|Density||3.43 g/cm3 |
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Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
It is the anode component of the fast recharging Lithium-titanate battery. It is also used as an additive in porcelain enamels and ceramic insulating bodies based on titanates. It is preferred as a flux due to its stability.
Uses in sintering
The sintering process is taking a metal powder, putting it into a mold and heating it to below its melting point. Sintering is based on atomic diffusion, the atoms in the powder particle diffuse into surrounding particles eventually forming a solid or porous material.
It has been discovered that Li2TiO3 powders have a high purity and good sintering ability.
Uses as a cathode
Molten carbonate fuel cells
Lithium titanate is used as a cathode in layer one of a double layer cathode for molten carbonate fuel cells. These fuel cells have two material layers, layer 1 and layer 2, which allow for the production of high power molten carbonate fuel cells that work more efficiently.
Lithium ion batteries
Li2TiO3 is used in the cathode of some lithium-ion batteries, along with an aqueous binder and a conducting agent. Li2TiO3 is used because it is capable of stabilizing the high capacity cathode conducting agents; LiMO2 (M=Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni). Li2TiO3 and the conduction agents (LiMO2) are layered in order to create the cathode material. These layers allow for the occurrence of lithium diffusion.
The lithium-titanate battery is a rechargeable battery that is much faster to charge than other lithium-ion batteries. It differs from other lithium-ion batteries because it uses lithium-titanate on the anode surface rather than carbon. This is advantageous because does not possess and SEI layer (Solid Electrolyte Interface), which acts as a barrier to the ingress and egress of Li Ion to and from the anode quickly. This is what allows the lithium-titanate batteries to be recharged quickly and provide high currents when necessary. A disadvantage to the lithium-titanate battery is a much lower capacity and lower voltage than the lithium-ion battery. The lithium-titanate battery is currently being used in battery electric vehicles and other specialist applications.
Synthesis of lithium titanate breeder powder
Li2TiO3 powder is most commonly prepared by the mixing of Lithium carbonate, Ti-nitrate solution, and citric acid followed by calcination, compaction, and sintering. The nanocrystalline material created is used as a breeder powder due to its high purity and activity.
Fusion reactions in ITER are fueled by tritium and deuterium. Tritum resources are extremely limited, currently estimated at twenty kilos. Lithium can be used as a solid breeder material of tritium in the blanket of fusion reactions in ITER. Tritium is produced by the neutrons leaving the plasma and interacting with lithium in the blanket. Li2TiO3 is used as a tritium breeding material because it has high tritium release, low activation, and chemical stability.
Lithium titanate aerogel
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- Vijayakumar M.; Kerisit, S.; Yang, Z.; Graff, G. L.; Liu, J.; Sears, J. A.; Burton, S. D.; Rosso, K. M.; Hu, J. (2009). "Combined 6,7Li NMR and Molecular Dynamics Study of Li Diffusion in Li2TiO3". Journal of Physical Chemistry 113: 20108–20116.
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- Sahu, B. S; Bhatacharyya, S.; Chaudhuri, P.; Mazumder, R., "Synthesis and sintering of nanosize Li2TiO3 ceramic breeder powder prepared by autocombustion technique"; Department of Ceramic Engineering; National Institute of Technology, Rourkela-769008; TBM Division, Institute of Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar-382428 http://dspace.nitrkl.ac.in/dspace/bitstream/2080/1139/1/INSAC2009+(A103).pdf (accessed April 13, 2012).
- "EPO: European Patent" http://www.wipo.int/patentscope/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO1996015561&recNum=1&maxRec=&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=&queryString=&tab=PCT+Biblio (accessed April 13, 2012).
- Ehingen, A. P.; Feldkirchen, M. B.; Ulm, B. R.; Plochingen, V. P. Friedrichshafen, DE "Double layer cathode for molten carbonate fuel cells and method for producing the same." US Patent 6,420,062, July 16, 2002
- ITER Organization. http://www.iter.org/mach/tritiumbreeding (accessed April 13, 2012).
- Maloney,R. P.; Kim,H. J.; Sakamoto, J. S. "Lithium titanate aerogel for advanced lithium-ion batteries"; Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University; http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/am3002742 (accessed April 13, 2012).