Lithuanian declension

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Lithuanian declension is quite sophisticated in a way similar to declensions in ancient Indo-European languages such as Sanskrit, Latin or Ancient Greek. It also is one of the most complicated declension systems among modern Indo-European and modern European languages[citation needed].

Traditionally, scholars count up to ten case forms in Lithuanian. However at least one case is reduced to adverbs, and another is extinct in the modern language. So the official variant of Lithuanian has seven cases, and an eighth case is used in some dialects and reduced to an adverb in others. The main cases are:

The other cases are:

Lithuanian has two main grammatical numbers: singular and plural. There is also a dual, which is almost unused, except few words, that retain their dual forms. Although grammatically the dual number can be applied to any word, in practice it was used quite sporadically during the last century. The singular and the plural are used similarly to many European languages. Singular, plural and dual inflections of the same case always differ among themselves and there's no rule, how to make, for example, the plural inflection from the singular of the same case.

Nouns[edit]

Lithuanian nouns have five declensions which are defined by the inflection in singular nominative and genitive cases. Only few borrowed words, like taksì – taxi, tabù – taboo, kupė̃ – compartment (in a train), coupé, are not subject to declension rules.

  Inflection in singular cases Examples Notes
Nominative Genitive Nominative Genitive Meaning
I -as, -is, -ys, -ias -o výras
mẽdis
traukinỹs
svẽčias
výro
mẽdžio
tráukinio
svẽčio
man, male; husband
tree
train
guest
Main pattern for masculine nouns
II -a, -i¹, -ė -os, -ės žmonà
šviesà
várna
pradžià
sáulė
žmonõs
šviesõs
várnos
pradžiõs
sáulės
wife
light
crow
beginning
sun
Main pattern for feminine nouns; few masculine
III -is² -ies móteris³ f
pilìs f
avìs f
dantìs m
móteries
piliẽs
aviẽs
dantiẽs
woman, female
castle
sheep
tooth
Rarer, feminine nouns, fewer masculine
IV -us -aus žmogùs
sūnùs
medùs
skaĩčius
žmogaũs
sūnaũs
medaũs
skaĩčiaus
man (human being)
son
honey
number; digit
Rare, masculine nouns
V -uo, -ė³ -en-s, -er-s f vanduõ
akmuõ
skaitmuõ
sesuõ
duktė̃
vandeñs
akmeñs
skaitmeñs
seser̃s
dukter̃s
water
stone
digit
sister
daughter
Rare, masculine nouns, four³ feminine; suffixed by -en- m and -er- f.
  1. There are only two nouns ending in -i: pati 'wife' and marti 'daughter-in-law'. Their declension is the same to the second adjective feminine declension and similar to a second feminine noun palatalized declension. The noun pati is the same to a pronoun pati 'herself; myself f; itself (for feminine nouns)'
  2. Exception: petys m – shoulder, peties, etc. after this declensional pattern. This declension is very similar to the fifth declension.
  3. Duktė 'daughter' is the only word of the fifth declension, not having an ending uo. A word moteris 'woman, female' often has a genitive móters; the plural genitive of moteris is moterų (not palatalized -ių); it is the only normal form for the fifth declension and one of the two (the main is -ių) for the third. The more two words, obelis f – apple tree and dieveris m – (older) brother-in-law, are the same declensional case as moteris, but dieveris, being masculine possibly has a sg. inst. -iu. Dieveris is also the only -er- masculine case. There was also possibly a word broteris – brother (modern brolis) in old Lithuanian.

Table of noun declension endings[edit]

first declension second declension third d. fourth d. fifth d. adjectives
masculine feminine f m m m f I-m I-f
-ǎ- -i- -o- -ė- -i- -u- -i- -ǎ- -o-
sg.
Nom.      -as -is -ys -ias -a -ia -is -us -ius -uo -as -a
Gen. -o -io -os -ios -ės -ies -aus -iaus -en-s -er-s -o -os
Dat. -ui -iui -ai -iai -ei -iai -iui -ui -iui -en-iui -er-iai -am -ai
Acc. -ią -ią -ių -en-į -er-į
Ins. -u -iu -a -ia -e -imi -umi -iumi -en-iu -er-imi -u -a
Loc. -e -yje -oje -ioje -ėje -yje -uje -iuje -en-yje -er-yje -ame -oje
Voc. -e¹ -i -y -y² -a -ia -e -i.e. -au -iau -en-i.e. -er-ie -as -a
pl.
Nom. -ai -iai -os -ios -ės -ys -ūs -iai -en-ys -er-ys -i -os
Gen. -ių -ių -ių -ių³ -ių -en-ų -er-ų
Dat. -ams -iams -oms -ioms -ėms -ims -ums -iams -en-ims -er-ims -iems -oms
Acc. -us -ius -as -ias -es -is -us -ius -en-is -er-is -us -as
Ins. -ais -iais -omis -iomis -ėmis -imis -umis -iais -en-imis -er-imis -ais -omis
Loc. -uose -iuose -ose -iose -ėse -yse -uose -iuose -en-yse -er-yse -uose -ose
Voc. -ai -iai -os -ios -ės -ys -ūs -iai -en-ys -er-ys -i -os
  1. Nouns having -j- before an ending -as, vėjas – wind, vertėjas – translator (versti – translate; convert; subvert etc.), naudotojas – user (naudoti – to use), vartotojas – consumer (vartoti – to consume) have vocative -au: vėjau, vertėjau, naudotojau, vartotojau. Feminine counterparts for agent's words are vertėja, naudotoja, vartotoja and their vocative is the same to nominative. If naudotojas would have and ending -e for vocative it would sound same to feminine: naudotoja = *naudotoje (ja = *je, which is not used combination, because all vowels succeeding j are soft). Sg. locative of these words have -yje or -uje (-uje appears where it is needed for easier pronunciation): naudotojuje, vėjyje.
  2. There are only a few words with the ending -ias (sg. nom.), historically they are related with -ys words; -ias words have -y in vocative: svečias – svety (guest); kelias – kely (road); some can have fifth-declension-like ending -iau for vocative: velnias – velniau (devil). In dialects an inflection -iau in vocative can be used, for example, for names ending in -is: Algis – Algiau (dial.) instead of Algi. A word brolis besides a paradigmatic vocative broli has also a form brolaũ.
  3. Many nouns of this paradigm have -ų in pl. gen.: žąsis f – žąsų 'goose', naktis f – naktų 'night', debesis m – debesų 'cloud'.

