List of world records in chess
|This article uses algebraic notation to describe chess moves.|
- 1 Longest game
- 2 Shortest game
- 3 Fewest moves played in a tournament
- 4 Latest first capture
- 5 Latest first capture in a decisive game
- 6 Theoretical novelties
- 7 Greatest concentration of resident grandmasters
- 8 Perfect tournament and match scores
- 9 Most tournament victories
- 10 Most wins of a national championship
- 11 Most games won
- 12 Most games lost
- 13 Lost all games on time
- 14 Consecutive wins
- 15 Consecutive games without a loss
- 16 Largest tie for first
- 17 Highest rating
- 18 Largest rating lead
- 19 Youngest player to defeat a grandmaster
- 20 Best and worst results in simultaneous exhibitions
- 21 Most games in blindfold exhibitions
- 22 Most players taking part in a multi-simul
- 23 Most simultaneous games
- 24 Most wins against world champions
- 25 See also
- 26 References
- 27 External links
The longest tournament chess game (in terms of moves) ever to be played was Nikolić-Arsović, Belgrade 1989, which lasted for 269 moves and took 20 hours and 15 minutes to complete a drawn game. At the time this game was played, FIDE had modified the fifty-move rule to allow 100 moves to be played without a piece being captured in a rook and bishop versus rook endgame, the situation in Nikolić versus Arsović. FIDE has since rescinded that modification to the rule.
The longest decisive tournament game is Fressinet–Kosteniuk, Villandry 2007, which Kosteniuk won in 237 moves. The last 116 moves were a rook and bishop versus rook ending, as in Nikolić – Arsović. Fressinet could have claimed a draw under the fifty-move rule, but did not do so since neither player was keeping score, it being a rapid chess game. Earlier in the tournament, Korchnoi had successfully invoked the rule to claim a draw against Fressinet; the arbiters overruled Fressinet's argument that Korchnoi could not do so without keeping score. Fressinet, apparently wanting to be consistent, did not try to claim a draw against Kosteniuk in the same situation.
In terms of number of moves, the quickest mate possible in chess is known as Fool's mate (1.g4 e5 2.f3?? Qh4# and variants thereof). This has been known to occur in amateur play. ChessGames.com gives a game L. Darling-R. Wood, 1983, that was published on April Fool's Day in Northwest Chess magazine (1.g4 e6 2.f4?? Qh4#). Bill Wall lists, in addition to Darling-Wood, three other games that ended with Black checkmating on the second move. In a tournament game at odds of pawn and move, White delivered checkmate on move 2: W. Cooke-"R____g", Cape Town Chess Club handicap tournament 1908 (remove Black's f-pawn) 1.e4 g5?? 2.Qh5#. The same game had previously been played in Leeky-Mason, Dublin 1867.
The shortest decisive game ever played in master play that was decided because of the position on the board (i.e. not because of a forfeit or protest) is Z. Đorđević – M. Kovačević, Bela Crkva 1984. It lasted only three moves (1.d4 Nf6 2.Bg5 c6 3.e3?? Qa5+ winning the bishop), and White resigned. This was repeated in Vassallo-Gamundi, Salamanca 1998. (In a number of other games, White has played on after 3...Qa5+, occasionally drawing or even winning in this line.)
There have been many forfeited games (which could technically be regarded as losses in zero moves), the most notable examples being Game 2 of the 1972 world championship match between Boris Spassky and Bobby Fischer, which Fischer defaulted, and Game 5 of the 2006 world championship match between Vladimir Kramnik and Veselin Topalov, which Kramnik defaulted. A game between Fischer and Oscar Panno, played at the Palma de Mallorca Interzonal 1970, went 1. c4 resigns. Panno refused to play to protest the organizers' rescheduling of the game to accommodate Fischer's desire not to play on his religion's Sabbath. Panno was not present when the game was to begin. Fischer waited ten minutes before making his move and went to get Panno to convince him to play. Fifty-two minutes had elapsed on Panno's clock before he came to the board and resigned. (At the time, an absence of sixty minutes resulted in a forfeit.)
