Little Switzerland (landscape)

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A little Switzerland or Schweiz is a landscape, often of wooded hills. This Romantic aesthetic term is not a geographic category, but was widely used in the 19th century to connote dramatic natural scenic features that would be of interest to tourists. Since it was ambiguous from the very beginning, it was flexibly used in travel writing to imply that a landscape had some features, though on a much smaller scale, which might remind a visitor of Switzerland.

Rock outcrops[edit]

The original generic term was applied to dozens of locations in Europe, the bulk of them German-speaking, as well as to other parts of the world, to direct attention to rock outcrops that stand out, usually amid steep forest. The original, 18th-century comparison was usually with the fissured crags of the Jura Mountains on the Franco-Swiss border which hardly rise higher than 1700 metres.

Histories of Saxon Switzerland (Sächsische Schweiz) in Saxony, Germany assert that the landscape description schweiz arose there at the end of the 18th century. Schweiz is the German-language name of Switzerland. The term was used both alone and with the prefix "little", for example in the title of an 1820 German book-length poem, Die kleine Schweiz by Jakob Reiselsberger,[1] which praised the rocky scenery of a part of Franconia in Germany known thereafter as the Franconian Switzerland (Fränkische Schweiz).

The term was already colloquial by this time in English: in 1823 a correspondent asserted in The Gentleman's Magazine that a steep area by the road outside Petersfield in southern England was a little Switzerland.[2] The aesthetic term, to describe picturesque exposed rock and steepness rather than altitude, was also in common use in other European languages, including the French term "Suisse". Rocks and wild landscapes were a favoured theme in Romantic painting.

The many English places praised in 19th century promotional literature as "little Switzerland" include Church Stretton, Whitfield and the coastal area around the North Devon twin towns of Lynton and Lynmouth. Chalet-style buildings were sometimes erected to emphasize little Switzerland pretensions, for example at Matlock Bath, which (unusual for England) also features a cable car.

Mountains[edit]

From the beginning, the term was often understood as a comparison to the snow-capped Alps rather than to the Jura. The following passage, describing Wales, appears in an 1831 English-language edition of Malte-Brun's Universal Geography, which had originally been written in French 1803-1807:

Describing the Atlantic island of St Helena in A New Voyage Round the World 1823-1826, Otto von Kotzebue and Johann Friedrich Eschscholtz were translated into English as writing:

In the United States, the raw White Mountains of New Hampshire, which were soon to be one of the definitive subjects of American Romantic painting, were termed a little Switzerland by travel writer Henry Tudor as early as 1832.[5]

Lakelands[edit]

In the later 19th century, authors and tourism promoters would praise picture-postcard summer scenery of woods and low hills reflected in blue lakes as a little Switzerland or schweiz. Whereas the earlier use had implied a landscape of dangers, this was a term for beauty.

This usage, reflected today in the official geographical terms for the Holstein Switzerland (Holsteinische Schweiz) and Mecklenburg Switzerland (Mecklenburgische Schweiz) in Germany, where there are neither mountains nor outcrops, is difficult to account for, but may refer to prestigious Swiss lakeside tourist destinations such as Zurich, Lucerne or Interlaken or to Lakes Geneva and Constance.

Official names[edit]

The term has often appeared anachronistic since travel to Switzerland became affordable. By the 21st century, it was common for observers to express puzzlement that the "little Switzerland" label applied at all to regions such as the Suisse Normande, or to the Holstein Switzerland where the flat hilltops are no more than 150 metres above the lake surfaces.

In 1992, the Swiss Tourism Federation counted[6] more than 190 places round the world that had at least for some period been named after Switzerland, either because of a fancied scenic resemblance, in jest or referring to a banking haven, political neutrality or habitation by Swiss emigrants. No fewer than 67 places in neighbouring Germany were said by the Federation to have adopted little Switzerland names.

While the byname has fallen out of fashion in some places, it persists as the official geographical name for several administrative regions and national parks including (with dates of legal designation):

Business promotion regions using the name without legally defined boundaries include:

Notable privately developed properties known by the name include:

Usage[edit]

In English, "Little Switzerland" is usually said without any definite article or additional adjective, but often with a genitive modifier if there are several little Switzerlands within one nation, e.g. North Carolina's Little Switzerland. In European languages where Switzerland proper takes a definite article, little Switzerlands do likewise. Their English names may echo the vernacular, being capitalized and modified to the English alphabet, sometimes taking an English definite article, e.g. the Saechsische Schweiz (die Sächsische Schweiz) and the Suisse Normande (la Suisse normande). English forms are also widespread, e.g. Holstein Switzerland (Dickinson, 1964),[14] Swiss Franconia (Michelin, 1993),[15] Franconian Switzerland (Fodor, 1962,[16] and Bolt, 2005.[17])

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Reiselsberger, Jakob; Die kleine Schweiz oder Einladung zur Reise nach Streitberg, Muggendorf, Weischenfeld [et]c. und deren Umgebungen; Leitfaden für hieher Reisende, Höhlen-Besucher, Natur- und Alterthums-Freunde, und schön unterhaltendes Taschenbuch für jedermann; [S.l.] 1820
  2. ^ The Gentleman's Magazine, London; December 1823, page 506
  3. ^ Malte-Brun, Conrad; Universal Geography: Or, a Description of All Parts of the World, on a New Plan; Boston, Lilly and Wait, 1831, volume 1, page 742
  4. ^ Kotzebue, Otto von and Johann Friedrich Eschscholtz; A New Voyage Round the World in the Years 1823, 24, 25, and 26; Colburn and Bentley, 1830, page 317
  5. ^ Tudor, Henry; Narrative of a Tour in North America; London, James Duncan, 1834, page 390
  6. ^ [1][dead link]
  7. ^ http://www.ceskesvycarsko.cz/bohemian-switzerland-national-park
  8. ^ "Naturpark". Fsvf.de. Retrieved 2013-11-27. 
  9. ^ "Naturpark Märkische Schweiz | LUGV". Grossschutzgebiete.brandenburg.de. 2013-06-24. Retrieved 2013-11-27. 
  10. ^ "naturpark-mecklenburgische-schweiz.de". naturpark-mecklenburgische-schweiz.de. Retrieved 2013-11-27. 
  11. ^ "Kurzportrait des Schutzgebietes". Nationalpark-saechsische-schweiz.de. 2013-07-15. Retrieved 2013-11-27. 
  12. ^ "berdorf.lu". berdorf.lu. Retrieved 2013-11-27. 
  13. ^ [2][dead link]
  14. ^ Dickinson, Robert E. (1964). Germany: A regional and economic geography (2nd ed.). London: Methuen. ASIN B000IOFSEQ. 
  15. ^ Germany, Michelin Tourist Guide, 1st Edition, 1993, Clermont-Ferrand, p 59.
  16. ^ Fodor, Eugene; Fodor's Modern Guides: Germany, MacGibbon & Kee, 1962, The Hague, p. 249.
  17. ^ Bolt, Rodney, Bavaria, London, 2005, pp. 203-204, ISBN 1-86011-202-1.