Each Lithuanian consonant (except [j]) has two forms: palatalized and non-palatalized ([bʲ]-[b], [dʲ]-[d], [ɡʲ]-[ɡ] and so on). The consonants preceding vowels [i] and [e] are always moderately palatalized.

The letter i represents either the sound similar to i in the English lit or is a palatalization marker – softens the preceding consonant (ia = like e, iu = ü, io = ö; all samples where i is a softhening marker are ia (ią), iu (iū, ių), io). But i.e. is a diphthong and there are no combinations ię and iė. Other diphthongs are: uo, ai, ei, oi (this one is used only in foreign words; in Lithuanian-derivation it is present when a word kojinė 'sock, stocking' is pronounced shorter as koinė), ui, au (palatalized iuo, iai, iui, iau; there is no iei combination because ei is already soft and same to iai; a combination i.e. is only a diphthong and in use is succeeded by a consonant).

Feminine nouns ending in -a, and masculine ending in -us has their palatal forms: -ia, -ius (the latter is declined in the first paradigm in its plural). The nominative singular ending -ias (sg. nom.; the first paradigm) alone is a palatal variant of -as, but -ias pattern, differently from -ia, -ius, are not palatalized counterpart for -as (unpalatalized equivalent in sg. nominative) and there is no palatalized counterpart for -as type. The -ias pattern is a type of -ys pattern, its words are declined like -ys words, except sg. nom. -ias and, for some of the words, vocative -iau. There are only a few words of -ias type.

There are two consonants in Lithuanian, d and t, which become respectively dž [dʒ] and č [tʃ] when precedes a palatalization marker i (so, this does not include the softer sounds: i, į, y, i.e., ė, e, ę) and they still have to be pronounced softer, like all other consonants preceding the palatalization marker. Examples: masc. sg. nom. svẽčias 'guest', fem. sg. nom. valdžià 'power (on somebody); government', m. sg. nom. skaĩčius 'number'; pavyzdỹs 'example', pãvyzdžio, pãvyzdžiui, pãvyzdį; kėdė̃ 'chair', kėdžių̃ etc.

  • I-st declension. Ending in -as (nom. sg.): rýtas – morning, var̃das – name. Ending in -is: brólis – brother, aũkštis – height. Ending in -ys: pavyzdỹs – example, dagỹs – thistle. Ending in -ias: kẽlias – road, élnias – deer. A word mė́nuo – month, moon, or mė́nesis, which uo ending form is of the V-th declension type, belongs to the first paradigm: nom. sg. mėnuo / mėnesis, gen. sg. mė́nesio etc.
  • II. Ending in -a: várna – crow, líepa – linden; July, gijà – thread, ply; palatalized: valià – will, galià – power, pradžià – beginning. Lithuanian vowel o [oː] derives from an older ā [aː]: nom. sg. mótina (mother) < *mātina < *mātinā, gen. sg. mótinos < *mātinās. Ending in -ė: prẽkė – commodity, item, ẽglė – spruce.
  • III. Examples: pilìs f – castle, vagìs m – thief. There are many nouns of this paradigm which have -ų in pl. gen.: žąsìs f – žąsų̃ 'goose', naktìs f – naktų̃ 'night', debesìs m – debesų̃ 'cloud'. This declension is very similar to the fifth, except the singular nominative, genitive, instrumental and plural genitive for a part of nouns.
  • IV. Ending in -us: sūnùs – son, alùs – beer, rytojus – tomorrow; palatalized: karalius – king, procesorius – processor. The plural forms of the palatalized variant are of the first declension, the same to -is, -ys, -ias.
  • V. Nouns of this paradigm has a sg. nom. ending -uo and a suffix -en- in the other cases. Examples: vanduõ – water, akmuõ – stone. Words made with a suffix -m-: duomuõ 'a single item of a data' ← duoti 'to give', skaitmuõ 'digit' ← skaičiuoti 'to count, calculate'. There are two feminine nouns of the fifth declension, sesuõ – sister and duktė̃ – daughter, the second with an irregular ending. A word moteris – woman, having the same suffix as duktė and sesuo is declined in the third declension.

First declension[edit]

-as, -is, -ys (masculine)

  vaĩkas = child brólis = brother arklỹs = horse
  singular plural singular plural singular plural
Nominative vaikas vaikai brolis broliai arklys arkliai
Genitive vaiko vaikų brolio brol arklio arkl
Dative vaikui vaikams broliui broliams arkliui arkliams
Accusative vaiką vaikus brolį brolius arklį arklius
Instrumental vaiku vaikais broliu broliais arkliu arkliais
Locative vaike vaikuose brolyje broliuose arklyje arkliuose
Vocative vaike vaikai broli broliai arkly arkliai

Note that the -e ending for the vocative singular applies only to common nouns; proper nouns take the ending -ai. So, for example Jonas = John [nominative] and Jonai! = John! [vocative]

Second declension[edit]

-a, -ė, -ti (feminine)

  mótina = mother katė̃ = cat patì = wife
  singular plural singular plural singular plural
Nominative motina motinos katė katės pati pačios
Genitive motinos motinų katės kač pačios pačių
Dative motinai motinoms katei katėms pačiai pačioms
Accusative motiną motinas katę kates pačią pačias
Instrumental motina motinomis kate katėmis pačia pačiomis
Locative motinoje motinose katėje katėse pačioje pačiose
Vocative motina motinos kate katės pati (or pačia) pačios

A noun pati has the same form to a pronoun pati 'herself; myself (feminine); itself (for feminine nouns)'. There are only two nouns ending in -i: pati 'wife' and marti 'daughter-in-law'. Their declension is same to the second adjective feminine declension.

Third declension[edit]

-is (masculine and feminine)

  vagìs = thief (masculine) akìs = eye (feminine)
  singular plural singular plural
Nominative vagis vagys akis akys
Genitive vagies vag akies ak
Dative vagiui vagims akiai akims
Accusative vagį vagis akį akis
Instrumental vagimi vagimis akimi akimis
Locative vagyje vagyse akyje akyse
Vocative vagie vagys akie akys

The only difference in masculine and feminine nouns of this declension is the dative singular forms.

Fourth declension[edit]

-us, -ius (masculine)

  sūnùs = son profèsorius = professor
  singular plural singular plural
Nominative sūnus sūnūs profesorius profesoriai
Genitive sūnaus sūnų profesoriaus profesor
Dative sūnui sūnums profesoriui profesoriams
Accusative sūnų sūnus profesor profesorius
Instrumental sūnumi sūnumis profesoriumi profesoriais
Locative sūnuje sūnuose profesoriuje profesoriuose
Vocative sūnau sūnūs profesoriau profesoriai

The palatalized variant of this declension has the forms of the first declension.

