List of British inventions and discoveries

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Lists of British inventions)
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a timeline of British innovation and discovery.

Britain, where the Industrial Revolution began in the late 1700s, has a long history of innovation and discovery by pioneering scientists, engineers and manufacturers. A survey organised by EEF and conducted by YouGov in April 2014 found the "top ten" British inventions (n.b. not including 'discoveries') are the:[1][2]

  1. Telephone
  2. Television
  3. Jet engine
  4. Steam engine
  5. Light bulb
  6. Electric motor
  7. Cat's eyes
  8. Bicycle
  9. ATM/cashpoint machine
  10. Hypodermic syringe

The Radio Times produced a list of "The 50 greatest British inventions" in January 2013.[3][4] Another survey compiled a list of the "top British innovations".[5][6]

Many of the ten inventions listed above can not be claimed simply by British inventors, as is the case with many modern inventions. Steam-powered pumps were first used by a Spanish man, Jerónimo de Ayanz y Beaumont, although English inventor Thomas Newcomen created the first practical steam engine for pumping water in 1712.[7] Perhaps the first electric motors were simple electrostatic devices created by the Scottish monk Andrew Gordon in the 1740s.[8] However, Hungarian Ányos Jedlik later made the first electric motor with commutator brushes, that is, a modern direct current motor which allowed for the motor to turn more than once without the entire motor being submerged in liquid.

The incandescent light bulb was worked on by scores of people, French, British and American including Thomas Edison who is regarded by many (somewhat incorrectly) as being the inventor of the lightbulb. However, some of the earliest advancements toward a working light bulb were made by English inventor Humphry Davy, and Scottish inventor James Bowman Lindsay is credited in Challoner et al. with being the inventor of the "incandescent light bulb" in 1835.[9] The list of bicycle inventors is long disputed, with German Baron Karl von Drais usually being credited for the first forerunner of a bicycle, the dandy horse, similar to a modern-day balance bike. The first mechanically propelled, two-wheeled vehicle may have been built by Kirkpatrick MacMillan, a Scottish blacksmith, in 1839, although the claim is often disputed.[10] Irishman Francis Rynd was the first to use a hollow needle for injections, nine years before the English and French physicians Alexander Wood and Charles Pravaz independently developed a medical hypodermic syringe with a needle fine enough to pierce the skin in 1853.[11] Scottish-born Alexander Graham Bell was working in America when he was granted a U.S. patent for the telephone in 1876 and he later renounced his British citizenship, thus Americans equally claim the invention. Italians claim that Antonio Meucci created the word's first telephone concept two decades earlier.

Similarly, the television has a complicated history, the first "widely-regarded" demonstration of modern electronic television was by an American, Philo Farnsworth in 1928. Earlier contributions were made by German Paul Gottlieb Nipkow who invented components that Scotsman John Logie Baird used to give the first demonstration of mechanical television in 1924 followed by the first public demonstration in January 1926.[12] UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme records Hungarian engineer Kálmán Tihanyi to have patented the first working fully electronic TV concept in 1926. A gas turbine was first demonstrated by Norwegian Ægidius Elling, but Englishman Frank Whittle was the first to patent a jet engine in 1930, followed by German Hans von Ohain six years later.[13] Cat's eyes, used for road marking, originated in the UK in 1933 and went on to be adopted around the world. The ATM was developed independently in several countries including Britain, where it was first put into commercial use in 1967.[14]

This timeline includes innovations as well as inventions and discoveries that involved British people or the United Kingdom including its predecessor states.

17th century[edit]

1605
1620
1625
1657
1667
1698

18th century[edit]

1701
1712
1730
  • The Rotherham plough, the first plough to be widely built in factories and commercially successful, is patented by Joseph Foljambe.[22]
1740
1753
  • Invention of hollow-pipe drainage is credited to Sir Hugh Dalrymple who died in 1753.[23]
1765
1767
1776
  • Scottish economist Adam Smith, often known as 'The father of modern economics',[26] publishes his seminal text The Wealth of Nations.[27][28]
  • The Watt steam engine, conceived in 1765, goes into production. It is the first type of steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric.
1783
1781
1786

19th century[edit]

1802
1804
1823
1828
1835
1836
1837
1839
1842
1843
  • SS Great Britain, the world's first steam-powered, screw propeller-driven passenger liner with an iron hull is launched. Designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, it was at the time the largest ship afloat.
1852
1853
  • English physician Alexander Wood develops a medical hypodermic syringe with a needle fine enough to pierce the skin.[11]
1854
1868
1869
1873
1876
1878
1883
1884
1885
  • The first commercially successful safety bicycle, called the Rover, is designed by John Kemp Starley. The following year Dan Albone produces a derivative of this called the Ivel Safety cycle.
1892

