|Jmol-3D images||Image 1|
|Molar mass||29.88 g/mol|
1438 °C, 1711 K, 2620 °F
|Solubility in water||decomposes
6.67 g/100 mL (0 °C)
10.02 g/100 mL (100 °C)
|Refractive index (nD)||1.644 |
|Crystal structure||Antifluorite (cubic), cF12|
|Space group||Fm3m, No. 225|
|Tetrahedral (Li+); cubic (O2–)|
|Std enthalpy of
|Specific heat capacity, C||1.8105 J/g K|
|EU Index||Not listed|
|Main hazards||Corrosive, reacts violently with water|
|Other anions||Lithium sulfide|
|Other cations||Sodium oxide
|Related lithium oxides||Lithium peroxide
|Related compounds||Lithium hydroxide|
| (what is: / ?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Lithium oxide (Li
2O) or lithia is an inorganic chemical compound. Lithium oxide is formed along with small amounts of lithium peroxide when lithium metal is burned in the air and combines with oxygen:
- 4Li + O
2 → 2Li
2 → 2Li
2O + O
In the solid state lithium oxide (also known as dilithium monoxide) adopts an antifluorite structure which is related to the CaF
2, fluorite structure with Li cations substituted for fluoride anions and oxide anions substituted for calcium cations. The ground state gas phase Li
2O molecule is linear with a bond length consistent with strong ionic bonding. VSEPR theory would predict a bent shape similar to H
Lithium oxide is used as a flux in ceramic glazes; and creates blues with copper and pinks with cobalt. Lithium oxide reacts with water and steam, forming lithium hydroxide and should be isolated from them.
Its usage is also being investigated for non-destructive emission spectroscopy evaluation and degradation monitoring within thermal barrier coating systems. It can be added as a co-dopant with yttria in the zirconia ceramic top coat, without a large decrease in expected service life of the coating. At high heat, lithium oxide emits a very detectable spectral pattern, which increases in intensity along with degradation of the coating. Implementation would allow in situ monitoring of such systems, enabling an efficient means to predict lifetime until failure or necessary maintenance.
A possible new use is as a replacement for lithium cobalt oxide as the cathode in the lithium ion batteries used to power electronic devices from mobile phones to laptop computers to battery-powered cars.
- Pradyot Patnaik. Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. McGraw-Hill, 2002, ISBN 0-07-049439-8
- Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1984). Chemistry of the Elements. Oxford: Pergamon Press. pp. 97–99. ISBN 0-08-022057-6.
- Zintl, E.; Harder, A.; Dauth B. (1934). "Gitterstruktur der oxyde, sulfide, selenide und telluride des lithiums, natriums und kaliums". Zeitschrift für Elektrochemie und Angewandte Physikalische Chemie 40: 588–93.
- Wells A.F. (1984) Structural Inorganic Chemistry 5th edition Oxford Science Publications ISBN 0-19-855370-6
- A spectroscopic determination of the bond length of the LiOLi molecule: Strong ionic bonding, D. Bellert, W. H. Breckenridge, J. Chem. Phys. 114, 2871 (2001); doi:10.1063/1.1349424
- "Air power". The Economist, Technology Quarterly. September 3, 2009. Retrieved September 9, 2009.