Fifth declension[edit]

-uo (masculine)

There are also two feminine nouns of the fifth declension: sesuo (sister) and duktė (daughter).

  vanduõ = water sesuõ = sister duktė̃ = daughter
  singular plural singular plural singular plural
Nominative vanduo vandenys sesuo seserys duktė dukterys
Genitive vandens vandenų sesers seserų dukters dukterų
Dative vandeniui vandenims seseriai seserims dukteriai dukterims
Accusative vandenį vandenis seserį seseris dukterį dukteris
Instrumental vandeniu vandenimis seseria seserimis dukteria dukterimis
Locative vandenyje vandenyse seseryje seseryse dukteryje dukteryse
Vocative vandenie vandenys seserie seserys dukterie dukterys

Adjectives[edit]

In Lithuanian language adjectives have three declensions determined by the singular and plural nominative case inflections. Adjectives are matched with nouns in terms of numbers, genders, and cases. Unlike nouns, which have two genders – masculine and feminine, adjectives have three (except -is, -ė adjectives), but the neuter adjectives (the third example in the table) have only one form, are not inflected.

Declension Singular nom. inflection Plural nom. inflection Examples
Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine
I -(i)as -(i)a -i -(i)os šáltas, šaltà, (šálta) – cold; šlápias, šlapià, (šlápia) – wet, soppy;
II -us -i -ūs -ios gražùs, gražì, (gražù) – pretty, beautiful; malonùs, malonì, (malonù) – pleasant;
III -is -iai -ės varìnis, varìnė – copper; laukìnis, laukìnė – wild;
-is -i -ės dìdelis, dìdelė – big; dešinỹs, dešinė̃ – right; kairỹs, kairė̃ – left.
  • Most of the first type adjectives of the third declension are with the suffix -in-. These are easily made from nouns, adjectives, by adding the suffix -in-. When made from verbs, they are mostly made from a past passive participle: vìrti – to boil, vìrtas – boiled, virtìnis – which is boiled, made by boiling. Consequently the suffix is -t-in- for such adjectives. These variants of verbal derivation easily become nouns, in this case it is a noun virtìnis – dumpling (with mushrooms; curd; etc.; but dumplings with meat are called koldūnai). There are also some other word types having certain suffixes or prefixes in this declensional group: (of the first accentuation pattern) pern-ykšt-is – of yesteryear (pernai - in yesteryear); apy-geris – goodish, around good; po-geris – around good; prie-kurtis – somewhat deaf; (of the second accentuation pattern) ketvirt-ain-is, viln-on-is – woollen, graž-ut-ėl-is, rug-ien-is, maž-yl-is – tiny tot, ger-ul-is – goody, maž-ut-is – smally.
  • Two adjectives of the third declension have long -ys: dešinỹs – right, kairỹs – left; plural nominative is dešinì, kairì; plural dative: dešiníems, kairíems. A short form of dìdelis, dìdelė is dìdis, didì (similar to pats, pati). Dešinys, kairys, didis have neutral gender of the u pattern: dešinu, kairu, didu. Pronominal forms: didỹsis, didžióji, dešinỹsis, dešinióji. An adjective didelis, didelė hasn't pronominal forms. The word didis has more mingled forms: nominative is sometimes didus; genitive masc.: didžio / didaus; accusative: didį (/ didų); plural masc. nom. didūs; other forms are of the regular pattern.
  • Adjectives, except -inis type and an adjective didelis, can have pronominal (definite) forms
  • Some other forms have variations in the standard language: pė́sčias, pėsčià, pė́sčia – pedestrian, afoot; pėsčiàsis, pėsčióji and pėstỹsis, pėsčióji (adjectival and substantival meanings).

Table of adjective declension endings[edit]

Pronominal forms

Examples[edit]

  geras = good
  masculine feminine
  singular plural singular plural
Nominative geras geri gera geros
Genitive gero gerų geros gerų
Dative geram geriems gerai geroms
Accusative gerą gerus gerą geras
Instrumental geru gerais gera geromis
Locative gerame geruose geroje gerose
  gražus = beautiful
  masculine feminine
  singular plural singular plural
Nominative gražus gražūs graži gražios
Genitive gražaus graž gražios graž
Dative gražiam gražiems gražiai gražioms
Accusative gražų gražius graž gražias
Instrumental gražiu gražiais gražia gražiomis
Locative gražiame gražiuose gražioje gražiose
  vidutinis = middle
  masculine feminine
  singular plural singular plural
Nominative vidutinis vidutiniai vidutinė vidutinės
Genitive vidutinio vidutin vidutinės vidutin
Dative vidutiniam vidutiniams vidutinei vidutinėms
Accusative vidutinį vidutinius vidutinę vidutines
Instrumental vidutiniu vidutiniais vidutine vidutinėmis
Locative vidutiniame vidutiniuose vidutinėje vidutinėse

Pronouns[edit]

Personal pronouns (I), tu (you) jis (he, it), ji (she, it) and the reflexive pronoun savęs are declined as follows:

Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative Instrumental Locative
Singular 1st person manęs man mane manimi manyje
2nd person tu tavęs tau tave tavimi tavyje
3rd person Masculine jis jo jam juo jame
Feminine ji jos jai ja joje
Reflexive pronoun savęs sau save savimi savyje
Plural 1st person mes mūsų mums mus mumis mumyse
2nd person jūs jūsų jums jus jumis jumyse
3rd person Masculine jie jiems juos jais juose
Feminine jos joms jas jomis jose

Note, that the table contains only the objective genitive of pronouns , tu, savęs. The possessive genitives of these words are mano, tavo and savo respectively. Compare jis manęs laukia – 'he waits for me' and mano draugas – 'my friend' ('friend ' is in masculine), but in jis mūsų laukia – 'he waits for us' and mūsų draugas – 'our friend' the both genitives coincide as in almost any word.

Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative Instrumental Locative
  Dual    1st person Masculine mudu mudviejų mudviem mudu mudviem mudviese
Feminine mudvi mudvi
2nd person Masculine judu judviejų judviem judu judviem judviese
Feminine judvi judvi
3rd person Masculine juodu or jiedu jųdviejų jiedviem juodu jiedviem juodviese
Feminine jiedvi jųdviejų jodviem jiedvi jodviem jiedviese

Irregular declension[edit]

Duktė – daughter, and sesuo – sister, are the only two feminine words of the fifth declension, they have the suffix -er- in the other cases. One word, moteris – woman, female, is both of the fifth and the third declensions, because it has variant genitive singular, both variants of which (-s and -ies) are equally apt, and it has a gen. pl. -ų. Two more words, dieveris m (older) – brother-in-law, and obelis f – apple tree, are the same case as moteris. The word dieveris, -ies (-ers) m, having more close meaning to a proper one, possibly has the fifth-type-like masculine singular instrumental (dieveriu), which is taken from the first declension, while the words of the third declension have -imi (dantimi, vagimi), without a gender distinction. But -imi is normal as well for the masculine nouns of the fifth declension, for example – akmenimi / akmeniu.