20th century[edit]

1902
1910
1922
  • In Sorbonne, France, Englishman Edwin Belin demonstrates a mechanical scanning device, an early precursor to modern television.
1926
1930
1932
  • The Anglepoise lamp is patented by George Carwardine, a design consultant specialising in vehicle suspension systems.
1933
1936
1943
1949
1951
  • The concept of microprogramming is developed by Maurice Wilkes from the realisation that the Central Processing Unit (CPU) of a computer could be controlled by a miniature, highly specialised computer program in high-speed ROM.
  • LEO is the first business application (a payroll system) on an electronic computer.
1952
  • Autocode, regarded as the first compiled programming language, is developed for the Manchester Mark 1 by Alick Glennie.
1955
  • The first accurate atomic clock, a caesium standard based on a certain transition of the caesium-133 atom, is built by Louis Essen at the National Physical Laboratory. This clock allowed for further development into general relativity, and started a basis for an enhanced SI unit system.[58]
1959
1963
1964
1965
1967
1969
1970
1973
1979
1984
1989
1991
1992
  • The first SMS message in the world is sent over the UK's GSM network.
1995
1997

21st century[edit]

2003
  • Beagle 2, a British landing spacecraft that forms part of the European Space Agency's 2003 Mars Express mission lands on the surface of Mars but fails to communicate. It is located twelve years later in a series of images from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter that suggest two of Beagle's four solar panels failed to deploy, blocking the spacecraft's communications antenna.
2004
2012
  • Raspberry Pi, a single-board computer, is launched and quickly becomes popular for education in programming and computer science.[72]
2014
  • The European Space Agency's Philae lander leaves the Rosetta spacecraft and makes the first ever landing on a comet. The Philae lander was built with significant British expertise and technology, alongside that of several other countries.[73][74]

Clock making[edit]

Clothing manufacturing[edit]

Communications[edit]

Computing[edit]

Engineering[edit]

Household appliances[edit]

Ideas, Religion and Ethics[edit]

Industrial processes[edit]

Medicine[edit]

Military[edit]

Mining[edit]

Musical instruments[edit]

Photography[edit]

Publishing firsts[edit]

Science[edit]

Astronomy[edit]

Chemistry[edit]

Sport[edit]

Transport[edit]

Aviation[edit]

Railways[edit]

Locomotives[edit]

Other railway developments[edit]

Roads[edit]

Sea[edit]

Scientific innovations[edit]