Under recently instituted FIDE rules, a player who is late for the beginning of a round loses the game, as does a player whose cellphone makes any sound in the tournament hall. The former rule was used at the 2009 Chinese Championship to forfeit Hou Yifan for arriving five seconds late for the beginning of a round. The latter rule was used to forfeit Aleksander Delchev against Stuart Conquest after the move 1.d4 in the 2009 European Team Championship.
The German grandmaster Robert Hübner also lost a game without playing any moves. In a World Student Team Championship game played in Graz in 1972, Hübner played one move and offered a draw to Kenneth Rogoff, who accepted. However, the arbiters insisted that some moves be played, so the players played the following ridiculous game: 1. c4 Nf6 2. Nf3 g6 3. Ng1 Bg7 4. Qa4 0-0 5. Qxd7 Qxd7 6. g4 Qxd2+ 7. Kxd2 Nxg4 8. b4 a5 9. a4 Bxa1 10. Bb2 Nc6 11. Bh8 Bg7 12. h4 axb4 draw agreed). The arbiters ruled that both players must apologize and play an actual game at 7 p.m. Rogoff appeared and apologized; Hübner did neither. Hübner's clock was started, and after an hour Rogoff was declared the winner. The young star players Wang Chen and Lu Shanglei both lost a game in which they had played no moves. They agreed to a draw without play at the 2009 Zhejiang Lishui Xingqiu Cup International Open Chess Tournament held in Lishui, Zhejiang Province, China. The chief arbiter declared both players to have lost the game.
A game may be drawn in any number of moves, or even no moves, if the tournament officials (unlike those at Graz and Lishui) do not object. According to ChessGames.com, in the 1968 Skopje–Ohrid tournament Dragoljub Janosevic and Efim Geller agreed to a draw without playing any moves. Tony Miles and Stewart Reuben did the same thing in the last round of the Luton 1975 tournament, "with the blessing of the controller", in order to assure themselves of first and second places respectively.
Shortest decisive World Championship game
This game was played between Viswanathan Anand and Boris Gelfand in game 8 of the World Chess Championship 2012. The game lasted only 17 moves, ending with Gelfand's resignation. When starting a combination at move 14, Gelfand missed the move 17.Qf2. In an interview after the game, Anand revealed that he had foreseen the possibility of Gelfand's blunder when he moved exf5 on his 11th move. Foreseeing serious material disadvantage, Gelfand resigned.
Fewest moves played in a tournament
Latest first capture
In Rogoff-Williams, World Junior Championship, Stockholm 1969, the first capture (94.bxc5) occurred on White's 94th move. Filipowicz-Smederevac, Polanica Zdroj 1966 was drawn in 70 moves under the fifty-move rule, without any piece or pawn having been captured.
Latest first capture in a decisive game
1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bb5 a6 4. Ba4 Nf6 5. O-O Be7 6. Re1 b5 7. Bb3 d6 8. c3 Na5 9. Bc2 c5 10. d4 Qc7 11. h3 O-O 12. Nbd2 Bd7 13. Nf1 Nc6 14. d5 Nd8 15. g4 Ne8 16. Ng3 g6 17. Kh2 Ng7 18. Rg1 f6 19. Be3 Nf7 20. Rg2 Kh8 21. Qd2 Qc8 22. Rh1 Rg8 23. Rhg1 a5 24. Kh1 b4 25. c4 a4 26. Bd3 Qa6 27. Qe2 Raf8 28. Nd2 Qc8 29. f3 Ne8 30. Ndf1 Kg7 31. Bc1 h6 32. Ne3 Kh7 33. Rh2 Nh8 34. h4 Rf7 35. Nd1 Bf8 36. Nf2 Bg7 37. f4 Bf8 38. Qf3 Qd8 39. Nh3 Qe7 40. g5 Bxh3 41. f5 hxg5 42. hxg5 Rgg7 43. Rxh3+ Kg8 44. fxg6 Rxg6 45. Nf5 Qd7 46. Rg2 fxg5 47. Rgh2 Bg7 48. Rxh8+ Bxh8 49. Qh5 Rff6 50. Qxh8+ Kf7 51. Rh7+ Ng7 52. Rxg7+ Rxg7 53. Qxg7+ 1–0
The book 1000 TN!! The Best Theoretical Novelties contains the games with the ten highest-ranked theoretical novelties (TNs) that occurred in each of Volumes 11 through 110 of Chess Informant. The earliest such novelty occurred on White's fourth move in Karpov-Miles, Bugojno 1978, namely 1.c4 b6 2.d4 e6 3.d5 Qh4 4.Nc3! The latest occurred on Black's 34th move (34...Kd5!) in Shulman-Marin, Reykjavík Open 2009. The only game to receive a perfect rating from Chess Informant's panel of judges was Miles-Belyavsky, Tilburg 1986, which featured the novelty 18.f4!! It received 90 points, 10 out of a possible 10 from each of the 9 judges.