A word šuo – dog, differs from the other -uo words in that, that its stem is mixed with the suffix -uo and it consequently does not have the suffix -en- in the other cases (š-uo, akm-uo; šu-n-į, akm-en-į), its singular instrumental normal ending is of the third type (šunimi; that can be understood as a part of a meaning: more like an indefinite gender) and its accentuation paradigm is fourth, the sole case for the -uo words.

Mėnuo – month, moon, is of the first declension -is type, the only fifth type form is one of the two equal variants of singular nominative: mėnuo (other is mėnesis); genitive is mėnesio etc.

The word žmogus – man, human, historically had the nominative singular žmuo (compare Latin homō). Today žmogus is declined in the fourth paradigm in singular (žmogus, žmogaus etc.) and in the third -ė paradigm in plural (žmonės, žmonių etc.).

The words pats m, pati f – one/my/him/her/itself (also noun meanings: husband and wife) have also peculiarities. The ending -i (f., sg. nom.) is present only in two words: pati and marti – daughter-in-law. Pats (< patis) is of the third adjectival declensional type, but the singular nominative is different (-s < -is), plural nominative is -ys and the singular genitive -ies, like in nouns of the third declension. Its sg. gen. is also often said pačio.

The words of the third declension (-is, -ies) have either -ių or -ų in the genitive plural. The dative singular, similarly to the fifth declensional type, differs depending on the gender (-iai f, -iui m), the instrumental singular, differently from the fifth type, is the same for the both genders. One noun of the third type, petys, peties, has the sg. nom. ending with a long i: -ys. Some of the words having the suffix -uonis (there are few of such words) have parallel forms in the other declensions: palikuonis, -ies (common gender) and palikuonis, -io m, palikuonė, -ės f. Such change can happen after the change of an accent place: if the word is accented on the ending -is, then the change of declension (-is, -ies > -is, -io) does not occur in speech, and if the accent moves from the ending to the stem in singular nominative, then the change of declension sometimes occurs. For most of -uonis words, declining in the first declension is considered to be a mistake.

Shifts in declension[edit]

There are few words which are sometimes declined mistakenly in other declensions. But some of the shifts are not rare: a word pats besides sg. gen. paties is often said pačio and these two forms of sg. gen. are equal. Some words have parallel forms from other declensions with a little change in a meaning: dukra, dukros; sesė, sesės; palikuonis, -io, palikuonė, -ės. The forms sesė and dukra are more like unformal, than duktė, -ers and sesuo, -ers. For the word moteris the form motera were existent in dialects, but it is, differently from dukra, sesė cases, only a formal shift of declension without a meaning variation and such word would be perceived as a vernacularism and obsolete.

The forms from the two more declensions sometimes occur in a speech for the masculine words of the fifth declension: of the third and of the first declensions. Similar case is with the masculine words of the third declension – they are sometimes declined in the first declension (because singular nominative is the same). Such a shift is a mistake of declension. For example a word akmuo, akmens can have the forms (third d.) (sg. nom., sg. gen.) akmenis, akmenies – more like older dialectal not used widely and a little likely to be heard in a speech – and (first d.) akmenis, akmenio; akmenys, akmenio; akmenas, akmeno – sometimes said by the speakers, who don't know the fifth declension well, for example, children. But these variants are possibly also present as dialectal forms. The other examples which are sometimes used by some, but not fit are: rudenio (rudens), šunio (šuns, šunies) etc. Examples of migrants from the third declension (-is, -ies) are, for example, dantis, dančio instead of dantis, danties. Such use like akmenas, akmeno; dančio; šunio; rudenio; is a clear mistake and is not accepted. A case of petys, pečio instead of petys, peties is also a mistake, but petys is the only one -ys (instead of -is) form declined in the third declension and consequentely tends to be declined like all other -ys words (of the first declension).

For the word mėnuo / mėnesis the proper form is sg. gen. mėnesio etc. (sg. gen. mėnesies is known in dialects). The genitive of the word pats is paties, but it is also frequently said pačio. Some of the cases of the word pats are of the third adjectival declension, some – sg. nom. -s (< -is), sg. gen. -ies (also -io, like in respective adjectives) and pl. nom. -ys – of the third noun declension.

Some of the nouns occur in another declensional type only in one case. All these cases are more like dialectal and older. For example seseris can be said seseria in dialects, but the genitive remains sesers; (older) motė, moters, but also a migrant form: (older) motė, motės. The dialectal and older form sesuva (a type of sesuo), for example, can remain in the original paradigm with sg. gen. sesers or shift to the -a declension: sesuva, sesuvos.

Tables[edit]

In the tables below the words from the fifth and the third declensions are compared with the words from the other declensions. Table cells with the correct forms written are coloured (not white). In the right outside column the variant forms within the fifth and third declensions are given. They are older, dialectal and not used or used only in small areas. For example, among the variant forms of singular nominative sesuo within the fifth declension are archaic sesuoj, sesuon, sesuva. The first column is for the words of the fifth (-uo, -ens / -ers) declension and the second for the third (-is, -ies). These declensions are very similar. The words are given in the same column, when the forms are same. The column to the right from these, are for the forms of the first (-as, -is, -ys, -ias) and second (-a (-ia), -ė) declensions; one word, žmogus, is of the fourth in singular.

The proper forms of the word mėnuo / mėnesis is not of the fifth-third declension and the same is with the word žmogus, which historically had the form žmuo. A word judesys – move, is included for comparison with mėnesis (they have the same suffix -es- and are declined in the same declension, except sg. nom. of mėnuo / mėnesis).

Dukra and sesė are variants of duktė, sesuo of a different declension and meaning – dukra and sesė are more like informal.

A word palikuonis has two forms of different declensions: one of the third (original) – palikuonis, and other shifted to the first declension – palikuonis, -io palikuonė, -ės. There are few of -uonis words and only several of them have forms other than the original declension, but in a speech some of them are also sometimes declined in the first declension, for example, geluonis, -ies c – sting, can be uderstood as geluonis, -io m.

