Principality of Dalmatian Croatia
|Principality of Dalmatian Croatia
The Croatian Principality c. 850. Savia was probably under direct Frankish rule
|Capital||No permanent seat
|Religion||Christian, later Roman Catholic|
|-||803-821||Borna (first) de jure|
|-||Establishment||c. 8th century|
|-||Tomislav crowned as king||925|
|Today part of|| Croatia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Dalmatian Croatia (Croatian: Dalmatinska Hrvatska), also Littoral Croatia (Primorska Hrvatska)[note 1] is a name for a region of what used to be a medieval Croatian principality which was established in the former Roman province of Dalmatia. Throughout its time, the Principality had several capital cities, namely Klis, Solin, Biograd, Knin, Biaći and Nin, comprised the littoral, or coastal part of today's Croatia and included a big part of the mountainous hinterland. The Principality had the House of Trpimirović as the ruling dynasty, with interruptions by the House of Domagojević (864-878 and 879-892).
"Littoral Croatia" is a modern appellation amongst historians for the territory of the Principality. The first duke of the Principality, Borna, was named "Duke of Dalmatia" (Latin: Dux Dalmatiae) and later "Duke of Dalmatia and Liburnia" (Latin: dux Dalmatiae atque Liburniae) in the Annales regni Francorum. The Croatian name came to use in the second half of the 9th century. Trpimir I was named "Duke of Croats" (Latin: Dux Chroatorum) in a Latin charter issued in 852, while Branimir was defined as "Duke of Croats" (Latin: Dux Cruatorvm) on a preserved inscription from 888.
Within the defined Littoral Croatia, various tribal groupings, which were called sclaviniae by the Byzantines, were settled along the Adriatic coast. The nearest one, the land of the Narentines, which stretched from the rivers Cetina to Neretva, had the islands of Brač, Hvar, Korčula, Mljet, Vis and Lastovo in its possession. In the southern part of Dalmatia, there was Zahumlje (Zachumlia), Travunia and Dioclea (today Montenegro). The central part of the Littoral state consisted partially of Bosnia. North of the state there was the Principality of Pannonian Croatia.
From that point on, they were independent, and demanded to be baptised from the bishop of Rome, and was sent to them to be baptised in the time of their duke Porga. Their land was divided in eleven županija, which are: Hlebiana, Tzenzena, Emota, Pleba, Pesenta, Parathalassia, Brebere, Nona, Tnena, Sidraga, Nina, and their ban (boanos) has Kribasan, Litzan, Goutzeska
In the 9th century, Croatia emerged as a political entity with a duke (also knez, translated as duke or prince) as head of state, territorially in the basins of the rivers Cetina, Krka and Zrmanja. It was administered in 11 župa (Županije). The earliest recorded prince, referred to by the Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus, was Porga, who was believed to have been invited into Dalmatia by the Byzantium Emperor Heraclius. The Croatian noble tribes that possibly had the right to choose Croatian duke were from Dalmatia: Karinjani and Lapčani, Polečići, Tugomirići, Kukari, Snačići, Gusići, Šubići (from which later developed very powerful noble family Zrinski), Mogorovići, Lačničići, Jamometići and Kačići.
In 839 the Venetians under Dodge Pietro Tradonico attacked Dalmatia, but during the assault they signed peace with princeps Mislav (Latin: principe Muisclavo). The Dodge also attacked Narentine islands, but made peace with count Drosaico. However, next year the Venetians were defeated by the Narentines under count Diuditum.
Duke Mislav was succeeded around 845 by Trpimir I, who continued the formal legacy of being the vassal of the Frankish king Lothair (840–855), although he managed to strengthen his personal rule in Croatia. Arab campaigns thoroughly weakened the Byzantine Empire and Venice, which was used in the advance of the Croatian prince in 846 and 848. In 846 Trpimir successfully attacked the Byzantine coastal cities and their patricius. Between 854 and 860, he successfully defended his land from the Bulgarian invasion under Knyaz Boris I of Bulgaria, and defeated them finally in eastern Bosnia. The Bulgarians and Croatians coexisted peacefully up to that time.
In a Latin charter preserved in a rewrite from 1568, dated to 4th March 852 or, according to a newer research, about 840, Trpimir refers to himself as dux Croatorum iuvatus munere divino (leader of the Croats with the help of God); his land, called regnum Croatorum, "Kingdom of the Croats", can simply be interpreted as the land of the Croats, since Trpimir was not a king. The term regnum was also used by other dukes of that time as a sign of their independence. This charter also documents his ownership of castle Klis, from where his rule was centered. He is more expressly remembered as the founder of the House of Trpimirović, a native Croat dynasty that ruled, with interruptions, from 845 until 1091 in Croatia.