Miscellaneous[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Pioneering Great British Products". EEF The Manufacturers' Organisation. pp. 8, 13. Retrieved 28 September 2014. 
  2. ^ "Britain must do more to celebrate it's many ground-breaking inventions". The Telegraph. 23 June 2014. Retrieved 5 March 2015. 
  3. ^ "The 50 greatest British inventions". Radio Times. 8 January 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2015. 
  4. ^ "Here is the Radio Times list of the 50 greatest British inventions, in chronological order". The Telegraph. 8 January 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2015. 
  5. ^ "Past Innovations". Great British Innovation Vote. Retrieved 3 May 2015. 
  6. ^ "We're good at innovation but we must keep ourselves ahead of the game". The Telegraph. 15 Mar 2013. Retrieved 3 May 2015. 
  7. ^ Morris, Charles R. Morris; illustrations by J.E. (2012). The dawn of innovation the first American Industrial Revolution (1st ed. ed.). New York: PublicAffairs. p. 42. ISBN 978-1-61039-049-1. 
  8. ^ a b McInally, Tom (2011). The Sixth Scottish University: The Scots Colleges Abroad: 1575 to 1799. BRILL. p. 115. ISBN 9789004214262. 
  9. ^ a b Challoner, Jack et al. (2009). 1001 Inventions That Changed The World. Hauppauge NY: Barrons Educational Series. p. 305. 
  10. ^ Herlihy, David V. (2004). Bicycle: The History. Yale University Press. pp. 66–7. ISBN 978-0300120479. 
  11. ^ a b Huth, Edward J.; Murray, T. J., eds. (2006). Medicine in Quotations: Views of Health and Disease Through the Ages. American College of Physic. p. 130. 
  12. ^ "Historic Figures: John Logie Baird (1888 - 1946)". BBC. Retrieved 28 April 2015. 
  13. ^ "Jet Engines - Hans von Ohain and Sir Frank Whittle". About.com Inventors. Retrieved 26 April 2015. 
  14. ^ Batiz-Lazo, Bernardo; Reid, Robert J. K. (30 June 2008). "Evidence from the Patent Record on the Development of Cash Dispensing Technology" (PDF). Munich Personal RePEc Archive. p. 4. Retrieved 27 April 2015. 
  15. ^ "Ciphers of Francis Bacon". The Francis Bacon Research Trust. Retrieved 25 April 2015. 
  16. ^ Enzler MSc, S.M. "History of water treatment". Lenntech.com. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  17. ^ "The Origin and Evolution of the Anchor Clock Escapement". Archived from the original on 2009-10-25. 
  18. ^ "Micrographia - Extracts From The Preface". 
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Elizabeth H. Oakes (2002). A to Z of STS scientists. Facts on File Inc. ISBN 978-0-8160-4606-5. 
  20. ^ "Historic Figures* Jethro Tull (1674 - 1741)". BBC. Retrieved 4 April 2015. 
  21. ^ "Historic Figures:Thomas Newcomen (1663 - 1729)". BBC. Retrieved 6 December 2010. 
  22. ^ "The Rotherham Plough". Rotherhamweb.co.uk. Retrieved 5 April 2015. 
  23. ^ "Broadside eulogy dedicated to Patrick, Earl of Marchmount, Sir Hugh Dalrymple, and others". National Library of Scotland. Retrieved 5 April 2015. 
  24. ^ Wilson, Rick (2015). Scots Who Made America. Birlinn. ISBN 9780857908827. Retrieved 5 April 2015. 
  25. ^ Willcox, William Bradford; Arnstein, Walter L. (1966). The Age of Aristocracy, 1688 to 1830. Volume III of A History of England, edited by Lacey Baldwin Smith (Sixth Edition, 1992 ed.). Lexington, Massachusetts. p. 133. ISBN 0-669-24459-7.
  26. ^ Davis, William L, Bob Figgins, David Hedengren, and Daniel B. Klein. "Economic Professors' Favorite Economic Thinkers, Journals, and Blogs", Econ Journal Watch 8(2): 126–146, May 2011.[1]
  27. ^ M Skousen (2007). The Big Three in Economics: Adam Smith, Karl Marx, And John Maynard Keynes p3,5,6.
  28. ^ E. K. Hunt (2002). History of Economic Thought: A Critical Perspective, p.3. ISBN 0-7656-0606-2
  29. ^ "Robert Bakewell* 1725-1795". Animal Science Department at Iowa State University. Retrieved 4 April 2015. 
  30. ^ "Historic Figures* Robert Bakewell (1725 - 1795)". BBC. Retrieved 4 April 2015. 
  31. ^ "Andrew Meikle (1719-1811) engineer and inventor of the threshing machine, the predecessor of the combine harvester". Scottish Engineering Hall of Fame. Retrieved 5 April 2015. 
  32. ^ "Trevithick the railway pioneer". BBC. 29 April 2009. Retrieved 2010-12-07. 
  33. ^ Russell, Edward J. (2011). Fertility of the soil. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press. p. 78. ISBN 9781107401761. Retrieved 5 April 2015. 
  34. ^ Journal of the Society of Arts, Volume 6 By Society of Arts (Great Britain)
  35. ^ Victoria King. "Arsenic". History Magazine. 
  36. ^ a b "From the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 70, 517-526, 645 (Errata) (1910) By Major-General H. P. Babbage". 