For the -uo words (except mėnuo) and the -is words (like dantis) the shift to the other declensions would be a mistake. When the shift is from the fifth to the third declension it can be understood as minor variation, but the shift to the first declension would be a clear mistake (however, some of the cases are the same, and that is one of the reasons why the shift can occur). But in speech some of the speakers say, for example, rudenio instead of rudens (this can come on dialectal base), dantis, dančio instead of dantis, danties. Besides these cases, there are shifts, which occur commonly in a speech: pačio instead of paties, pečio instead of peties (the original variants are not used less). A word šuo can also be said šuva (one of dialectal variants).

The words rūgštìs f 3 (1) – acid, and rū̃gštis 2 – sourness; acidity, are two words of different declensions, their meanings are different, but related.

Declension by the paradigms[edit]

a-paradigm[edit]

The a-paradigm is used to decline:

  • nouns of the first declension
  • adjectives of the first declension (masculine forms)
  • adjectives of the third declension (masculine forms, palatalized sub-paradigm)
  • all pronouns (masculine forms), except the pronoun pats – 'own, self'
  • all passive (the main sub-paradigm) or active (the palatalized sub-paradigm) participles (masculine, - active participles have their specific nominatives)
  • all ordinal numbers (masculine forms, adjective inflections)
  • significant part of cardinal numbers (masculine, see the list below)

The a-paradigm is the most complex declension paradigm in Lithuanian. It has two different sub-paradigms, one of which is the main paradigm. The second sub-paradigm is called "palatalized", which means that the last consonant of the stem before the inflection is always palatalized. Note that in this case the palatalization mark (the letter "i") is marked as a part of the inflection. The a-paradigm is masculine.

Also note, that inflection of the a-paradigm is different for nouns, adjectives, and pronouns in some cases. However not every pronoun is declined, using the inflections from the pronoun column in the table below. Some pronouns as well as every numeral of the a-paradigm use the inflections from the adjective column.

The main sub-paradigm[edit]

  • Tas - 'that', rudas - 'brown', namas - 'house'.
  singular plural
  pronoun adjective noun pronoun adjective noun
Nominative tas rudas namas ti.e. rudi namai
Genitive to rudo namo rudų namų
Dative tam rudam namui tiems rudiems namams
Accusative rudą namą tuos rudus namus
Instrumental tuo rudu namu tais rudais namais
Locative tame rudame name tuose ruduose namuose
(Illative) tan rudan naman tuosna ruduosna namuosna
Vocative name (namai)

Other features:

  • the -e ending for the vocative singular applies only to common nouns; proper nouns take the ending -ai. So, for example Jonas = John [nominative] and Jonai! = John! [vocative])

The palatalized sub-paradigm[edit]

  • Šis - 'this', žalias - 'green', uosis - 'ash' (a tree).
  singular plural
  pronoun adjective noun pronoun adjective noun
Nominative šis žalias uosis ši.e. žali uosiai
Genitive šio žalio uosio šių žalių uos
Dative šiam žaliam uosiui šiems žaliems uosiams
Accusative šį žal uosį šiuos žalius uosius
Instrumental šiuo žaliu uosiu šiais žaliais uosiais
Locative šiame žaliame uosyje šiuose žaliuose uosiuose
(Illative) šian žalian uosin šiuosna žaliuosna uosiuosna
Vocative uosi (uosiai)

Other features:

  • The inflection of noun for singular nominative can be -is, -ys or -ias, depending on word. Pronouns however always have the inflection -is, but adjectives never have -ys in this case.
  • The inflection in singular accusative depends on the inflection in singular nominative. If the singular nominative ends with -ias, a word has -ią in singular accusative, otherwise it has the inflection .
  • Significant part of adjectives, that end with -is in the singular nominative (adjectives of the third declension), have noun inflections in plural.
  • The inflection in singular vocative follows the inflection of the singular nominative too:
nominative vocative
-is -i
-ys -y
-ias -e or -iau

Pronouns[edit]

  • Part of pronouns (kas - 'who, what', kažkas - 'somebody, something', tas - 'that', šitas - 'this' etc.) use the main sub-paradigm, but others (jis - 'he', šis - 'this', kuris- 'which' etc.) the palatalized.
  • Pronouns koks - 'what' (quality), kažkoks - 'somewhat', toks - 'such', šitoks - 'such'(demonstrative), kitoks - 'different, other' have the inflection -s instead of the regular -is in the singular nominative.
  • Pronoun kitas - 'another, other' is declined using adjectival inflections.
  • There are few pronouns, that don't use the a-paradigm:
    • Personal pronouns - 'I', tu - 'you, thou', mes - 'we', jūs - 'you' (plural), that formally are of the indefinite gender, each has its own specific paradigm.
    • Pronoun pats - 'own, self' uses the i-paradigm.
    • Note, that pronouns kas - 'who, what' or kažkas - 'somebody, something', that have the indefinite gender only, do use the a-paradigm.

Numbers[edit]

  • The a-paradigm (the main sub-paradigm) is used with all ordinal numbers in masculine and with all collective numbers.
  • The a-paradigm (the palatalized sub-paradigm) is used with all numbers-for-plural-only in masculine.
  • Cardinal numbers that use the adjectival a-paradigm (the palatalized sub-paradigm) in plural (as they're plural only) are:
keturi - 'four'
penki - 'five'
šeši - 'six'
septyni - 'seven'
aštuoni - 'eight'
devyni - 'nine'
  • Cardinal numbers that use inflections of nouns of the a-paradigm both in singular and in plural are:
šimtas - 'a hundred'
tūkstantis - 'a thousand'
milijonas - 'a million'
milijardas - 'a billion'
...
and other internationally accepted words for big numbers.
  • Some cardinal numbers have their own specific paradigms:
    • a number du - 'two' uses a paradigm of the dual number.
    • a number trys - 'three' uses a specific paradigm, similar to the i-paradigm.
    • a number dešimt - 'ten' is undeclinable (however it's a shortened word from dešimtis - 'ten', which is of the i-paradigm).