Greatest concentration of resident grandmasters
In December 2005, Reykjavík, Iceland, with eight grandmasters (Jon Arnason, Jóhann Hjartarson, Margeir Petursson, Fridrik Olafsson, Throstur Thorhallsson, Helgi Gretarsson, Hannes Stefansson, and Bobby Fischer) had a higher percentage of resident grandmasters per capita than any other city worldwide; the city of 110,000 had one grandmaster per 13,750 residents. As of April 2008[update], the population of Reykjavík had grown to 118,861; Fischer died on January 17, 2008.
Perfect tournament and match scores
In top-class chess it is rare for a player to complete a tournament or match with a 100 percent score. This result was however achieved in tournaments by:
- Gustav Neumann at Berlin in 1865 (34/34)
- Henry Atkins at Amsterdam 1899 (15/15)
- Emanuel Lasker at New York in 1893 (13/13)
- José Raúl Capablanca at New York in 1913 (13/13, including one default)
- Alexander Beliavsky at Alicante in 1978 (13/13)
- Alexander Alekhine at Moscow in 1919–20 (11/11)
- Bobby Fischer at the US Championship of 1963/64 (11/11)
- David Janowski at Paris in 1914 (9/9)
- William Pollock at Belfast 1886 (8/8)
- Boris Kostić at Hastings 1921–22 (7/7)
Perfect scores were achieved in matches by:
- Howard Staunton over Daniel Harrwitz in 1846 (7/7)
- Wilhelm Steinitz over Joseph Henry Blackburne in 1876 (7/7)
- Fischer over Mark Taimanov in 1971 (6/6) (quarter-final Candidates Match)
- Fischer over Bent Larsen in 1971 (6/6) (semi-final Candidates Match)
- Capablanca over Kostić in 1919 (5/5)
William Lombardy is the only player ever to achieve a perfect score in the World Junior Chess Championship, open to players under the age of 20 as of January 1 in the year of competition. He scored 11–0 at Toronto 1957.
Vera Menchik won four consecutive Women's World Chess Championship tournaments with perfect scores, a total of 45 games (8–0 at Prague 1931, 14–0 at Folkestone 1933, 9–0 at Warsaw 1935, and 14–0 at Stockholm 1937). She only played 43 of the 45 games, since Harum, the Austrian contestant, was unable to reach Folkestone and thus forfeited all of her games in that double round robin event.
Alekhine scored 9–0 on first board for France at the 3rd Chess Olympiad (Hamburg, 1930), and Dragoljub Čirić scored 8–0 as second reserve (the sixth player on his team) for Yugoslavia at the 17th Olympiad (Havana, 1966), but each played only about half of the possible games. Robert Gwaze scored 9–0 on first board for Zimbabwe at the 35th Olympiad (Bled, 2002). Paul Keres scored 13.5 points out of 14 games (96.4%) playing fourth board for the USSR at the 11th Olympiad (Amsterdam, 1954).
