Outline of war

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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to war:

War – organised and often prolonged armed conflict that is carried out by states and/or non-state actors. It is characterised by extreme violence, social disruption, and economic destruction.[1][2] War should be understood as an actual, intentional and widespread armed conflict between political communities, and therefore is defined as a form of political violence or intervention.[1][3] The set of techniques used by a group to carry out war is known as warfare. An absence of war is usually called peace.

What type of thing is war?[edit]

War can be described as all of the following:

Types of war[edit]

Types of warfare[edit]

Warfare by objective[edit]

Warfare by strategic doctrine[edit]

Warfare by terrain[edit]

Warfare by equipment or weapon type[edit]

Warfare by era[edit]

Warfare by stages[edit]

  • First-generation warfare – refers to battles fought with massed manpower, using line and column tactics with uniformed soldiers governed by the state. It includes the earliest stages of organized, state-controlled armed forces waging war in the modern era.[4]
  • Second-generation warfare – tactics of warfare used after the invention of the rifled musket and breech-loading weapons and continuing through the development of the machine gun and indirect fire.[4]
  • Third-generation warfare – focuses on using speed and surprise to bypass the enemy's lines and collapse their forces from the rear. Essentially, this was the end of linear warfare on a tactical level, with units seeking not simply to meet each other face to face but to outmaneuver each other to gain the greatest advantage.[4]
  • Fourth-generation warfare – conflict characterized by a blurring of the lines between war and politics, soldier and civilian. It includes any war in which one of the major participants is not a state but rather a violent non-state actor. Fourth-generation warfare is characterized by the nation states' loss of their near-monopoly on combat forces, returning to modes of conflict common in pre-modern times. [4]

Other[edit]

History of war[edit]

Warfare by era[edit]

See: Warfare by era, above

Wars[edit]

Wars by death toll[edit]

Wars by date[edit]

Ongoing military conflicts January 2010
  Major wars, 1,000+ deaths per year
  Minor wars and conflicts, 10-1,000 deaths per year

Wars by region[edit]

See also: Category:Lists of wars by region

Wars by type of conflict[edit]

See also: Category:Warfare by type

Battles[edit]

Weapons of war[edit]

Military theory[edit]

Military organization[edit]

Military organization

Operational level of war[edit]

Operational level of war

Military operations[edit]
Types of military operations[edit]

Types of military operations, by scope:

  • Theater – operation over a large, often continental area of operation and represents a strategic national commitment to the conflict such as Operation Barbarossa, with general goals that encompass areas of consideration outside of the military such as the economic and political impacts.
  • Campaign – subset of the theatre operation, or a more limited geographic and operational strategic commitment such as Battle of Britain, and need not represent total national commitment to a conflict, or have broader goals outside of the military impacts.
  • Battle – subset of a campaign that will have specific military goals and geographic objectives, as well as clearly defined use of forces such as the Battle of Gallipoli, which operationally was a combined arms operation originally known as the "Dardanelles landings" as part of the Dardanelles Campaign, where about 480,000 Allied troops took part.
  • Engagement – tactical combat event of contest for specific area or objective by actions of distinct units. For example the Battle of Kursk, also known from its German designation as Operation Citadel, included many separate engagements, several of which were combined into the Battle of Prokhorovka. The "Battle of Kursk" in addition to describing the initial German offensive operation (or simply an offensive), also included two Soviet counter-offensive operations Operation Kutuzov and Operation Polkovodets Rumyantsev.
  • Strike – single attack, upon a specified target. This often forms part of a broader engagement. Strikes have an explicit goal, such as, rendering facilities inoperable (e.g. airports), to assassinating enemy leaders, or to limit supply to enemy troops.

Military strategy[edit]

Military strategy

Grand strategy[edit]

Grand strategy

Military tactics[edit]

Military tactics

Politics of war[edit]

  • Casus belli – Latin expression meaning the justification for acts of war. In theory, present international law allows only three situations as legal cause to go to war: out of self-defense, defense of an ally under a mutual defense pact, or sanctioned by the UN.
  • Declaration of war
  • War effort
  • War economy
  • Surrender
    • Capitulation an agreement in time of war for the surrender to a hostile armed force of a particular body of troops, a town or a territory.
    • Strategic surrender – surrender to avoid a last, chaotic round of fighting that would have the characteristics of a rout, allowing the victor to obtain his objective without paying the costs of a last battle.
    • Unconditional surrender – surrender without conditions, except for those provided by international law.
  • Victory
    • Debellatio – when a war ends because of the complete destruction of a belligerent state.
    • No quarter – when a victor shows no clemency or mercy and refuses to spare the life of the vanquished when they surrender at discretion. Under the laws of war "... it is especially forbidden ... to declare that no quarter will be given".
    • Pyrrhic victory – victory with such a devastating cost that it carries the implication that another such victory will ultimately lead to defeat.
  • Anti-war movement

Philosophy of war[edit]

Philosophy of war – examines war beyond the typical questions of weaponry and strategy, inquiring into such things as the meaning and etiology of war, the relationship between war and human nature, and the ethics of war.

