1958, 3–15.
  30. ^ Ives 1920, 56.
  31. ^ Ginastera 1946, 1:12–13.
  32. ^ Barber 1943, 11–12.
  33. ^ Wagner 2010, 312–13.
  34. ^ Bartók 1940, 6:45–48.
  35. ^ Bartók 1940, 6:51–55.
  36. ^ Stravinsky 1965, 16.
  37. ^ Britten 1946, 14–15.
  38. ^ Bartók 1937, 130–33.
  39. ^ Davies 1985, 202.
  40. ^ Bartók 1937, 1–5, 7–8, 10.
  41. ^ Holst 1977, 4–6, 18–19, 23–24, 27–30.
  42. ^ Birtwistle 1996, 6–7 and 9.
  43. ^ Suspended Animation Authentic Guitar TAB, transcribed by Jordan Baker. 2005, 81-85, 88-89, 105-107
  44. ^ Stravinsky 1958, 11–12 and 19.
  45. ^ Britten 1941, 30–32.
  46. ^ Stravinsky 1962, 54, 56, 58, 60–61, 63, and 66.
  47. ^ Stravinsky 1924, 50.
  48. ^ Dethalbum III Authentic Guitar TAB, transcribed by Jordan Baker. 2013, 10[full citation needed]
  49. ^ Stravinsky 1967, 19.
  50. ^ Bartók 1993, 72.
  51. ^ Davies 1985, 48–49.
  52. ^ Bernstein 1950, 48, 52–54.
  53. ^ Stravinsky n.d., 11–12.
  54. ^ Stravinsky 1970, 99.
  55. ^ Andriessen 1976, 1–4, 82–88, 90, 92, 95–97, 99, 119.
  56. ^ Page 1989.
  57. ^ Bartók 1940, 6:35–38.
  58. ^ Bartók 1940, 6:48–50.
  59. ^ Seconds Out Songbook 1978 Wise Publications
  60. ^ Dryden, Ken. "Blue Rondo a la Turk", Allmusic: "unusual time signature of 9
    8
    ".
  61. ^ Dream Theater Black Clouds and Silver Linings Authentic Guitar TAB, transcribed by Jordan Baker. 2009, 138
  62. ^ Ginastera 1955, 17–20.
  63. ^ a b c "Homepage - AOL On". Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  64. ^ "Odd Meter Bass". Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  65. ^ Eddie 2007, 62.
  66. ^ Banks 2009.
  67. ^ Yanni (1993). The Best of Yanni; 11 selections from his top recordings. Hal Leonard Publishing. p. 16. 
  68. ^ "30) The Eleven and Other Rhythmic Oddities (Grateful Dead)". Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  69. ^ Liner notes to The Mason Williams Phonograph Record Warner Brothers LP, WS 1729. Burbank: Warner Brothers-Seven Arts Records, 1968.
  70. ^ http://www.talkbass.com/forum/f22/how-do-you-figure-out-time-signatures-476426/[unreliable source?]
  71. ^ Britten 1946, 14.
  72. ^ Tempo controlSlow down the song anytime you need it. "This Town Needs Guns - Crocodile Tab Online | UG Plus @ Ultimate-Guitar.com". Tp.ultimate-guitar.com. Retrieved 2013-08-01. 
  73. ^ a b Dreiblats 2013.
  74. ^ Bars 2–5 are in 10
    8
    time (Stravinsky 1958, 52).
  75. ^ "Uncommon Time". Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  76. ^ Le Jeune 1951–59, 2:85–88.
  77. ^ rec.music.gdead FAQ.[unreliable source?]
  78. ^ "The Annotated "The Eleven"". Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  79. ^ Howard Brubeck (ed.), Dave Brubeck Deluxe Piano Album, (San Francisco: Derry Music Co., 1965), pp. 22-28.
  80. ^ Villa-Lobos 1969, 3–18.
  81. ^ J. A. Fuller Maitland and W. Barclay Squire (eds.), The Fitzwilliam Virginal Book, vol. 2 (Leipzig: Breitkopf und Härtel, 1899; reprinted New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1963), 34–39.
  82. ^ Elroy 2008.[unreliable source?]
  83. ^ Macan 1997, 48–49.
  84. ^ http://imslp.info/files/imglnks/usimg/9/9d/IMSLP15483-Stanchinksy_-_Piano_Sonata_No.2.pdf
  85. ^ a b c d e f Macan 1997, 49.
  86. ^ Macan 1997, 48.