  37. ^ Lee, Eric (2005). How internet radio can change the world : an activist's handbook. New York: iUniversr, Inc. ISBN 9780595349654. Retrieved 22 March 2015. 
  38. ^ "The origins of radio". Connected Earth. Retrieved 22 March 2015. 
  39. ^ "The development of the electric telegraph". University of Salford. Retrieved 11 May 2015. 
  40. ^ a b Shelley de Kock. "Sir Charles Wheatstone and the Wheatstone Collection". King's College London. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  41. ^ a b c d e Brian Bowers (2002). Sir Charles Wheatstone FRS: 1802-1875. Institution of Engineering and Technology. ISBN 978-0-85296-103-2. 
  42. ^ "BBC - History - Kirkpatrick Macmillan". Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  43. ^ "Lawes, Sir John Bennet (1814–1900) English Agriculturist (Scientist)". Retrieved 22 May 2014. 
  44. ^ "Scientists born on October 21st". Retrieved 31 October 2007. 
  45. ^ "History of Steam Ploughing". Steam Plough Club. 1998. Retrieved 4 April 2015. 
  46. ^ "Scottish Science Hall of Fame - Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922)". Retrieved 2010-02-20. 
  47. ^ Charlotte Fiell; Peter Fiell (eds.). 1000 Lights: 1878-1959. Taschen GmbH. ISBN 978-3-8228-1606-6. 
  48. ^ Luigi Palombi (2009). Gene cartels: biotech patents in the age of free trade. Edward Elgar Pub. p. 152. ISBN 978-1-84720-836-1. 
  49. ^ "Fresno Scraper". American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Retrieved 5 April 2015. 
  50. ^ "Who Is Sir Francis Galton?". Galton Institute. Retrieved 6 December 2010. 
  51. ^ "Dan Albone". Biggleswade History Society. Retrieved 30 August 2013. 
  52. ^ "Dan Albone, English inventor, 1902". The Science and Society Picture Library. 
  53. ^ Williams, David (2010-08-19). "100 Years Of The Driving Lesson". The Daily Telegraph (London). 
  54. ^ "BBC - History - John Logie Baird". Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  55. ^ The World's First High Definition Colour Television System. McLean, p. 196.
  56. ^ "Frank Whittle (1907 - 1996)". BBC. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  57. ^ "Annals of the History of Computing, Volume 5, Number 3, July 1983 . p239, The Design of Colossus, THOMAS H. FLOWERS". 
  58. ^ L. Essen, J.V.L. Parry (1955). "An Atomic Standard of Frequency and Time Interval - A Caesium Resonator". Nature 176 (4476): 280. Bibcode:1955Natur.176..280E. doi:10.1038/176280a0. 
  59. ^ "The history and uses of carbon fibre". BBC. 9 January 2013. Retrieved 3 May 2015. 
  60. ^ Peter Higgs: Behind the scenes at the Universe
  61. ^ Peter Higgs and the Higgs Boson | School of Physics and Astronomy
  62. ^ Grant, Oliver (December 1998). "The Diffusion Of The Herringbone Parlour* A Case Study In The History Of Agricultural Technology" (PDF). University of Oxford Discussion Papers in Economic and Social History (27): 8. Retrieved 4 April 2015. 
  63. ^ "Who Invented the ATM? The James Goodfellow Story". Retrieved 2011-08-26. 
  64. ^ "About Us". Carr Reinforcements. Retrieved 3 May 2015. 
  65. ^ Simon Singh (2000). The Code Book. Fourth Estate. ISBN 0-385-49531-5. 
  66. ^ Lantagne, D. O. (May 1997). "Using Tree Shelters To Establish Northern Red Oak And Other Hardwoods" (PDF). Michigan State University Extension Bulletin: 2. Retrieved 5 April 2015. 
  67. ^ "Frequently asked questions". Tim Berners-Lee. Retrieved 3 May 2015. 
  68. ^ "Biometric personal identification system based on iris analysis". Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  69. ^ "Research Excellence Framework". Research Excellence Framework. Iris Recognition. Retrieved 25 April 2015. 
  70. ^ "DNA: timeline of the national DNA database". The Telegraph. 7 May 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2015. 
  71. ^ "The Story of Graphene". University of Manchester. Retrieved 5 April 2015. 
  72. ^ "Raspberry Pi becomes best selling British computer". The Guardian. 18 February 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2015. 
  73. ^ "UK space industry behind Rosetta comet mission". The Telegraph. 11 November 2014. Retrieved 4 May 2015. 
  74. ^ "Europe makes history with first ever comet landing". UK Space Agency. 12 November 2014. Retrieved 4 May 2015. 
  75. ^ A. R. Hall, "Horology and criticism: Robert Hooke", Studia Copernicana, XVI, Ossolineum, 1978, 261-81
  76. ^ a b c d e f g h Hall, Carl (2008). A Biographical Dictionary of People in Engineering: From the Earliest Records to 2000. Purdue University Press. ISBN 978-1-55753-459-0. 
  77. ^ Daniels, George. "About George Daniels". Daniels London. Retrieved 2008-06-12. 
  78. ^ "Longitude clock comes alive". BBC News. 2002-03-11. Retrieved 2010-01-03. 
  79. ^ Moore, N. Hudson Moore (1903). The Old Furniture Book. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company. p. 205. 