Wesley So scored 9/9 in the 2011 Inter-Provincial Chess Team Championship, with a performance rating of 3037, won the gold medal in men's blitz at the SEA Games 2011 at Indonesia with a score of 9/9 and a rating performance of 3183, and won the 2013 Calgary International Blitz Championship with a score of 9/9.
Most tournament victories
Most wins of a national championship
As of November 2012, Carlos Juárez has won the national championship of Guatemala 24 times.
Most games won
Gustav Neumann won all 34 of his games at the aforementioned Berlin 1865 tournament.
Most games lost
Nicholas MacLeod holds the record for the most games lost in a single tournament: he lost 31 games at the Sixth American Chess Congress at New York 1889, while winning six and drawing one. MacLeod was only 19 and the tournament, a 20-player double-round robin, was one of the longest tournaments in chess history. The most games lost by a player who lost all of his games in a tournament was by Colonel Moreau. At Monte Carlo 1903, Moreau lost all 26 of his games.
Lost all games on time
Steinitz won his last 16 games at Vienna 1873, including a two-game playoff against Blackburne at the end. He played no serious chess until an 1876 match against Blackburne that Steinitz swept 7–0. After a long period of inactivity, Steinitz played at Vienna 1882, where he won his first two games before finally ending his winning streak with a draw. Steinitz's 25-game winning streak over nine years has never been equaled.
The modern record of 20 consecutive wins is held by Bobby Fischer. (Some commentators give this as 19, electing not to count Fischer's game against Oscar Panno, who resigned after Fischer's first move as a protest). Fischer won his last seven games at the 1970 Palma de Mallorca Interzonal (including the one-move game against Panno). In the quarter-finals of the Candidates Matches leading to the world championship, Fischer swept Grandmaster Mark Taimanov 6–0. In the semi-finals, Fischer swept Grandmaster Bent Larsen by the same score. In the Candidates Match final, Fischer beat former World Champion Tigran Petrosian in the first game before Petrosian snapped the streak by beating Fischer in the second match game.
The record for most consecutive professional tournament victories is held by Garry Kasparov, who placed first or equal first in 15 individual supertournaments, from 1981 to 1990. The streak was broken by Vasily Ivanchuk at Linares 1991, where Kasparov placed 2nd, half a point behind him.
Consecutive games without a loss
Between October 23, 1973, when he lost a game in a Soviet championship, and October 16, 1974, when he lost to Kirov at the Novi Sad tournament, Mikhail Tal had a string of 95 tournament games without a loss (46 wins and 49 draws). Tal also has the second-longest unbeaten run in top-level competition. He went unbeaten in 86 games from July 1972, when he lost to Uusi in the tenth round at Viljandi, until April 1973, when he lost to Balashov in round two of the USSR Team Championship in Moscow. This streak included 47 wins and 39 draws.
Largest tie for first
Thirteen players tied for first with 5–1 scores at the National Open held on March 17–19, 2000 in Las Vegas: grandmasters Jaan Ehlvest, Alexander Goldin, Alexander Baburin, Pavel Blatny, Eduard Gufeld, Yuri Shulman, Alex Yermolinsky, Gregory Kaidanov, Dmitry Gurevich, Alexander Stripunsky, and Gregory Serper, and International Masters Rade Milovanovic and Levon Altounian.
Progression of highest rating record Player Rating Year-month first achieved Bobby Fischer 2760 1971-01 Bobby Fischer 2785 1972-01 Garry Kasparov 2800 1990-01 Garry Kasparov 2805 1993-01 Garry Kasparov 2815 1993-07 Garry Kasparov 2820 1997-07 Garry Kasparov 2825 1998-01 Garry Kasparov 2851 1999-07 Magnus Carlsen 2861 2013-01 Magnus Carlsen 2872 2013-02
Largest rating lead
On the July 1972 FIDE rating list, Bobby Fischer's rating of 2785 was 125 points ahead of the second-highest rated player, then-reigning World Champion Boris Spassky (2660). Kasparov's biggest lead at his peak was 82 points in January 2000. Jeff Sonas of Chessmetrics reckons that in April 1876 Wilhelm Steinitz was the top-ranked player in the world, with a rating a record 199 points above that of Henry Bird, the second-ranked player.