  • Militarism – belief that war is not inherently bad but can be a beneficial aspect of society.
  • Realism – its core proposition is a skepticism as to whether moral concepts such as justice can be applied to the conduct of international affairs. Proponents of realism believe that moral concepts should never prescribe, nor circumscribe, a state's behaviour. Instead, a state should place an emphasis on state security and self-interest. One form of realism – descriptive realism – proposes that states cannot act morally, while another form – prescriptive realism – argues that the motivating factor for a state is self-interest. Just wars that violate Just Wars principles effectively constitute a branch of realism.
  • Revolution and Civil War – Just War Theory states that a just war must have just authority. To the extent that this is interpreted as a legitimate government, this leaves little room for revolutionary war or civil war, in which an illegitimate entity may declare war for reasons that fit the remaining criteria of Just War Theory. This is less of a problem if the "just authority" is widely interpreted as "the will of the people" or similar. Article 3 of the 1949 Geneva Conventions side-steps this issue by stating that if one of the parties to a civil war is a High Contracting Party (in practice, the state recognised by the international community,) both Parties to the conflict are bound "as a minimum, the following [humanitarian] provisions." Article 4 of the Third Geneva Convention also makes clear that the treatment of prisoners of war is binding on both parties even when captured soldiers have an "allegiance to a government or an authority not recognized by the Detaining Power."
  • Nonviolent struggle – The "just war" criterion of "last resort" requires believers to look for alternative means of conflict. The methods of nonviolent action permit the waging of political struggle without resort to violence. Historical evidence and political theory can be examined to determine whether nonviolent struggle can be expected to be effective in future conflicts. If nonviolent action is determined effective, then the requirements for "just war" are not met.[5]
  • Absolutism – holds that there are various ethical rules that are absolute. Breaking such moral rules is never legitimate and therefore is always unjustifiable.
  • Pacifism – belief that war of any kind is morally unacceptable and/or pragmatically not worth the cost. Pacifists extend humanitarian concern not just to enemy civilians but also to combatants, especially conscripts. For example, Ben Salmon believed all war to be unjust. He was sentenced to death during World War I (later commuted to 25 years hard labor) for desertion and spreading propaganda.[6]
  • Right of self-defence – maintains (based on rational self-interest) that the use of retaliatory force is justified against repressive nations that break the zero aggression principle. In addition, if a free country is itself subject to foreign aggression, it is morally imperative for that nation to defend itself and its citizens by whatever means necessary. Thus, any means to achieve a swift and complete victory over the enemy is imperative. This view is prominently held by Objectivists.[7]
  • Consequentialism – moral theory most frequently summarized in the words "the end justifies the means," which tends to support the just war theory (unless the just war causes less beneficial means to become necessary, which further requires worst actions for self-defense with bad consequences).

Laws of war[edit]

Prisoners of war[edit]

Effects of war[edit]

Effects of war

War and culture[edit]

War organizations[edit]

War museums[edit]

War publications[edit]

Persons influential in war[edit]

In ancient times[edit]

During the Middle Ages[edit]

During the Mongol Invasions[edit]

During the Hundred Years' War[edit]

At the Siege of Malta[edit]

During the American Revolution[edit]

During the Napoleonic Wars[edit]

During the Taiping Rebellion[edit]

During World War I[edit]

During World War II[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "American Heritage Dictionary: War". Thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  2. ^ "Merriam Webster's Dictionary: War". Merriam-Webster. 13 August 2010. Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  3. ^ "Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy". 
  4. ^ a b c d Lind, William S.;Nightingale, Keith;Schmitt, John F.; Sutton, Joseph W.;Wilson, Gary I. (1989). The Changing Face of War: Into the Fourth Generation. 
  5. ^ Sharp, Gene, "Beyond just war and pacifism: nonviolent struggle toward justice, freedom and peace" Ecumenical Review, April, 1996.
  6. ^ Staff of the Catholic Peace Fellowship (2007). "The Life and Witness of Ben Salmon". Sign of Peace 6.1 (Spring 2007). 
  7. ^ "'Just War Theory'" vs. American Self-Defence, by Yaron Brook and Alex Epstein

External links[edit]