  80. ^ Catherine O'Reilly (2008). Did Thomas Crapper Really Invent the Toilet?: The Inventions That Changed Our Homes and Our Lives. Skyhorse Publishing. ISBN 978-1-60239-347-9. 
  81. ^ The British Postal Museum & Archive — Rowland Hill’s Postal Reforms
  82. ^ Earnshaw, Iris (November 2003). "The History of Christmas Cards". Inverloch Historical Society Inc. Retrieved 2008-07-25. 
  83. ^ The History of Valentine's Day Cards ~ Valentine History ~ History of the Valentine ~ The Valentine Gallery Page One - Emotions Greeting Cards Museum
  84. ^ Joe Nickell (2000). Pen, ink, & evidence: a study of writing and writing materials for the penman, collector, and document detective. Oak Knoll Press. ISBN 978-1-58456-017-3. 
  85. ^ "About TREVOR BAYLIS the inventor of the windup technology". 
  86. ^ "Archives Biographies: Michael Faraday", The Institution of Engineering and Technology". 
  87. ^ "RSC Historic Chemical Landmark Award - Liquid Crystals". 
  88. ^ "Alan Blumlein - the man who invented stereo". 
  89. ^ Phil Baines; Andrew Haslam (2005). Type and typography. Laurence King. ISBN 978-1-85669-437-7. 
  90. ^ "William Ged (Scottish goldsmith)". Retrieved 2010-06-13. 
  91. ^ "roller printing (textile industry)". Retrieved 2010-06-13. 
  92. ^ "Arbroath & District Stamp & Postcard Club". Retrieved 2010-06-19. 
  93. ^ Communication and empire: media, markets, and globalization, 1860-1930 By Dwayne Roy Winseck, Robert M. Pike
  94. ^ Military communications: from ancient times to the 21st century By Christopher H. Sterling
  95. ^ The worldwide history of telecommunications By Anton A. Huurdeman
  96. ^ "Radar Personalities: Sir Robert Watson-Watt". Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  97. ^ Radiolocation in Ubiquitous Wireless Communication By Danko Antolovic
  98. ^ a b "Turing biography". 
  99. ^ Tom Krazit (April 3, 2006). "ARMed for the living room". CNET News. Retrieved 2010-12-07. 
  100. ^ Jonathan Fildes (20 June 2008). "One tonne 'Baby' marks its birth". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-12-07. 
  101. ^ "GEC Wembley Laboratories and the Cavity Magnetron". The Institution of Engineering and Technology. 
  102. ^ "The Physics Collection". University College London. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  103. ^ a b c d "Faraday and his successors". The Royal Institution of Great Britain. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  104. ^ "Founder of the modern oil industry to be honoured". BBC News. 2011-11-08. 
  105. ^ a b Robertson, Patrick (1974). The book of firsts. Crown Publishers. ISBN 978-0-517-51577-8. 
  106. ^ espacenet — Bibliographic data
  107. ^ "James Dyson: Business whirlwind". BBC News. 5 February 2002. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  108. ^ "Sucking up to the vacuum cleaner". BBC News. 2001-08-30. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  109. ^ Curt Wohleber (Spring 2006). "The Vacuum Cleaner". Invention & Technology Magazine. American Heritage Publishing. Retrieved 2010-12-08. 
  110. ^ Cole, David; Browning, Eve; E. H. Schroeder, Fred (2003). Encyclopedia of modern everyday inventions. Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-31345-5. 
  111. ^ "Gardening - Design - Georgian and Regency". 
  112. ^ Loadman, John; James, Francis; MacLeod, Christine (2009). "The Hancocks of Marlborough: Rubber, Art and the Industrial Revolution - A Family of Inventive Genius". Physics Today 63 (9): 89. Bibcode:2010PhT....63i..58L. doi:10.1063/1.3490505. ISBN 978-0-19-957355-4 
  113. ^ James B. Calvert. "The Electromagnetic Telegraph". Retrieved 2010-07-30. 
  114. ^ "Toilet museum flush with lottery cash". BBC News. 16 January 2001. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  115. ^ Case Studies in Superconducting Magnets: Design and Operational Issues By Yukikazu Iwasa
  116. ^ http://www.eezytrade.co.uk/acatalog/invention.htm
  117. ^ "The history of the refrigerator and freezer about.com:inventors". Retrieved 2010-06-13. 
  118. ^ Did Thomas Crapper Really Invent the Toilet?: The Inventions That Changed Our Homes and Our Lives Catherine O'Reilly
  119. ^ http://www.jamesonwhiskey.com/Home.aspx
  120. ^ http://www.jstor.org/pss/20612107
  121. ^ The Picture History of Great Inventors By Gillian Clements
  122. ^ The kaleidoscope, its history, theory and construction with its application By Sir David Brewster
  123. ^ US RE 8560, Passmore, Everett G., "Improvement in Lawn-Mowers", published 23 February 1869, issued 28 January 1879; see pg 1, col 2. For a copy, see Google Patents copy. This source indicates the patent number as "6,080". According to "British patent numbers 1617 - 1852 (old series)", the patent number was assigned sometime after 1852 and took the form of "6080/1830".