Youngest player to defeat a grandmaster
Best and worst results in simultaneous exhibitions
In 1922, José Raúl Capablanca, the recently crowned World Champion, played 103 opponents simultaneously in Cleveland. He completed the exhibition in seven hours, scoring 102 wins and one draw (99.5%), the best result ever in a simultaneous exhibition on over 75 boards.
The best result in a simultaneous exhibition solely against grandmasters is former World Champion Garry Kasparov's performance against a West German team consisting of Vlastimil Hort, Eric Lobron, Matthias Wahls, and Gerald Hertneck at Baden-Baden in 1992. Unusually for simultaneous exhibitions, half of the players (Lobron and Hertneck) played White. Kasparov beat Lobron and Wahls, and drew the other two players, for a 3–1 victory. Before the term "grandmaster" was in common usage or had an established meaning, Paul Morphy gave an arguably even more impressive exhibition. On April 26, 1859, at London's St. James Chess Club, Morphy played "five games simultaneously against a group of masters who could be described as among the top ten players of the day", scoring 3–2. He defeated Jules Arnous de Rivière and Henry Bird, drew Samuel Boden and Johann Löwenthal, and lost only to Thomas Wilson Barnes.
The worst result in a simultaneous exhibition given by a master occurred in 1951, when International Master Robert Wade gave a simultaneous exhibition against 30 Russian schoolboys, aged 14 and under. After 7 hours of play, Wade had lost 20 games and drawn the remaining 10 (16.7%).
The absolute worst result in a simultaneous exhibition was two wins and 18 losses (10%) by Joe Hayden, aged 17, in August 1977. Hayden wanted to set an American record by playing 180 people simultaneously at a shopping center in Cardiff, NJ, but only 20 showed up to play. Hayden lost 18 of the games (including one to a thirteen-year-old named Raymond Ouyang). His two wins were scored against his mother and a player who got tired of waiting and left in mid-game, thus forfeiting the game.
Most games in blindfold exhibitions
Miguel Najdorf played against 45 opponents in a simultaneous blindfold exhibition given at Sao Paulo in 1947, winning 39, losing 2 and drawing 4 games (after a similar display in Rosario, Argentina, in 1943, against 40 players). Later Janos Flesch (52 games) claimed to have broken this record, but his exhibition was not properly monitored and so it was not recognized. In November 2011, little-known German master Marc Lang broke Najdorf's record, playing 46 opponents.
Most players taking part in a multi-simul
On October 21, 2006, a gigantic multi-simul was organized in El Zócalo, Mexico City's central square. About 600 masters played against 20 to 25 opponents each. The total number of players was 13,446 according to the authorities. The tables were arranged in squares of different colors, each containing seven simuls. The square resembled in this way a giant chessboard. Anatoly Karpov was a guest at the event but did not play in the simuls as he was busy signing 1951 copies of his latest book. Guinness World Records acknowledged the event as the largest one held in a single day.
This record was broken on December 24, 2010 in Ahmadabad, India, where about 20,500 played simultaneously. World Champion Viswanathan Anand was a guest of honor for this event and participated in the simul.
Most simultaneous games
On February 8–9, 2011, Iranian grandmaster Ehsan Ghaem-Maghami achieved the Guinness world record for most simultaneous chess games. He played for 25 hours against 604 players, winning 580 (97.35%) of the games, drawing 16, and losing 8.