List of numbers, that don't use the a-paradigm[edit]

Here is a list of numerals that don't use the a-paradigm in the masculine. See the o-paradigm for feminine numbers.

du - 'two' (dual number, has a special paradigm)
trys - 'three' (the i-paradigm)
vienuolika - '11'
dvylika - '12'
trylika - '13'
keturiolika - '14'
penkiolika - '15'
šešiolika - '16'
septyniolika - '17'
aštuoniolika - '18'
devyniolika - '19' (numbers 'vienuolika' - 'devyniolika' are singular words of the o-paradigm)
dešimt - 'ten' (undeclinable, sometimes "dešimtis" as a word of the i-paradigm)

Nominatives of the active participles[edit]

  singular plural
  short long short long
Present tense -ąs -antis -ą -antys
Present tense
(palatalized)
-iąs -iantis - -iantys
Past tense -ęs -ę
Future tense -siąs -siantis -s -siantys

Notes:

  1. Short forms of the nominatives skip the active participle suffix -(i)ant-, e. g.
    miegantis 'sleeping' (masculine singular, the long form) - miegąs (idem, the short form),
    sakantys 'saying' (masculine plural, the long form) - saką (idem, the short form).
    This is valid in the masculine nominative only.
  2. The past tense doesn't have the long forms.

u-paradigm[edit]

The u-paradigm is used to decline:

  • nouns of the fourth declension
  • adjectives of the second declension (their masculine forms)

The u-paradigm has two different sub-paradigms, the main and the palatalized. Note, that in this case the palatalization mark (the letter "i") is marked as a part of the inflection. The u-paradigm is masculine.

Inflections of the u-paradigm differ between nouns and adjectives in some cases.

The main sub-paradigm[edit]

  • Drąsus - 'brave', sūnus - 'son'.
  singular plural
  adjective noun adjective noun
Nominative drąsus sūnus drąsūs sūnūs
Genitive drąsaus sūnaus drąs sūnų
Dative drąsiam sūnui drąsiems sūnums
Accusative drąsų sūnų drąsius sūnus
Instrumental drąsiu sūnumi drąsiais sūnumis
Locative drąsiame sūnuje drąsiuose sūnuose
(Illative) drąsian sūnun drąsiuosna sūnuosna
Vocative sūnau (sūnūs)

The palatalized sub-paradigm[edit]

  • Narsus - 'brave, hardy', karalius - 'king'.
  singular plural
  adjective noun adjective noun
Nominative narsus karalius narsūs karaliai
Genitive narsaus karaliaus nars karal
Dative narsiam karaliui narsiems karaliams
Accusative narsų karal narsius karalius
Instrumental narsiu karaliumi narsiais karaliais
Locative narsiame karaliuje narsiuose karaliuose
(Illative) narsian karaliun narsiuosna karaliuosna
Vocative karaliau (karaliai)

Note that:

  • The sub-paradigm for adjectives is fully identical with the main sub-paradigm and is mixed-type, with some inflections palatalized and others not.
  • The plural of nouns in this sub-paradigm is identical with the plural of nouns of the a-paradigm (the palatalized sub-paradigm).

o-paradigm[edit]

The o-paradigm is used to decline:

  • part of nouns of the second declension (whose singular nominative ends with -a or -i)
  • adjectives of the first declension (their feminine forms)
  • adjectives of the second declension (their feminine forms, the palatalized sub-paradigm)
  • all pronouns (their feminine forms)
  • all passive (the main sub-paradigm) or active (the palatalized sub-paradgm) participles (feminine)
  • all ordinal numbers (feminine forms, the main sub-paradigm)
  • cardinal numbers from vienuolika - 'eleven', dvylika - 'twelve' to devyniolika - 'nineteen' (in singular!)
  • (feminine) cardinal numbers, that are used in plural, except a number trys - 'three'.

The main sub-paradigm[edit]

  • Ta - 'that', ruda - 'brown', meška - 'bear'.
  singular plural
Nominative ta ruda meška tos rudos meškos
Genitive tos rudos meškos tų rudų meškų
Dative tai rudai meškai toms rudoms meškoms
Accusative tą rudą mešką tas rudas meškas
Instrumental ta ruda meška tomis rudomis meškomis
Locative toje rudoje meškoje tose rudose meškose
(Illative) ton rudon meškon tosna rudosna meškosna
Vocative meška (meškos)

The palatalized sub-paradigm[edit]

  • Ši - 'this', stipri - 'strong, potent', galia - 'power'.
  singular plural
Nominative ši stipri galia šios stiprios galios
Genitive šios stiprios galios šių stiprių gal
Dative šiai stipriai galiai šioms stiprioms galioms
Accusative šią stiprią gal šias stiprias galias
Instrumental šia stipria galia šiomis stipriomis galiomis
Locative šioje stiprioje galioje šiose stipriose galiose
(Illative) šion stiprion galion šiosna stipriosna galiosna
Vocative galia (galios)

Other features:

  • Words of the palatalized sub-paradigm may have -i or -ia in the singular nominative. This doesn't affect other inflections.
  • Adjectives of the first declension have -ia, but adjectives of the second declension have -i in the singular nominative.

Pronouns[edit]

  • Part of pronouns (ta - 'that', šita - 'this' etc.) use the main sub-paradigm, but others (ji - 'he', ši - 'this', kuri- 'which' etc.) the palatalized.
  • There are few pronouns, that don't use the o-paradigm:
    • Personal pronouns - 'I', tu - 'you, thou', mes - 'we', jūs - 'you' (plural), that are of the indefinite gender, each has its own specific paradigm.
    • Pronouns kas - 'who, what' or kažkas - 'somebody, something', that have the indefinite gender only, use the a-paradigm.

Numbers[edit]

  • The i-paradigm (the main sub-paradigm) is used with all ordinal numbers in feminine.
  • The a-paradigm (the palatalized sub-paradigm) is used with all numbers-for-plural-only in feminine.
  • Cardinal numbers, that use the o-paradigm (the palatalized sub-paradigm) in feminine plural (as they're plural only) are:
keturios - 'four'
penkios - 'five'
šešios - 'six'
septynios - 'seven'
aštuonios - 'eight'
devynios - 'nine'
  • Cardinal numbers, that use the o-paradigm (the palatalized sub-paradigm) in feminine singular are:
vienuolika - '11'
dvylika - '12'
trylika - '13'
keturiolika - '14'
penkiolika - '15'
šešiolika - '16'
septyniolika - '17'
aštuoniolika - '18'
devyniolika - '19'
    • Numbers vienuolika to devyniolika have the inflexion -a instead of in the (singular) accusative.
  • Some cardinal numbers have their specific paradigms:
    • a number dvi - 'two' (feminine) uses a paradigm of the dual number.
    • a number trys - 'three' uses a specific paradigm, similar to the i-paradigm.