  124. ^ Wonders of the nineteenth century: a panoramic review of the inventions and discoveries of the past hundred years John Wesley Hanson W. B. Conkey, 1900
  125. ^ Pen Portraits: Alexandria Virginia 1739-1900 By T. Michael Miller
  126. ^ the commercial directory and shipers guide 1875
  127. ^ The lancet London: a journal of British and foreign medicine, surgery, obstetrics, physiology, chemistry, pharmacology, public health and news Elsevier, 1870
  128. ^ Thompson, William Phillips (1920). Handbook of patent law of all countries. London: Stevens. pp. 42
  129. ^ An account of some remarkable applications of the electric fluid to the useful arts by Alexander Bain
  130. ^ Alexander Bain of Watten: genius of the North Robert P. Gunn Caithness Field Club, 1976
  131. ^ Locke, John. A Letter Concerning Toleration Routledge, New York, 1991. p. 5 (Introduction)
  132. ^ Delaney, Tim. The march of unreason: science, democracy, and the new fundamentalism Oxford University Press, New York, 2005. p. 18
  133. ^ "William Harvey (1578 - 1657)". BBC. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  134. ^ Saunders, Paul (1982). Edward Jenner, the Cheltenham years, 1795-1823. University Press of New England. ISBN 978-0-87451-215-1. 
  135. ^ Levine, Israel E. (1960). Conqueror of smallpox: Dr. Edward Jenner. Messner. ISBN 978-0-671-63888-7. 
  136. ^ White, Fred (2009). Physical Signs in Medicine and Surgery: An Atlas of Rare, Lost and Forgotten Physical Signs. Xlibris Corp. ISBN 978-1-4415-0829-4. 
  137. ^ Scientific American inventions and discoveries By Rodney P. Carlisle
  138. ^ "Sir Harold Ridley". London: The Independent. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  139. ^ "1866." The People's Chronology. Ed. Jason M. Everett. Thomson Gale, 2006. eNotes.com. 2006. 13 May 2007 <http://history.enotes.com/peoples-chronology/year-1866/medicine>
  140. ^ "Stephen Hales: neglected respiratory physiologist". National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  141. ^ a b "John Snow (1813 - 1858)". BBC. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  142. ^ "The outstanding British surgeon Percivall Pott (1714-1789) and the first description of an occupational cancer.". National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  143. ^ Professor Harold Ellis (August 2007). "James Blundell, pioneer of blood transfusion". British Journal of Hospital Medicine. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  144. ^ Hobbs J.R.., Letter to British Medical journal., 7 December 1998: Bone marrow stem cell transplants (from alternative donors) and Leukaemia.
  145. ^ Riches, Pamela; Steward, Colin (5 September 2008). "John Hobbs". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  146. ^ "The life and work of Sir Almroth Wright honoured in Centenary lecture". Imperial College London. 19 September 2007. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  147. ^ Morris Fishbein, M.D., ed (1976). "Anesthesia". The New Illustrated Medical and Health Encyclopedia. 1 (Home Library Edition ed.). New York, N.Y. 10016: H. S. Stuttman Co. pp. 89
  148. ^ "Dr James Parkinson". Parkinson's Disease Society of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  149. ^ Walsh, Fergus (14 July 2008). "30th birthday for first IVF baby". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  150. ^ "The Old English illustrated pharmacopoeia: British Library Cotton Vitellius CIII". PMC 1044312. 
  151. ^ a b Drug discovery: a history By Walter Sneader
  152. ^ a b The Discovery of Hypnosis- The Complete Writings of James Braid, the Father of Hypnotism By James Braid, Donald Robertson (ed.)
  153. ^ a b Assam Branch, Indian Tea Association, 1889-1989: centenary souvenir
  154. ^ Madkour's Brucellosis M. Monir Madkour - 2001
  155. ^ Recruit Medicine edited by Bernard DeKoning
  156. ^ a b "Nobelprize.org: John Macleod - Biography". Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  157. ^ a b "Fife medical firm rolls out 'skin cancer plaster'". BBC News. 2010-12-08. 
  158. ^ Research in British universities, polytechnics and colleges British Library, British Library. RBUPC Office
  159. ^ Milestones in health and medicine Anne S. Harding Oryx Press, 2000 - Medical
  160. ^ "Glasgow Coma Scale - Coma Science Group" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-11-12. 
  161. ^ Clinical Examination In Cardiology By Rao
  162. ^ Madkour's Brucellosis M. Monir Madkour - 2001
  163. ^ Recruit Medicine edited by Bernard DeKoning
