Lithotripsy is a medical procedure involving the physical destruction of hardened masses like kidney stones,bezoars or gallstones. The term is derived from the Greek words meaning "breaking (or pulverizing) stones" (litho- + τρίψω [tripso]).
Holmium laser with wavelength of 2100nm (infrared band) is used to break urinary stones which is ideal for breaking stones (even hardest). In ureteroscopy method, a thin telescope called ureteroscope will be passed through the natural urinary passage from the urethra up the bladder into the ureter where the stone is. The Holmium laser fiber can be placed in contact with the stone or adjacent to it. Short Holmium laser pulses create a shockwave that causes fragmentation of the stone. Holmium laser lithotripsy is superior to Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) due to high success rate (ESWL can't break all stones) and lesser complications.