In 876 duke Domagoj usurped the throne from Zdeslav, son of Trpimir, and forced him to flee to Constantinople. During the rule of Domagoj piracy was a common practice in the Adriatic. The pirates attacked Christian saliors, including a ship with papal legates returning from the the Eighth Catholic Ecumenical Council, thus forcing the Pope to intervene by asking Domagoj to stop piracy, but his efforts were of no avail. Domagoj waged wars with Arabs, Venetians and Franks. In 871 he helped the Franks, as their vassal, to seize Bari from the Arabs, but later actions of the Franks under the rule of Carloman of Bavaria led to a revolt by Domagoj against the Frankish rule. The revolt succeeded and frankish overlordship in Dalmatia ended. His rule also saw increased Byzantine influence in the area, especially reflected in the establishment of Theme of Dalmatia. After the death of Domagoj in 876 Zdeslav returned from exile and usurped the throne from an unnamed son of Domagoj and restored peace with Venice in 878.
The second half of the 9th century marked a significant increase in papal influence in the Southeastern Europe. Pope John VIII complained to Domagoj about the obstinacy of Patriarch Ignatius who denied his jurisdiction over Bulgaria and appointed a new Archbishop. The Pope also requested from dukes Zdeslav and Branimir assistance and protection for his legates who were crossing Croatia on their way to Bulgaria. Although the exact geographical extent of Dalmatian Croatia is not known, these requests confirm geographical contiguity between Croatia and Bulgaria, which bordered probably somewhere in Bosnia.
|Part of a series on the|
|History of Croatia|
- The term "Littoral Croatia" (Primorska Hrvatska), has been used by older Croatian historians to describe this entity in a manner that emphasizes its Croatian nature, but contemporary sources did not actually use the Croatian name as such until the latter half of the 9th century, rendering the name anachronistic before then.
- Neven Budak - Prva stoljeća Hrvatske, Zagreb, 1994., page 13 (Croatian)
- Goldstein, 1985, pp. 241–242
- Ferdo Šišić, Povijest Hrvata; pregled povijesti hrvatskog naroda 600. - 1918., Zagreb ISBN 953-214-197-9
- Annales regni Francorum DCCCXVIIII (year 819)
- Annales regni Francorum DCCCXXI (year 821)
- Codex Diplomaticus Regni Croatiæ, Dalamatiæ et Slavoniæ, Vol I, p. 4-8
- De Administrando Imperio, XXX. Story of the province of Dalmatia
- Iohannes Diaconus, Istoria Veneticorum, p. 124 (Latin)
"Sclaveniam bellicosis navibus expugnaturum adivit. Sed ubi ad locum qui vocatur sancti Martini curtis perveniret,
pacem cum illorum principe Muisclavo nomine firmavit. Deinde pertransiens ad Narrantanas insulas cum Drosaico,
Marianorum iudice, similiter fedus instituit, licet minime valeret et sic postmodum ad Veneciam reversus est.
Ubi diu commorari eum minime licuit. Sed denuo preparavit exercitum adversum Diuditum Sclavum ubi plus
quam centum Veneticis interfecti fuerunt et absque triumpho reversus est."
- De Administrando Imperio, XXXI. Of the Croats and of the country they now dwell in
- Nada Klaić, Povijest Hrvata u ranom srednjem vijeku, Zagreb 1975., p. 227-231
- Margetić, Lujo, Prikazi i diskusije, Split, 2002, p. 508-509 ISBN 953-163-164-6
- Rudolf Horvat: Povijest Hrvatske I. (od najstarijeg doba do g. 1657.), 17. Mislav i Trpimir
- Florin Curta: Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500-1250, p. 139-140
- Liber pontificalis 108, LIX—LX (184 f.): „... "post dies aliquot navigantes (legati Romani), in Sclavorum deducti Domagoi manus pro dolor!
inciderunt; bonis omnibus ac authentico, in quo subscriptiones omnium fuerant, denudati sunt ipsique capite plecterentur, nisi ab his, qui ex illis aufugerant, timeretur."
- John Van Antwerp Fine: The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century, 1991, p. 261
- Iohannes Diaconus, Istoria Veneticorum, p. 140 (Latin)
"His diebus Sedesclavus, Tibimiri ex progenie, imperiali fultus presidio Constantinopolim veniens, Scavorum ducatum arripuit filiosque Domogor exilio trusit."
- Maddalena Betti: The Making of Christian Moravia (858-882), 2013, p. 130
- Rudolf Horvat, Povijest Hrvatske I. (od najstarijeg doba do g. 1657.), Zagreb 1924.
- Nada Klaić, Povijest Hrvata u ranom srednjem vijeku, Zagreb 1975.
- Neven Budak - Prva stoljeća Hrvatske, Zagreb, 1994.
- Goldstein, Ivo (May 1985). "Ponovno o Srbima u Hrvatskoj u 9. stoljeću". Historijski zbornik (in Croatian) (Savez povijesnih društava Hrvatske, Faculty of Philosophy, Zagreb). XXXVII (1). Retrieved 2012-07-27.
- Croatia — an independent principality (Richard C. Frucht: Eastern Europe, Edition 2005 /Santa Barbara, California, USA/)
- Prince Branimir put the Principality of Croatia "permanently beneath the wing of the Roman Church and Western Christian civilization (879)" (Richard Barrie Dobson: Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, Edition 2000 /Cambridge, England, UK/)