  164. ^ "Nobelprize.org: Sir Alexander Fleming - Biography". Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  165. ^ Crofton and Douglas's respiratory diseases, Volume 1 By Anthony Seaton, Douglas Seaton, Andrew Gordon Leitch, Sir John Crofton
  166. ^ Research in British universities, polytechnics and colleges British Library, British Library. RBUPC Office
  167. ^ Milestones in health and medicine Anne S. Harding Oryx Press, 2000 - Medical
  168. ^ Clinical Examination In Cardiology By Rao
  169. ^ The Use Of Gas In The Field, 1940
  170. ^ The wonders of the piano: the anatomy of the instrument Catherine C. Bielefeldt, Alfred R. Weil
  171. ^ a b Phil Coomes (27 April 2010). "Remembering Frederick Scott Archer". BBC. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  172. ^ "BBC - History - Historic Figures: William Henry Fox Talbot (1800 - 1877)". BBC. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  173. ^ Encyclopaedic visions: scientific dictionaries and enlightenment culture By Natasha J. Yeo
  174. ^ The Early history of surgery William John Bishop - 1995
  175. ^ http://www.hsl.virginia.edu/historical/rare_books/classics/#Cullen
  176. ^ Picture Postcards By C W Hill
  177. ^ a b c Windelspecht, Michael (2003). Groundbreaking Scientific Experiments, Inventions, and Discoveries of the 19th Century. Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-31969-3. 
  178. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1952". The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2010-12-08. 
  179. ^ "The Oughtred Society: Slide Rule History". [dead link]
  180. ^ http://mysite.du.edu/~jcalvert/geol/holmes.htm
  181. ^ Francis Galton (1822–1911) – from Eric Weisstein's World of Scientific Biography
  182. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/17/newsid_3147000/3147145.stm
  183. ^ http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1933AN....249...51D
  184. ^ Mr. Herschel and Dr. Watson (1781). "Account of a Comet. By Mr. Herschel, F. R. S.; Communicated by Dr. Watson, Jun. of Bath, F. R. S." (PDF). Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 71: 492–501. Bibcode:1781RSPT...71..492H. doi:10.1098/rstl.1781.0056. 
  185. ^ "Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature: Planet and Satellite Names and Discoverers". 
  186. ^ Anderson; Hellier; Gillon; Triaud; Smalley; Hebb; Collier Cameron; Maxted; Queloz (2009). "WASP-17b: an ultra-low density planet in a probable retrograde orbit". arXiv:0908.1553 [astro-ph.EP].  web
  187. ^ William Lassell (1799-1880) and the discovery of Triton, 1846
  188. ^ "Adams, John Quincy encyclopaedia hutchinson".  web
  189. ^ "Lovell, Bernard".  web
  190. ^ "Newton, Isaac encyclopaedia hutchinson". 
  191. ^ Watson, Fred (2007-10-01). Stargazer: the life and times of the telescope. ISBN 978-1-74175-383-7. 
  192. ^ "Sir Fred Hoyle". 
  193. ^ Ellis, Alan. "Black Holes - Part 1 - History". Retrieved 2011-01-20. 
  194. ^ "Spiral galaxies - William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse". 
  195. ^ "History: Edmond Halley". 
  196. ^ "Pulsars and High Density Physics". 
  197. ^ "The Galileo Project: Thomas Harriot (1560-1621)". 
  198. ^ "Continuum driven winds from super-Eddington stars. A tale of two limits". arXiv:0708.4207. Bibcode:2008AIPC..990..250V. doi:10.1063/1.2905555. 
  199. ^ "Antony Hewish biography". 
  200. ^ "John Dalton, encyclopaedia/hutchinson". 
  201. ^ "Francis Crick's 1962 Biography from the Nobel foundation". 
  202. ^ "Frederick Sanger". 
  203. ^ "Richard J. Roberts Biography from the Nobel foundation". 
  204. ^ "Harold Kroto - Autobiography from the Nobel foundation". 
  205. ^ "Geoffrey Wilkinson - Autobiographyfrom the Nobel foundation". 
  206. ^ "Cavendish, Henry encyclopaedia/hutchinson". 
  207. ^ "History of the Development of the Periodic Table of Elements". 
  208. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1915 William Bragg, Lawrence Bragg". 
  209. ^ "Brief biography of Moseley". 
  210. ^ Davy, Sir Humphry (1840). Davy, Humphry (1808). 
  211. ^ "Michael Faraday for beginners". The Royal Institution of Great Britain. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  212. ^ Noon, Randall (1992). Introduction to Forensic Engineering. ISBN 978-0-8493-8102-7. 
  213. ^ "A. C. Crombie, Robert Grosseteste and the Origins of Experimental Science, 1100-1700, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971), pp. 52-60." 
  214. ^ "Baconian method". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  215. ^ Matthew Eisler. "Francis Thomas Bacon and the Fuel Cell". IEEE-USA. 
  216. ^ "Luke Howard and Cloud Names". Royal Meteorological Society. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  217. ^ "Lord Rayleigh: The Nobel Prize in Physics 1904". The Nobel Foundation. 1904. Retrieved 2010-05-05. 