ė-paradigm[edit]

The ė-paradigm is used to decline:

  • part of nouns of the second declension (that end with in the singular nominative)
  • adjectives of the third declension (their feminine forms)

The words in the table:

  • Didelė - 'big', upė - 'river'.
  singular plural
Nominative didelė upė didelės upės
Genitive didelės upės didelių up
Dative didelei upei didelėms upėms
Accusative didelę upę dideles upes
Instrumental didele upe didelėmis upėmis
Locative didelėje upėje didelėse upėse
(Illative) didelėn upėn didelėsna upėsna
Vocative upe (upės)

Note, that the inflection of the plural genitive is palatalized (-ių).

i-paradigm[edit]

The i-paradigm is used to decline:

  • nouns of the third declension, which are mostly feminine (dantis - 'tooth', debesis - 'cloud', vagis - thief and few nouns that end with -uonis in the singular nominative are masculine exceptions)
  • nouns of the fifth declension, which are mostly masculine (duktė - 'daughter', sesuo - 'sister' are feminine exceptions)
  • pronoun pats - 'own, self' (masculine form)
  • number trys - 'three' (has the plural only)

All these words use the unsuffixed sub-paradigm, except the nouns of the first declension, which apply the suffixed sub-paradigm

Unsuffixed sub-paradigm[edit]

The words in the table:

  • pilis - 'castle', vagis - 'thief'.
  singular plural
  feminine masculine feminine masculine
Nominative pilis vagis pilys vagys
Genitive pilies vagies pil vagių
Dative piliai vagiui pilims vagims
Accusative pilį vagį pilis vagis
Instrumental pilimi vagimi pilimis vagimis
Locative pilyje vagyje pilyse vagyse
(Illative) pilin vagin pilysna vagysna
Vocative pili.e. vagie (pilys) (vagys)

Other features:

  • Many words have instead of -ių in the plural genitive, for example, žąsis - žąsų 'goose', naktis-naktų 'night', debesis - debesų 'cloud'.

Irregularities:

  • Words pats - 'own, self' and trys - 'three' are declined as following:
  singular plural
  pronoun number pronoun
Nominative pats trys patys
Genitive paties trijų pačių
Dative pačiam trims patiems
Accusative patį tris pačius
Instrumental pačiu trimis pačiais
Locative pačiame m. trijuose / f. trijose pačiuose
(Illative) pačian m. trijuosna / f. trijosna pačiuosna

Note, that the word pats is declined only in masculine in this table. Its feminine form pati is declined with the o-paradigm regularly.

Suffixed sub-paradigm[edit]

The words in the table:

  • akmuo - 'stone', sesuo - 'sister'.
  singular plural
  masculine feminine masculine feminine
Nominative akmuo sesuo akmenys seserys
Genitive akmens sesers akmenų seserų
Dative akmeniui seseriai akmenims seserims
Accusative akmenį seserį akmenis seseris
Instrumental akmeniu seserimi akmenimis seserimis
Locative akmenyje seseryje akmenyse seseryse
(Illative) akmenin seserin akmenysna seserysna
Vocative akmeni.e. seserie (akmenys) (seserys)

Other features:

  • Other cases than the singular nominative always have a suffix, -en- for masculine words and -er- for feminine words. There are only two feminine words, using the suffixed sub-paradigm, duktė - 'daughter' and sesuo - 'sister'.

Irregularities:

  • A word duktė - 'daughter' has the inflexion instead of -uo in singular nominative.
  • A word šuo - 'dog' has a suffix -un- instead of -en-. The root of this word formally is a single š-, but historically it was šu-, that subsequently amalgamated with the suffix, and the further cases are šuns, šuniui, šunį and so on.

Other:

  • A word sesuo - 'sister' has a synonim sesė, that's used in vocative ('sese!') more often, than the first ('seserie!'). The synonym sesė is of the ė-paradigm.

Dual number[edit]

The dual number has its specific inflections, that are similar with plural inflections with some specific differences:

  • Nominative, accusative or vocative: masculine words end with -(i)u, feminine with -i
  • Genitive and locatives are the same as in the plural.
  • Dative has the inflection of the plural dative, but without the final -s, so -(i)ams, -iems, -(i)oms, -ėms, -ims in the plural give -(i)am, -iem, -(i)om, -ėm, -im in the dual respectively
  • Instrumental has the same inflections as the dual dative, but they are pronounced in different intonation.

Other features:

  • It depends on the paradigm, whether -(i) in the brackets is used or not. The masculine i-paradigm always has -iu as the nominative inflection.

Irregularities:

  • A word du - 'two' has three modifications of the stem, d- (in nominative and accusative), dv- (in dative and instrumental) and dviej- (in genitive and locatives)
  • Words mudu - 'we (both)', judu - 'you (both)', juodu - 'they (both)' (masculine), jiedvi - 'they (both)' (feminine), as well as šiuodu - 'these (both)', tuodu - 'that (both)', abudu - 'both' and their feminine counterparts have a specific paradigm, based on declension of a word du - 'two' (see an example in the paragraph about pronouns).

Shortened inflections[edit]

Inflections, that have two or more syllables, are often shortened in Lithuanian, eliding the final short vowel. Shortened inflections are especially used in the spoken language, while in the written language full inflections are preferred. The elision occur in:

  • Singular locative. Inflections -ame, -yje, -oje, -ėje may be shortened to -am, -y(j), -oj, -ėj. Note, that a one-syllable inflection -e of the a-paradigm isn't a subject of the rule.
  • Plural instrumental. Feminine inflections -omis, -ėmis, -imis may be shortened to -om, -ėm, -im. These inflections coincide with respective inflections of the dual number.
  • Plural dative has one-syllable inflections, but sometimes they are shortened, skipping the final -s, to -am, -iem, -om, -ėm, -im. These inflections coincide with respective inflections of the dual number too.
  • Plural locative. A masculine inflections -uose may be shortened to -uos. What however doesn't pertain to inflections -yse, -ose, -ėse, whose shortened variants would coincide with inflections of other cases.

Also there's just one occasion, when the whole one-syllable inflection may be skipped. This may be done with feminine active participles of the past tense (or of the past iterative tense) in the singular nominative. So a word dariusi - 'who was making, who has made' can be said as darius. Note, that this shortened form coincides with the sub-participle of the past tense.

History[edit]

Noun declension inter-linguistic comparison[edit]

The declension of Lithuanian nouns of the different declensional patterns are given compared with Latin, Latvian (in a separate section), Old Prussian, Gothic, Ancient Greek and Russian. Because Old Prussian has left a limited literature with not all the cases of all the stems employed, the Prussian samples are not full in the tables (the cases which existed are most probably already reconstructed from various data by linguists). At the same time there were fewer cases in Prussian than in modern common Lithuanian and mixing the declension patterns was more common, what could develop in a context of a slow decline in the use of Old Prussian, as the Prussians adopted the languages of the others, particularly German. Lithuanian declension varied in dialects.

The first declension. Sg. nom. ends in -as, sg. acc. – in -ą. Latin words of this stem ends in -us in sg. nom., and -um in sg. acc. When these Latin endings succeeded a labial sound, their vowel was ŏ: equos – horse, equom; servos – slave, serf, servom. Sg. nom. in Prussian and Gothic is shortened: tavs, dags. Such shortening is present in western and northern Lithuanian dialects: tėvas, -o – father, and tėvs, -o; dagas, -o – heat of the sun (from degti – to burn), and dags, -o. In Prussian there existed only a shortened form, and it developed one step further in a part of the nouns: kaimis / kaimⁱs – village < kaims < kaimas (Lith. kaimas – village, kiemas – yard). There are no neuter nouns in Lithuanian and Latvian, differently from the other given here: Lith. butas – flat, living place, Prus. butan – the same meaning, Lat. aedificium – building. Lithuanian instrumental -u derives from an older -uo, what is seen, for example, in pronominal (definite) adjective forms, pronouns: gerù (nom. sg. gẽras – good) and gerúo-ju (nom. sg. geràsis – that good one), juõ (nom. sg. jis / is – he). Lithuanian diphthong uo corresponds to Latin ō. For dat. sg., an ending -uo is also known in dialects. Lithuanian acc. sg. and gen. pl. are written in the letters with an ogonek: ą and ų. An ogonek indicates that the sound is long. Historically these sounds were nasal: vilką < vilkan, vilkų < vilkun. The form with a sound -n is used in some places in north-west Samogitia today. Latin pl. dat.-abl. -īs corresponds to Ancient Greek pl. dat. -ois and Lithuanian pl. instr. -ais. Lithuanian sg. gen. corresponds to Slavic, for example, Russian: vilko (also dial. vilkā) and Russian волка. Prussian sg. loc. was probably -ai, -ei: bītai (adverb) – in the evening, kvei – where;[1] compare Lith. namiẽ – at home (namè – in the house).

The second declension. Lithuanian and Prussian o denotes a long ō. Narrowed more, it becomes ū. When more open, it is ā; ā was used in Catechisms in Prussian, o – in Elbing vocabulary. The ą, ę correspond to ų, į in dialects of eastern Lithuania and acc. sg. is kalbų (kalbą), gėlį (gėlę) in these dialects. The case of -ų corresponds to Latvian and Slavic languages: nom. sg. liepa (Lith.) – linden, liepa (Latv.), липа / lipa (Rus.) and acc. sg. liepą and liepų (Lith.), liepu (Latv.), липу / lipu (Rus.).

Fifth declension. Among variant declensional forms are known: sg. dat. -i, -i.e.: akmeni, akmenie, seseri, seserie. Sg. gen. akmenes, pl. nom. akmenes, akmens. In a case of Old Prussian emen – name, e is dropped in other than sg. nom. cases (sg. acc. emnin instead of emenin). A drop can similarly occur in other languages, for example: Lith. vanduo – water, sg. gen. variants: vandens, vandenies, vandinies, vandenio, vandinio, vandnio. Gothic wato n – water: pl. forms, for example, nom.-acc. watna.

The third declension.

The fourth declension. Prussian sg. nom. -us is known from Elbing vocabulary, it was shortened to -s in Catechisms. Sg. gen. -us is an innovative form, known from Catechisms, the older form was -aus. A word сынъ is given in Old Slavonic cases.

The second declension, -ė type. Prussian -ē stems became -i in an unaccented position.

Lithuanian and Latvian[edit]

Lithuanian declensional endings are given compared with Latvian declensional endings in the table below.

first declension second declension third d. fourth d. fifth d. adjectives
masculine feminine f m m m f m f
-ǎ- -i- -o- -ė- -i- -u- -i- -ǎ- -o-
sg.
Nom. -as -is -ys -ias -a -ia -is -us -ius -uo -as -a
Gen. -o -io -os -ios -ės -ies -aus -iaus -en-s -er-s -o -os
Dat. -ui -iui -ai -iai -ei -iai -iui -ui -iui -en-iui -er-iai -am -ai
Acc. -ią -ią -ių -en-į -er-į
Ins. -u -iu -a -ia -e -imi -umi -iumi -en-iu -er-imi -u -a
Loc. -e -yje -oje -ioje -ėje -yje -uje -iuje -en-yje -er-yje -ame -oje
Voc. -e -i -y -a -ia -e -i.e. -au -iau -en-i.e. -er-ie -as -a
pl.
Nom. -ai -iai -os -ios -ės -ys -ūs -iai -en-ys -er-ys -i -os
Gen. -ių -ių -ių -ių -ių -en-ų -er-ų
Dat. -ams -iams -oms -ioms -ėms -ims -ums -iams -en-ims -er-ims -iems -oms
Acc. -us -ius -as -ias -es -is -us -ius -en-is -er-is -us -as
Ins. -ais -iais -omis -iomis -ėmis -imis -umis -iais -en-imis -er-imis -ais -omis
Loc. -uose -iuose -ose -iose -ėse -yse -uose -iuose -en-yse -er-yse -uose -ose
Latvian:
I (m) II (m) IV (f) V (f) VI (f) III (m) II (m) m f
-ǎ- -i- -ā- -ē- -i- -u- -i- -ǎ- -ā-
sg.
Nom. -s, -š -is -a -e -s -us -en-s -s, -š -a
Gen. -a -a* -as -es -s -us -en-s -a -as
Dat. -am -im -ai -ei -ij -um -en-im -am -ai
Acc. -u -i -u -i -i -u -en-i -u -u
Ins. -u -i -u -i -i -u -en-i -u -u
Loc. -en-ī
pl.
Nom. -i -i* -as -es -is -i -eņ-i* -i -as
Gen. -u -u* -u -u* -u -u -eņ-u* -u -u
Dat. -iem -iem* -ām -ēm -īm -iem -eņ-iem* -iem -ām
Acc. -us -us* -as -es -is -us -eņ-us* -us -as
Dat. -iem -iem* -ām -ēm -īm -iem -eņ-iem* -iem -ām
Loc. -os -os* -ās -ēs -īs -os -eņ-os* -os -ās

References[edit]

  1. ^ (Lithuanian) Mažiulis, Vytautas (2004), Prūsų kalbos istorinė gramatika, p. 39 

See also[edit]