  87. ^ "The Daily Vault Music Reviews :". Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  88. ^ Jisi, Chris (2012). "Esperanza Spalding: E-Harmony". Retrieved April 29, 2015. 
  89. ^ Primus (musical group), Primus Anthology: A thru N: For Guitar and Bass, transcribed by Jeff Jacobsen (New York: Cherry Lane Music, 2000), 17–20. ISBN 1575601540.
  90. ^ Nilsson 1958, 7.
  91. ^ a b Reynish, Tim. "Derek Bourgeois: An Assessment of his music in Two Parts". Retrieved November 8, 2009. 
  92. ^ a b "Pops Concert Program Notes". Howard Performing Arts Center, Andrews University. March 8, 2008. Retrieved November 8, 2009. 
  93. ^ Randy Poe (20 September 2006). Skydog: The Duane Allman Story. Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-87930-891-9. Retrieved 11 April 2012. 
  94. ^ Perkins 2000, 1:18.
  95. ^ Stevenson 2014.
  96. ^ "Ken Westphal Illustration & Design". Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  97. ^ "The Becoming". Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  98. ^ "Golden Brown by The Stranglers Songfacts". Songfacts.com. Retrieved 2012-04-14. 
  99. ^ Stravinsky 1967, 35.
  100. ^ Jerry 2014.
  101. ^ Andrew Lloyd Webber, T. S. Eliot - "Cats" Hal Leonard (HL00359466), ISBN 0-88188-447-2
  102. ^ Andriessen 1976, 46, 69, and 101.
  103. ^ Genesis 2001,[page needed].
  104. ^ Davison and Apel 1974, 9; Pöhlmann and West 2001, 96–99.
  105. ^ Perkins 2000, 2:18–40 (score).
  106. ^ Jeffes, Arthur (2010-09-08), BBC Proms programme notes, 2010 season concert 73, BBC 
  107. ^ a b c d Read 1964, 157.
  108. ^ Medtner 1998, 134.
  109. ^ Andriessen 1976, 65 and 74.
  110. ^ Oldfield, Mike (2007). Changeling - Autobiography of Mike Oldfield. Virgin Books. p. 111. ISBN 978-1-85227-381-1. 
  111. ^ "Theme from "Valley of the Dolls". Musicnotes, Inc. Retrieved 2012-04-14. 
  112. ^ "Crystalline". bjork.fr. Retrieved 2012-04-14. 
  113. ^ "Hollow". bjork.fr. Retrieved 2012-04-14. 
  114. ^ "Moon". bjork.fr. Retrieved 2012-04-14. 
  115. ^ Dreiblats 2012.
  116. ^ Alkan n.d. (ca.1862),[page needed].
  117. ^ a b John McLaughlin, John McLaughlin and the Mahavishnu Orchestra: John McLaughlin's Scores to 28 Classic Recordings (Van Nuys: Alfred Publishing, 2006):[page needed]. ISBN 0-7390-4255-6.
  118. ^ Prokofiev 1955, 1:9–14.
  119. ^ Bach 1968, 98–99.
  120. ^ Read 1964, 159.
  121. ^ Perkins 2000, 2:1–17 (score).
  122. ^ Fenlon 2002, 112–13.
  123. ^ Portnoy, Wallis, and Siegel 1999.[page needed]
  124. ^ a b Le Jeune 1951–59, 1:32–33.
  125. ^ DreiblatsJaanis (2013). "Gibbon Guitar Pro by This Town Needs Guns". 911Tabs.Com. Retrieved 2013-08-01. 
  126. ^ Read 1964, 160; Stravinsky 1958, 29.
  127. ^ Leonard 2011.
  128. ^ Flans 1982.
  129. ^ Stockhausen 1967, 1, 6, and 7.
  130. ^ Read 1964, 156.
  131. ^ "All About Jazz". All About Jazz. Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  132. ^ "Between Moments EP". Retrieved 2013-10-03. 
  133. ^ "Baboon Guitar Pro by This Town Needs Guns @ Ultimate-Guitar.Com". Tabs.ultimate-guitar.com. Retrieved 2013-08-01. 
  134. ^ "Ganondorf Battle (Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time) Bass/Guitar Tab". GameTab. August 8, 2009. Retrieved July 15, 2013. 
  135. ^ Telemann 1728, 37; Telemann 1970, 14–15; Zohn 2004, 247: "the ‘Brobdingnagische Gigue’—no doubt inspired by the English jig Gulliver plays with great effort on a sixty-foot spinet—is danced in giant steps, trudging along in twenty-four semibreves to the bar."