Most wins against world champions
Paul Keres and Viktor Korchnoi are the only chess players to have defeated nine undisputed world champions: Keres defeated José Raúl Capablanca, Alexander Alekhine, Max Euwe, Mikhail Botvinnik, Vasily Smyslov, Mikhail Tal, Tigran Petrosian, Boris Spassky and Bobby Fischer. Korchnoi has defeated Botvinnik, Smyslov, Tal, Petrosian, Spassky, Fischer, Anatoly Karpov, Garry Kasparov, and Magnus Carlsen. Korchnoi also defeated FIDE world champions Ruslan Ponomariov and Veselin Topalov.
- Ivan Nikolic vs Goran Arsovic, Belgrade 1989
- Chess records by Tim Krabbé
- A chess feast in Château de Villandry
- Darling-Wood, NWC 1983
- Miniatures. Retrieved on 2009-01-04.
- Edward Winter, Chess Note 5858.
- (Winter 2003, p. 99)
- Z Djordjevic vs M Kovacevic, Bela Crkva 1984
- (Fox & James 1993, p. 177)
- Tim Krabbé, Entry No. 257. Retrieved on 2009-05-04.
- Carl D. Latino v. Steven R. Dumas, North American Open 2010
- (Brady 1973, pp. 244–45)
- Chess Informant, Volume 98, Šahovski Informator, 2007, p. 295.
- (Brady 1973, p. 179)
- (Wade & O'Connell 1973, pp. 344, 410)
- (Brady 1973, p. 245)
- New rule. Good or bad? You decide. susanpolgar.blogspot.com. Retrieved on 2009-10-25.
- "Novi Sad: another loss by ringtone". ChessBase News. 2009-10-25. Retrieved 2009-10-25.
- (Alexander 1973, pp. 80–81)
- Susan Polgar Daily Chess News and Information, Double forfeit (based on Polgar's translation of Chinese-language Sina Sports, published 2009-09-21). Retrieved on 2009-09-29.
- Janosevic-Geller, Skopje/Ohrid 1968
- (Whyld 1986, p. 124)
- (Fox & James 1993, p. 178)
- (Winter 2008)
- Kenneth Rogoff vs Arthur Howard Williams, World Junior Championship, B Final 1969
- (Whyld 1986, p. 124)
- Nuber-Keckeisen, Mengen 1994
- The game appears in "The Game of Chess" by Harry Golombek, Penguin Books, first published 1954, on page 119. The game is only given from move 40 onwards, but the diagram showing position on move 40 shows all pieces and pawns present.
- Chess Informant, 1000 TN!! The Best Theoretical Novelties, 2012, p. 3.
- 1000 TN!! The Best Theoretical Novelties, p. 94
- Karpov-Miles, Bugojno 1978
- 1000 TN!! The Best Theoretical Novelties, pp. 579-80.
- Shulman-Marin, Reykjavík Open 2009
- 1000 TN!! The Best Theoretical Novelties, p. 311.
- The Beer Sheva Chess Club – see Addendum in middle of article
- (Fox & James 1993, p. 129)
- Hooper and Whyld call Fischer's achievement "the most remarkable achievement of this kind", noting that the 1963/64 U.S. Championship was "a tournament of about category 10." (Hooper & Whyld 1992, p. 81)
- (Di Felice 2004, p. 101)
- (Winter 1998)
- (Cload & Keene 1991, pp. 123–24)
- (Hooper & Whyld 1992, p. 81)
- (Soltis 2002, pp. 81–83)
- (Sunnucks 1970, p. 76)
- Sunnucks also lists Alekhine's 10/10 score at Caracas 1939, but Soltis writes that it, and Buenos Aires 1926, which Alekhine won with the same score, were "weak events". (Soltis 2002, p. 81).
- (Hooper & Whyld 1992, p. 81)
- (Fox & James 1993, pp. 17–18)
- (Kažić 1974, pp. 273–74)
- Lombardy 2011, back cover.
- (Hooper & Whyld 1992, p. 81)
- (Kažić 1974, pp. 261–63)
- (Sergeant 1934, p. 324)
- (Kažić 1974, pp. 16, 95)
- (Hook 2008, p. 177)
- (Kažić 1974, p. 56)
- His fifth samovar – Morozevich wins 64th Moscow Blitz, "WGM Valentina Gunina with a truly astounding result", "an incredible 100% result, winning all seventeen games she played".
