Doses of 500 mg/kg cause clinical signs and significant mortality in rats. The use of chlorine-based disinfectants in domestic water, although widespread, has led to some controversy due to the formation of small quantities of harmful byproducts such as chloroform. Studies showed no uptake of lithium if pools with lithium hypochlorite have been used.
^Hoberman A. M., Deprospo J. R., Lochry E. A., Christian M. S. (1990). "Developmental toxicity study of orally administered lithium hypochlorite in rats". Journal of the American College of Toxicology9 (3): 367–379. doi:10.3109/10915819009078746.
^McCarty J. D., Carter S. P., Fletcher M. J., Reape M. J. (1994). "Study of lithium absorption by users of spas treated with lithium ion". Hum Exp Toxicol13 (5): 315–9. doi:10.1177/096032719401300506. PMID8043312.