  136. ^ Fenlon 2002, 90 & 102–106.
  137. ^ "OFFICE OF STRATEGIC INFLUENCE (O.S.I.) BIOGRAPHY". Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  138. ^ Tempo controlSlow down the song anytime you need it. "This Town Needs Guns - 26 Is Dancier Than 4 Tab Online | UG Plus @ Ultimate-Guitar.com". Tp.ultimate-guitar.com. Retrieved 2013-08-01. 
  139. ^ Fenlon 2002, 40.
  140. ^ "Matt Savage plays "Blues in 33/8" in New York". YouTube. 2007-01-01. Retrieved 2013-08-01. 
  141. ^ Fenlon 2002, 41; Fienberg 2004, 228–29 & 231–32.
  142. ^ "Split Open and Melt". Phish.net. April 10, 2013. Retrieved July 20, 2013. "SOAM’s" complex improv segment is notorious for its time signature, which involves three sections of eight eighth-notes and then a fourth section with nine eighth-notes in a steady pulse (listen to Fishman’s hi-hat) 
  143. ^ Stockhausen 1967, 7.
  144. ^ a b c Stockhausen 1967, 1.
  145. ^ Gilmore 1994, 4.
  146. ^ Grady n.d.
  147. ^ Dean 2014.
  148. ^ "Richard Thompson". pastemagazine.com. Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  149. ^ Ben Folds-"Songs for Silverman, piano/vocal transcriptions Hal Leonard Corporation[citation needed].
  150. ^ "Mike Portnoy - The dance of eternity time signature & solo 1". Retrieved 2009-02-28. 
  151. ^ "Demand history". Phish.net. Retrieved July 21, 2013. an instrumental mix of 4
    4
    and 9
    8
    time signatures
     
  152. ^ Allcock, Maartin, ed. (1998). Fairport Convention Songbook 2. Woodworm Music. pp. 56–59. 
  153. ^ Banks n.d.
  154. ^ Primus (musical group), Primus Anthology: A thru N: For Guitar and Bass, transcribed by Jeff Jacobsen (New York: Cherry Lane Music, 2000), 21. ISBN 1575601540.
  155. ^ "A Headache And A Sixty-Fourth". Retrieved 2010-08-21. 
  156. ^ "The meters of these three measures are 11
    8
    , 4
    4
    , and 7
    8
    , respectively. The special effect of running even eighth notes accented as if triplets against the grain of the underlying backbeat is carried to a point more reminiscent of Stravinsky than of the Beatles" (Alan Pollack's 'Notes On' series, no. 183).
  157. ^ "Hey Ya! - Outkast". Rolling Stone. 2004-12-09. Retrieved 2008-03-23. 
  158. ^ Sheet music for "Hey Ya!" Hal Leonard Corporation, 2003.[full citation needed]
  159. ^ Sheet music, published by New Hidden Valley Music and Casa David, copyright 1966
  160. ^ Peart, Neil (2010-10-07). "Rush - Losing It Sheet Music (Digital Download)". Musicnotes.com. Retrieved 2012-04-14. 
  161. ^ Haigh n.d.
  162. ^ "" Neil Peart Biography, Drum Videos and Pictures | Famous Drummers". Drumlessons.com. Retrieved 2012-04-14. 
  163. ^ "Midnight Oil :: No Time For Games Drum Sheet Music - Quality Drum Sheet Music, Scores, Tabs". Drumscore.com. Retrieved 2013-08-01. 
  164. ^ "[Powderworks] time signatures". Midnight-oil.info. Retrieved 2013-08-01. 
  165. ^ Allcock, Maartin, ed. (1998). Fairport Convention Songbook 2. Woodworm Music. p. 81. 
  166. ^ Lloyd Webber and Rice 1970.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Alkan, Charles Valentin. n.d. (ca. 1861). Douze études dans toutes les tons mineurs, Op.39: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project. Paris. Simon Richault. Plate 13171.R.
  • Alkan, Charles Valentin. n.d. (ca. 1862). Esquisses, Op. 63: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project. Paris. Simon Richault. Plate 13476.R.
  • Andriessen, Louis. 1976. De Staat. Hawkes Pocket Scores 1234. London, Paris, Bonn, Johannesburg, Sydney, Tokyo, Toronto, and New York: Boosey & Hawkes.
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