  218. ^ Encyclopedia of British Football by Richard Cox et al., Routledge, 2002 page 5
  219. ^ From Lads to Lord's: 1300 – 1600
  220. ^ The History of Tennis
  221. ^ http://www.snookerclub.com/snooker.shtml
  222. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A311482
  223. ^ International Federation of Netball Associations. "History of Netball". Retrieved 2008-10-13. 
  224. ^ "Past Boat Race winners". BBC News. 2005-03-07. Retrieved 2010-05-02. 
  225. ^ Paralympic Games - The Canadian Encyclopedia
  226. ^ a b Kent News - Kent stick with tradition for Canterbury festival
  227. ^ a b Noah Shachtman (2003-12-16). "The Englishman Who Wanted to Fly". Wired Magazine. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  228. ^ "High hopes for replica plane". BBC News. 10 October 2001. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  229. ^ Gordon Rayner (26 Dec 2009). "Campaign to honour Hawker Hurricane designer Sir Sydney Camm". The Telegraph (London). Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  230. ^ "1952: Comet inaugurates the jet age". BBC News. 1952-05-02. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  231. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-hampshire-15705954
  232. ^ Manby, Frederic (24 August 2009). "Clunk, click – an invention that's saved lives for 50 years". Yorkshire Post (Johnston Press Digital Publishing). Retrieved 2010-12-04. 
  233. ^ Ernest William Hobson. John Napier and the invention of logarithms, 1614. The University Press, 1914.
  234. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica - James Clerk Maxwell
  235. ^ Popular Astronomy By Simon Newcomb
  236. ^ Logic, language, information and computation: 15th international workshop, WoLLIC 2008, Edinburgh, UK, July 1–4, 2008
  237. ^ Chambers's encyclopaedia: a dictionary of universal knowledge for the people Appleton 1864
  238. ^ Biology: Concepts and Applications Without Physiology By Cecie Starr, Christine A. Evers, Lisa Starr
  239. ^ The Discovery of Hypnosis- The Complete Writings of James Braid, the Father of Hypnotherapy James Braid, Donald Robertson (ed.) 2009
  240. ^ http://www.worldchanging.glasgow.ac.uk/article/?id=53
  241. ^ Colloid chemistry Robert James Hartman, Herman Thompson Briscoe Houghton Mifflin Co., 1947
  242. ^ Chemistry and chemical reactivity, Volume 2 By John C. Kotz, Paul Treichel, John Raymond Townsend
  243. ^ Scottish pride: 101 reasons to be proud of your Scottish heritage Heather Duncan
  244. ^ Criminalistics: Forensic Science and Crime By James Girard
  245. ^ Noble Gases By Jens Thomas
  246. ^ The world of the atom Henry Abraham Boorse, Lloyd Motz Basic Books, inc., 1966
  247. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Lord Boyd Orr
  248. ^ Ian Donald's Practical Obstetric Problem, 6/e By Renu Misra
  249. ^ Journal of the Chemical Society Chemical Society (Great Britain), Bureau of Chemical Abstracts (Great Britain) The Society, 1920
  250. ^ A history of neurosurgery: in its scientific and professional contexts By Samuel H. Greenblatt, T. Forcht Dagi
  251. ^ From Sea Urchins to Dolly the Sheep: Discovering Cloning Sally Morgan Heinemann/Raintree, 2007
  252. ^ Transactions of the Royal Scottish Society of Arts Royal Scottish Society of Arts Neill & Co., 1883
  253. ^ http://news.stv.tv/internet-technology/206620-scientists-reveal-material-for-invisibility-cloak/
  254. ^ A Handbook of determinative methods in clay mineralogy Michael Jeffrey Wilson, Michael John Wilson Blackie, 1987
  255. ^ Bacon, Richard Mackenzie (1820). "The Catch and Glee Clubs". The Quarterly musical magazine and review (London) II (VII): 328ff. 
  256. ^ Key Facts about Norwich
  257. ^ Frederick Walton : Oxford Biography Index entry
  258. ^ http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/tv/fiftygreatestinventions/50_greatest_inventions.pdf
  259. ^ Quinn, Terry (2012). From artefacts to atoms : the BIPM and the search for ultimate measurement standards. Oxford University Press. p. xxvii. ISBN 978-0-19-530786-3. he [Wilkins] proposed essentially what became ... the French decimal metric system 
  260. ^ "My Dear Home, I Love You, You’re a House for Each of Us and Home for All of Us". World Digital Library. 1918. Retrieved 2013-10-26. 
  261. ^ Raynor, Tauria (2008-10-30). "Boys' Brigade want alumni to return for a special anniversary". The Royal Gazette. http://www.royalgazette.com/siftology.royalgazette/Article/article.jsp?articleId=7d8af2f30030024&sectionId=60. Retrieved 2008-10-30.
  262. ^ The Focal encyclopedia of photography By Leslie Stroebel, Richard D. Zakia