Lithium nitrate

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Lithium nitrate
Lithium nitrate.png
Lithium nitrate.jpg
Identifiers
CAS number 7790-69-4 YesY
PubChem 10129889
ChemSpider 8305408 N
RTECS number QU9200000
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula LiNO3
Molar mass 68.946 g/mol
Appearance White to light yellow solid
Density 2.38 g/cm3
Melting point 255 °C (491 °F; 528 K)
Boiling point decomposes at 600 °C
Solubility in water 52.2 g/100 mL (20 °C)
90 g/100 mL (28 °C)
234 g/100 mL (100 °C)
Solubility soluble in ethanol, methanol, pyridine, ammonia
Refractive index (nD) 1.735[1]
Thermochemistry
Std enthalpy of
formation
ΔfHo298
-7.007 kJ/g
Hazards
EU Index Not listed
Main hazards Oxidant, irritant
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., water Health code 1: Exposure would cause irritation but only minor residual injury. E.g., turpentine Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazard OX: Oxidizer. E.g., potassium perchlorateNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point Non-flammable
LD50 1426 mg/kg (oral, rat)
Related compounds
Other cations Sodium nitrate
Potassium nitrate
Rubidium nitrate
Caesium nitrate
Related compounds Lithium sulfate
Lithium chloride
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 N (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references

Lithium nitrate is an inorganic compound with the formula LiNO3. It is the lithium salt of nitric acid. It is made by reacting lithium carbonate or lithium hydroxide with nitric acid.

Uses[edit]

This deliquescent colourless salt is an oxidizing agent used in the manufacture of red-colored fireworks and flares.

Lithium Nitrate has been proposed as a medium to store heat collected from the sun for cooking. A Fresnel lens would be used to melt solid lithium nitrate, which would then function as a 'solar battery', allowing heat to be redistributed later by convection.[2]

LiNO3 is utilized in solute-solvent interactions at decreasing temperatures (i.e. 329-290 K) which in affect, can be used to transport ions in binary solutions of molten acetamide.[3]

Currently, lithium nitrate is being tested to see if it can be applied to concrete-pavement to withstand weathering effects.[4]

In the lab, LiNO3 is commonly bound to a trihydrate ion in order to test bifureated hydrogen bonds within crystal structures of molecules which can correlate to hydrogen bond strength.[5]

Lithium nitrate is also used as a catalyst which accelerates the breakdown of nitrogen oxides, through oxidation, found in soot.[6]

Synthesis[edit]

Lithium nitrate can be synthesized by reacting nitric acid and lithium carbonate.

Li2CO3 + 2 HNO3 → 2 LiNO3 + H2O + CO2

Generally when forming LiNO3, a pH indicator is used to determine when all of the acid has been neutralized. However, this neutralization can also be recognized with the loss of carbon dioxide production.[7] In order to rid the final product of excess water, the sample is heated.

Properties[edit]

Upon thermal decomposition, LiNO3 gives lithium oxide (Li2O), nitrogen dioxide, and oxygen:

4 LiNO3 → 2 Li2O + 4 NO2 + O2

Other group I nitrates decompose differently, forming the nitrite salt and oxygen. Because of its relatively small size, the lithium cation is very polarizing, which favors the formation of the oxide.

Lithium nitrate is also a very good oxidizing agent. Today LiNO3 is used in submarines and spacecraft for absorbing excess carbon dioxide in the air.[8]

Lithium nitrate is also denser than water.[8]

Toxicity[edit]

Lithium nitrate can be toxic to the body when ingested by targeting the central nervous system, thyroids, kidneys, and cardio-vascular system.[9] When exposed to the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes, lithium nitrate can cause irritation to these areas.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pradyot Patnaik. Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. McGraw-Hill, 2002, ISBN 0-07-049439-8.
  2. ^ http://barbequelovers.com/grills/a-solar-grill-prototype-for-a-greener-tomorrow
  3. ^ Berchiesi, G; et al. (1985). Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data 30: 208–209. 
  4. ^ Kelly, M; et al. (2006). American Society of Civil Engineers 191: 625–635. 
  5. ^ Muniz, M; et al. (2012). The Journal of Physical Chemistry 116: 2147–2153. 
  6. ^ Ruiz, M; et al. (2012). I and EC research 51: 1150–1157. 
  7. ^ "Synthesis database: Lithium nitrate synthesis". Amateur Science Network. Retrieved 18 June 2012. 
  8. ^ a b c "Chemical Datasheet". CAMEO Chemicals. Retrieved April 26, 2012. 
  9. ^ "Material Safety Data Sheet". Sigma-Aldrich Catalog. Retrieved April 12, 2012. 

External links[edit]

HNO3 He
LiNO3 Be(NO3)2 B(NO3)3 C N O F Ne
NaNO3 Mg(NO3)2 Al(NO3)3 Si P S ClONO2 Ar
KNO3 Ca(NO3)2 Sc(NO3)3 Ti V Cr(NO3)3 Mn(NO3)2 Fe(NO3)3 Co(NO3)2, Co(NO3)3 Ni(NO3)2 Cu(NO3)2 Zn(NO3)2 Ga(NO3)3 Ge As Se Br Kr
RbNO3 Sr(NO3)2 Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd(NO3)2 AgNO3 Cd(NO3)2 In Sn Sb Te I Xe
CsNO3 Ba(NO3)2 Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg2(NO3)2, Hg(NO3)2 Tl(NO3)3 Pb(NO3)2 Bi(NO3)3 Po At Rn
Fr Ra Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Uut Fl Uup Lv Uus Uuo
La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd(NO3)3 Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
Ac Th Pa UO2(NO3)2 Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr