Little Shop of Horrors (film)
|Little Shop of Horrors|
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Frank Oz|
|Produced by||David Geffen|
|Screenplay by||Howard Ashman|
|Based on||Little Shop of Horrors
by Howard Ashman
|Narrated by||Stanley Jones|
|Music by||Miles Goodman
|Editing by||John Jympson|
|Studio||The Geffen Company|
|Distributed by||Warner Bros.|
|Running time||94 minutes |
Little Shop of Horrors is a 1986 American musical comedy film directed by Frank Oz. It is a film adaptation of the off-Broadway musical comedy of the same name by composer Alan Menken and writer Howard Ashman about a nerdy florist shop worker who raises a vicious, raunchy plant that feeds on human blood. Menken and Ashman's Off-Broadway musical was based on the low-budget 1960 film The Little Shop of Horrors, directed by Roger Corman. The film stars Rick Moranis, Ellen Greene, Vincent Gardenia, Steve Martin, and Levi Stubbs as the voice of Audrey II.
Little Shop of Horrors was filmed on the Albert R. Broccoli 007 Stage at the Pinewood Studios in England, where a "downtown" set, complete with overhead train track, was constructed. The film was produced on a budget of $25 million, in contrast to the original 1960 film, which, according to Corman, only cost $30,000. The film's original 23-minute finale, based on the musical's ending, was rewritten and reshot after receiving a strong negative reception from test audiences. Before it was fully restored in 2012 by Warner Home Video, the ending was never available publicly other than in the form of black-and-white workprint footage.
Seymour Krelborn and his colleague, Audrey, work at Mushnik's Flower Shop, lamenting they cannot escape the Skid Row slums in New York City ("Skid Row"). Struggling from a lack of customers, Mr. Mushnik prompts to close the store, only for Audrey to suggest displaying an unusual plant Seymour owns. Immediately attracting a customer, Seymour explains he bought the plant, which he dubbed "Audrey II", from a Chinese flower shop during a solar eclipse ("Da-doo"). Attracting business to Mushnik's shop, the plant soon starts dying, worrying Seymour; accidentally pricking his finger, he then discovers Audrey II needs human blood to thrive ("Grow for Me").
Audrey II continues to grow rapidly and Seymour becomes a local celebrity. Seymour soon attempts to ask Audrey out, but she turns him down because she has a date with her violent, sadistic dentist boyfriend Orin Scrivello ("Dentist!"). Despite this, Audrey is interested in Seymour, and dreams of marrying him and escaping Skid Row ("Somewhere That's Green"). After Seymour closes up shop, Audrey II begins to talk to Seymour, demanding more blood than Seymour can give ("Feed Me"). The plant proposes Seymour murders someone in exchange for fame and fortune; Seymour initially refuses, but agrees upon witnessing Orin slapping Audrey.
Seymour books an appointment with Orin and arms himself with a revolver, however he cannot bring himself to use it. Orin, who abuses nitrous oxide, puts on a type of venturi mask to receive a constant flow of the gas. Accidentally breaking an intake valve and unable to remove the mask, Orin begs Seymour for help removing it; as he witnessed Orin assaulting Audrey, Seymour refuses to help, and watches as Orin asphyxiates. Dragging Orin's body back to Audrey II, Seymour cuts up the body for the plant, only to be unknowingly spotted by Mushnik, who flees in fear.
After feeding Orin to Audrey II, Seymour discovers the police investigating Orin's disappearance. Audrey, feeling guilty about wishing Orin would disappear, is comforted by Seymour, and the two admit their feelings for each other ("Suddenly Seymour"). That night, Mushnik confronts Seymour, believing he murdered Orin. Threatening to turn Seymour in, Mushnik offers to let him escape in exchange for the secret to the plant's care routine ("Suppertime"). Out of options, Seymour makes Mushnik back up to Audrey II's open mouth, causing Mushnik to get eaten whole.
Despite widespread success, Seymour worries about Audrey II's growth and insatiable appetite ("The Meek Shall Inherit"). Offered a cash and a contract for a botany TV show, Seymour plans to elope Skid Row with Audrey using the money, leaving the plant to starve. After Audrey accepts Seymour's marriage proposal, Audrey II catches Seymour leaving and demands another meal; Seymour agrees, but insists on meat from a butcher. While Seymour is gone, the plant calls Audrey, coaxes her into the shop, and then tries to eat her (reprise of "Suppertime"). Seymour, returning and saving Audrey, escapes the store with her. Explaining he fed the plant to become successful and win Audrey's heart, Seymour discovers she has always liked him (reprise of "Suddenly Seymour"). Approached by a salesman, Seymour is offered a contract to breed Audrey II and sell the saplings worldwide; Seymour then realizes Audrey II has plans for world domination, and realizes he has to destroy it.
Confronting Audrey II, Seymour learns it is an alien from outer space ("Mean Green Mother from Outer Space"). Trapping Seymour, Audrey II collapses the store, attempting to escape. Seymour, trapped under debris, grabs an exposed electrical cable and electrocutes Audrey II, causing it to explode. Leaving the destroyed shop, Seymour safely reunites with Audrey, before they wed and move to the suburbs; arriving at their new home, a smiling Audrey II bud can be seen among the flowers in their front yard.
During production, director Oz shot a 23-minute ending based on the off-Broadway musical's ending. However, after receiving negative reviews from test audiences, the ending had to be rewritten and re-shot for the theatrical release with a "happier ending".
In the original ending, after Audrey is attacked by Audrey II (reprise of "Suppertime"), Seymour rescues Audrey, who is seriously injured. Confessing to Audrey he fed Mushnik and Orin to Audrey II, Audrey requests Seymour feed her to the plant and earn the success he deserves, before she dies in his arms (reprise of "Somewhere That's Green"). Seymour does so, but soon attempts to commit suicide, only to be stopped by a salesman, who offers to reproduce and sell Audrey II. Realizing Audrey II's intentions of world domination, Seymour is warned that his consent isn't necessary as plants are considered public domain, meaning Audrey II has to be destroyed. Returning to the shop, Seymour confronts and tries to kill the plant ("Mean Green Mother from Outer Space"), who tears down the shop, plucks Seymour out of the rubble, and eats him alive.
The three chorus girls appear in front of the American flag and tell how the Audrey II buds became a worldwide consumer craze, but soon, grew into an army of monstrous plants who take over the world ("Don't Feed the Plants"). Giant Audrey II plants are shown destroying cities, toppling buildings and eating people. The U.S. Army attempt to fight the Audrey II buds as the final shot shows the plants ascending the Statue of Liberty.
- Rick Moranis as Seymour Krelborn, a nerdy florist who loves "strange and interesting" plants.
- Ellen Greene as Audrey, a sweet, quiet, ditsy and insecure coworker; the object of Seymour's affections, but dating the sadistic Orin Scrivello.
- Vincent Gardenia as Mr. Mushnik, the grouchy, penny-pinching owner of Mushnik's Flower Shop.
- Steve Martin as Orin Scrivello, DDS, an abusive, sadistic and nitrous oxide-huffing dentist, and Audrey's boyfriend.
- Levi Stubbs as the voice of Audrey II, an evil and profane flytrap-like extraterrestrial plant with plans to take over the world.
- Tichina Arnold, Michelle Weeks, and Tisha Campbell-Martin as Crystal, Ronette, and Chiffon, the three dropout schoolgirls who act as a Greek chorus throughout the film.
- James Belushi as Patrick Martin, a Licensing and Marketing executive from World Botanical Enterprises who offers Seymour a proposal to sell Audrey IIs worldwide. Belushi appears in the theatrical release after re-shoots after actor Paul Dooley (who played Martin in the original ending) was unavailable to reprise his scenes.
- John Candy as Wink Wilkinson, the WSKID DJ (the only one) who enjoys putting on a radio show about "weird stuff" called, "Wink Wilkinson's Weird World
- Christopher Guest as The First Customer, the first customer to enter the flower shop and notice Audrey II.
- Bill Murray as Arthur Denton, an enthusiastic masochist man who goes to Orin for "a long, slow root canal."
- Miriam Margolyes as a Dental Nurse, Orin's sarcastic nurse/secretary who Orin appears to enjoy harming frequently.
- Stanley Jones as the Narrator, whose voice is heard reading the opening words.
- Mak Wilson, Danny John-Jules, Danny Cunningham, Gary Palmer and Paul Swaby as the Doo-wop backup singers.
Audrey II puppeteered by John Alexander, Anthony Asbury, Don Austen, David Barclay, Michael Barclay, James Barton, Michael Bayliss, Marcus Clarke, Sue Dacre, Graham Fletcher, Brian Henson, Terry Lee, Christopher Leith, Toby Philpott, Mike Quinn, Paul Springer, William Todd-Jones, Ian Tregonnian, Robert Tygner, and Mak Wilson.
- "Prologue: Little Shop of Horrors" – Chiffon, Ronette, Crystal
- "Skid Row (Downtown)" – Seymour, Audrey, Mushnik, Chiffon, Ronette, Crystal, Company
- "Da-Doo" – Seymour, Chiffon, Ronette, Crystal
- "Grow for Me" – Seymour, Chiffon, Ronette, Crystal (off-screen)
- "Somewhere That's Green" – Audrey
- "Some Fun Now" – Chiffon, Ronette, Crystal
- "Dentist!" – Orin, Chiffon, Ronette, Crystal
- "Feed Me (Git It)" – Audrey II, Seymour
- "Suddenly, Seymour" – Seymour, Audrey, Chiffon, Ronette, Crystal
- "Suppertime" – Audrey II, Chiffon, Ronette, Crystal
- "The Meek Shall Inherit" – Chiffon, Ronette, Crystal, Company
- "Suppertime (Reprise)" – Audrey II, Audrey, Chiffon, Ronette and Crystal (off screen)
- "Suddenly, Seymour (Reprise)" – Audrey, Seymour
- "Mean Green Mother from Outer Space" – Audrey II, the Pods
- "Little Shop of Horrors medley" (end credits) – Company
- Original ending
- "Somewhere That's Green (Reprise)" – Audrey, Seymour
- "Mean Green Mother from Outer Space" – Audrey II, the Pods
- "Finale (Don't Feed the Plants)" – Chiffon, Ronette, Crystal, Company
David Geffen was one of the original producers of the off-Broadway show and he began planning to produce a feature film adaptation. He originally wanted Steven Spielberg to executive produce the film and Martin Scorsese to direct. Scorsese wanted to shoot the film in 3-D, but plans fell through and Scorsese's first 3-D film would be Hugo 25 years later. John Landis was also approached to direct.
Geffen then offered the film to Frank Oz, who was finishing The Muppets Take Manhattan around the same time. Oz initially rejected it, but he later had an idea that got him into the cinematic aspect of the project, which he didn't figure out before. Oz spent a month and a half to restructure the script which he felt was stage-bound. Geffen and Ashman liked what he had written and decided to go with what he did. Oz was also studying the Off-Broadway show and how it was thematically constructed, all in order to reconstruct it for a feature film.
The film differs only slightly from the stage play. The title song is expanded to include an additional verse to allow for more opening credits. The song "Ya Never Know" was re-written into a calypso-style song called "Some Fun Now", although some of the lyrics were retained. Four other songs ("Closed for Renovation", "Mushnik and Son", "Now (It's Just the Gas)", and "Call Back in the Morning") were cut from the original production score. An original song written by Ashman and Menken, "Mean Green Mother from Outer Space", was created for the film.
Greene was not the first choice for the role of Audrey. Geffen wanted a star role for the film. The studio wanted Cyndi Lauper, who turned it down. Barbra Streisand was also rumored to have been offered the part. Since Greene was the original off-Broadway Audrey, the role was given to her. "She's amazing", Oz said. "I couldn't imagine any other Audrey, really. She nailed that part for years off-Broadway." The character of the masochistic dental patient, Arthur Denton, played in the original film by Jack Nicholson and cut from the stage version, was added back to the story and played by Bill Murray, who improvised all of his dialogue. It supposedly took Steve Martin six weeks to film all his scenes as Orin. He contributed ideas such as socking the nurse in the face (originally he was to knock her out using his gas mask) and ripping off the dolls head. While he re-wrote brief sequences in The Little Mermaid and Beauty and the Beast, Little Shop of Horrors was the only film entirely written by Howard Ashman, who died of AIDS in 1991 near the end of production of Beauty and the Beast.
All the scenes were filmed at Pinewood Studios in England, making use of every sound stage there, including the 007 Stage. Oz and his crew did not want to shoot on location as it would tamper with the fantastical mood of the film. Part of the giant 007 stage was used to film the 'Suddenly Seymour' number. But because of its size, the stage was impractical to heat properly and thus caused breath condensation to appear from the actor's lips. This was countered by having Ellen Greene and Rick Moranis put ice cubes in their mouths. This would be the first film Moranis and Martin starred in a movie together, and they later star together in three more films: Parenthood, My Blue Heaven, and L.A. Story.
As mentioned, additional sequences and songs from the original off-Broadway show were dropped or re-written in order for the feature version to be paced well. The notable change was for the "Meek Shall Inherit" sequence. As originally filmed, it detailed through a dream sequence Seymour's rising success and the need to keep the plant fed and impress Audrey. In the final cut, the dream sequence and much of the song is cut out. Oz said, "I cut that because I felt it just didn't work and that was before the first preview in San Jose. It was the right choice, it didn’t really add value to the entire cut." The full version of the song was included on the film's soundtrack album, as were the songs from the original ending. The sequence was deemed to be lost until in 2012, it was rediscovered on a VHS workprint that contained alternate and extended takes and sequences.
Operating the plant
The film's version of Audrey II was an extremely elaborate creation, using puppets designed by Lyle Conway.
While developing the mouth of the plant for the dialogue scenes and musical numbers, Oz, Conway and his crew were struggling to figure out how to make the plant move convincingly. "We kept trying and trying and it didn't work." The solution presented itself while reviewing test footage of the puppet. When the film was run backwards or forward at a faster than normal speed, the footage looked much more convincing and lifelike. They realized they could film the puppet at a slower speed, making it appear to move faster when played back at normal speed. "By slowing it down it looked it was talking real fast. We then went 'holy cow, look at that. We can do it.'" The frame rate for filming the plant was slowed to 12 or 16 frames per second, depending on the scene, and frequent screen cuts were used to minimize the amount of screen time the puppet spent with human actors, and when interaction was totally necessary, the actors (usually Moranis) would pantomime and lip sync in slow motion. The film was then sped up to the normal 24 frames per second and voices were reinserted in post-production. Levi Stubbs' recordings were run through a harmonizer when slowed down so that they were coherent for Moranis or Ellen Greene.
There are no blue screens or opticals involved in any of Audrey II's scenes, with the exception of one effect in the reshot ending where the plant is electrocuted, and in some shots during the rampage in the original ending. The plant was made in six different stages of growth and there were three different versions of Mushnik's shop, making it possible for two units to work with different sized plants at the same time. Each of the talking plants had to be cleaned, re-painted and patched up at the end of each shooting day, which would take up to three hours depending on the size. The "Suppertime" number uses two different sizes of Audrey II. When the plant is singing all alone in the shop, it is actually a smaller size: the same size as when it sang "Feed Me", but now standing on a scaled down set to make it look larger. The full size one that is seen to interact with Seymour and Mushnik was not provided with lip movement, but was built to swallow Mushnik's (mechanical) legs. During Audrey II's final stage of growth, 60 technicians were necessary to operate the one-ton puppet.
Oz and Ashman wanted to retain the ending of the musical where Seymour and Audrey die and the plant succeeds and takes over the city of New York, but Geffen was actually against it. "He said you can't do that," Oz recounts. "But again he knew what Howard and I wanted to do, so he supported us." A special effects team skilled in working with miniatures went to great lengths to create the finale. The model department was supervised by Richard Conway, known for his effects work on Flash Gordon and Brazil. "It was all model stuff, that was the brilliant thing. he created the bridge, the buildings, several Audrey IIs and created all of it, all on tabletop. It's all old-fashioned, tabletop animation" [although no stop motion animation was used in the film or in the ending].
Reportedly the entire, planned climax cost about $5 million to produce. Oz said in an interview, "this was, I think, the most expensive film Warner Bros. had done at the time." As the film was nearing completion, the excited studio set up a test screening in San Jose. Oz said, "For every musical number, there was applause, they loved it, it was just fantastic... until Rick and Ellen died, and then the theatre became a refrigerator, an ice box. It was awful and the cards were just awful. You have to have a 55 percent "recommend" to really be released and we got a 13. It was a complete disaster." Oz insisted on setting another test screening in L.A. to see if they would get a different reaction. Geffen agreed to this, but they received the same negative reaction as before. Oz later recounted, "I learned a lesson: in a stage play, you kill the leads and they come out for a bow — in a movie, they don't come out for a bow, they're dead. They’re gone and so the audience lost the people they loved, as opposed to the theater audience where they knew the two people who played Audrey and Seymour were still alive. They loved those people, and they hated us for it."
Oz and Ashman scrapped Audrey and Seymour's grim deaths and the finale rampage, and Ashman rewrote a happier ending, with James Belushi replacing Paul Dooley (who was unavailable) as Patrick Martin. The musical number "Mean Green Mother from Outer Space" was left mostly intact from the original cut, with new shots of Audrey observing from a window added in. A brief sequence from the "Mean Green Mother" number was also removed in which Seymour fires his revolver at Audrey II, only to discover that the bullets ricochet harmlessly off of the plant. In the happy ending, Audrey II is destroyed and Seymour, Audrey, and humanity survive. This happy ending is made somewhat ambiguous, however, with a final shot of a smiling Audrey II bud in Seymour and Audrey's front yard. Tisha Campbell-Martin was unavailable for the final appearance of the chorus girls in the yard and was replaced with a lookalike seen only from the waist down.
"We had to do it," Oz recounted. "-We had to- do it in such a manner that the audience would enjoy the movie. It was very dissatisfying for both of us that we couldn't do what we wanted. So creatively, no, it didn't satisfy us and being true to the story. But we also understood the realities that they couldn't release the movie if we had that ending." "We had to cut -the work-print- apart, and we never made a dupe of -the original ending-." At the time, the only copies of it that were made to be viewed were VHS work-print tapes given to few crew members. The scene in which Seymour proposes to Audrey originally contained the reprise of "Suddenly, Seymour", this scene was re-shot and the reprise was placed later in the new ending. In the final theatrical cut, the only miniatures that are retained are the New York City streets passing behind Steve Martin's motorcycle ride at the beginning of "Dentist!" "When we did re-shoot the ending, the crowd reaction went over 50 percent in our favor. Before it was a point where they hated it so much, Warner probably wouldn't even release the movie," Oz said.