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- "Chess Chat with John Curdo".
- (Fox & James 1993, p. 129)
- (Chernev 1974, p. 50)
- (Fox & James 1993, pp. 168–69)
- (Winter 1996, p. 3)
- (Fox & James 1993, p. 169)
- (Whyld 1986, p. 125)
- (Hooper & Whyld 1992, pp. 352–53)
- (Soltis 2002, p. 42)
- (Soltis 2002, pp. 43, 73)
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- Linares: The Aníbal Hall of Fame
- (Soltis 2002, p. 44)
- (Tal 1976, p. 500)
- (Tal 1976)
- Wang Yue's Unbeaten Streak, Chessdom, December 2008. Retrieved on 2008-12-24.
- Robert Byrne, CHESS; Gufeld is One of Lucky 13 at Top of the National Open, The New York Times, April 23, 2000. Retrieved on 2011-10-09.
- All Time Rankings – lists the top 10 from 1970 to 1997.
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- (Damsky 2005, p. 235)
- (Chernev 1974, p. 8)
- (Damsky 2005, pp. 247–49)
- (Soltis 2002, p. 103)
- (Kotov 1964, p. 66)
- (Chernev 1974, p. 110)
- (Fox & James 1993, pp. 170–71)
- GM Alexander Kotov wrote that former World Champion Max Euwe warned new arrivals in Moscow, "Just don't give exhibitions against Pioneers" (i.e. students at the Palaces of the Pioneers) (Kotov 1964, p. 66).
- (Fox & James 1993, pp. 190–91)
- Leonard Barden (30 December 2011). "Marc Lang catches the eye by breaking world blindfold record". The Guardian.
- Chessbase report of the event with many photos
- "World Record 604 Board Simultaneous Chess Exhibition by GM Ehsan Ghaem Maghami (IRI)". Fide.com. 2011-02-10. Retrieved 2013-12-09.
- Alexander, C.H.O'D. (1973), A Book of Chess, New York: Harper & Row, ISBN 0-06-010048-6
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- Chernev, Irving (1974), Wonders and Curiosities of Chess, New York: Dover Publications, ISBN 978-0-486-23007-8
- Cload, Reg; Keene, Raymond (1991), Battles of Hastings, Oxford and New York: Pergamon Chess, ISBN 0-08-037791-2
- Damsky, Yakov (2005), The Batsford Book of Chess Records, London: Batsford, ISBN 0-7134-8946-4
- Di Felice, Gino (2004), Chess Results, 1747–1900, Jefferson, North Carolina and London: McFarland & Company, ISBN 0-7864-2041-3
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- Kotov, Alexander (January–February 1964), "Why the Russians?", Chessworld: 62–69
- Lombardy, William, Understanding Chess: My System, My Games, My Life, New York: Russell Enterprises, ISBN 978-1-93649-022-6
- Morse, Jeremy (1995), Chess Problems: Tasks and Records, Faber and Faber, ISBN 0-571-15363-1 Concentrates on maximum tasks and records.
- Sergeant, Philip (1934), A Century of British Chess, Philadelphia: David McKay
- Soltis, Andy (2002), Chess Lists Second Edition, Jefferson, North Carolina and London: McFarland and Company, ISBN 0-7864-1296-8
- Sunnucks, Anne (1970), The Encyclopaedia of Chess, New York: St. Martin's Press
- Tal, Mikhail (1976), The Life and Games of Mikhail Tal, New York: RHM Press, ISBN 0-89058-027-8
- Wade, Robert; O'Connell, Kevin (1973), Bobby Fischer's Chess Games (2nd ed.), Garden City, New York: Doubleday, ISBN 0-385-08627-X
- Whyld, Ken (1986), Chess: The Records, Enfield, Middlesex: Guinness Books, ISBN 0-85112-455-0
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