|Jmol-3D images||Image 1|
|Molar mass||106.392 g/mol|
|Density||2.42 g/cm3, solid|
|Melting point||236 °C|
|Boiling point||430 °C (with decomp.)|
|Solubility in water||60 g/100 mL|
|Solubility in organic solvents||Soluble|
|Std enthalpy of
|-3.581 kJ/g or -380.99 kJ/mol|
|Main hazards||Oxidizer, irritant|
|Other anions||Lithium chloride
|Other cations||Sodium perchlorate
| (what is: / ?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
Lithium perchlorate is the inorganic compound with the formula LiClO4. This white or colourless crystalline salt is noteworthy for its high solubility in many solvents. It exists both in anhydrous form and as a trihydrate.
Lithium perchlorate is used as a source of oxygen in some chemical oxygen generators. It decomposes at about 400 °C, yielding lithium chloride and oxygen, the latter being over 60% of its mass. It has both the highest oxygen to weight and oxygen to volume ratio of all perchlorates, except beryllium diperchlorate (which is expensive and highly toxic).
LiClO4 is highly soluble in organic solvents, even diethyl ether. Such solutions are employed in Diels-Alder reactions, where it is proposed that the Lewis acidic Li+ binds to Lewis basic sites on the dienophile, thereby accelerating the reaction.
Lithium perchlorate is also used as an electrolyte in lithium-ion batteries. Lithium perchlorate is chosen over alternative electrolytes such as lithium hexafluorophosphate or lithium tetrafluoroborate when its superior electrical impedance, conductivity, hygroscopicity and anodic stability properties are of importance to the specific application. However, these beneficial properties are often overshadowed by the electrolyte's strong oxidizing properties, making the electrolyte reactive toward its solvent at high temperatures and/or high current loads. Due to these hazards the battery is often considered unfit for industrial applications.
Lithium perchlorate can be manufactured by reaction of sodium perchlorate with lithium chloride. It can be also prepared by electrolysis of lithium chlorate at 200 mA/cm² at temperatures above 20 °C.
- Charette, A. B. "Lithium Perchlorate" in Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis (Ed: L. Paquette) 2004, J. Wiley & Sons, New York. doi:10.1002/047084289.
-  Lithium Perchlorate Product Detail Page
- Xu, Kang (2004). "Nonaqueous liquid electrolytes for lithium-based rechargeable batteries". Chemical Reviews 104 (10): 4303–4417. doi:10.1002/chin.200450271. PMID 15669157. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
- Helmut Vogt, Jan Balej, John E. Bennett, Peter Wintzer, Saeed Akbar Sheikh, Patrizio Gallone "Chlorine Oxides and Chlorine Oxygen Acids" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2002, Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a06_483