Little Shop of Horrors, after a delay needed to complete the revised ending, was released on December 19, 1986 and was anticipated to do strong business over the Holiday Season of that year. The film grossed $38 million at the box office, which, from the view point of the studio, was considered an under-performance. However, it became a smash hit on its home video release in 1987 on VHS and Beta.
It earned a very positive critical reception. Rotten Tomatoes retrospectively collected reviews to give it a score of 90% based on reviews from 48 critics. On Metacritic, which uses an average of critics' reviews, the film has an 81% rating based on 15 reviews, indicating "universal acclaim" (14 positive reviews, 1 mixed, and no negative). Richard Corliss of Time Magazine said, "You can try not liking this adaptation of the Off-Broadway musical hit -- it has no polish and a pushy way with a gag -- but the movie sneaks up on you, about as subtly as Audrey II." In The New York Times, Janet Maslin called it "a full-blown movie musical, and quite a winning one." "All of the wonders of "Little Shop of Horrors" are accomplished with an offhand, casual charm. This is the kind of movie that cults are made of, and after "Little Shop" finishes its first run, I wouldn't be at all surprised to see it develop as one of those movies that fans want to include in their lives," said Roger Ebert in his review. Oz's friend and Muppet colleague, Jim Henson, praised the film and said "the lip sync on the plant in that film is just absolutely amazing."
The film was also nominated for two Academy Awards, one for Best Visual Effects (lost to Aliens), the other for Best Original Song for Audrey II's new number, "Mean Green Mother From Outer Space". "Mean Green" was the first Oscar-nominated song to contain profanity in the lyrics and thus had to be slightly censored for the show. It lost to "Take My Breath Away" from Top Gun. It was also nominated for Best Motion Picture - Comedy/Musical and Best Original Score (Miles Goodman) during the 44th Golden Globe Awards.
Little Shop of Horrors was the first DVD to be recalled for content. In 1998, Warner Bros. released a special edition DVD that contained approximately 23 minutes of unfinished footage from Oz's original ending, although it was in black and white and was missing some sound, visual, and special effects. Producer and rights owner David Geffen was not aware of this release until it made it to the stores. Geffen said, "They put out a black-and-white, un-scored, un-dubbed video copy of the original ending that looked like shit." As a result the studio removed it from shelves in a matter of days and replaced it with a second edition that did not contain the extra material. Geffen wanted to re-release the film to theaters with the original ending intact. Geffen also claimed to have a color copy of the original ending, while the studio had lower quality, black and white duplicates as their own color print was destroyed in a studio fire years earlier. But Geffen hadn't realized until after the DVD was pulled that there was no colored copy of the original ending in existence to their knowledge. Subsequently, the original first edition DVD was a much sought-after collector's item and sold for upwards of $150 on eBay.
In February 2007, Warner hinted that a DVD reissue, featuring the original ending in color with the missing effects, may be on its way in the following year, but this release didn't happen and no word on the restoration was issued. At this point, the original ending, and Oz's optional audio commentary, had been virally shared on the internet through bit torrenting and user-generated video sites.
In November 2011, Oz held a Q&A session at the Museum of the Moving Image in Astoria, Queens during a Henson themed exhibit. During the talk, he announced that the film would be released as a new special edition with the original ending restored. Warner Bros. reconstructed and restored the ending in an alternate edit, with re-discovered color negatives of the sequence and the help of production notes from Frank Oz and others on the film’s creative team. It was released on Blu-ray and DVD on October 9, 2012 with features returning from the original DVD. It was initially subtitled as "The Intended Cut", but changed to "The Director's Cut" once Oz began to support the release. The new edit was screened at the 50th New York Film Festival in the "Masterwork" line-up, alongside titles such as Laurence Olivier's Richard III and Heaven's Gate.
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- Little Shop of Horrors at the Internet Movie Database
- Little Shop of Horrors at allmovie
- Little Shop of Horrors at Box Office Mojo
- Little Shop of Horrors at Rotten Tomatoes
- Little Shop of Horrors at Metacritic