Liu Chang

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For the tennis player, see Liu Chang (tennis).
This is a Chinese name; the family name is Liu.
Liu Chang
4th and last emperor of Southern Han
Reign 958–972
Predecessor Liu Sheng (劉晟), father
Spouse Mei Zhu
Issue 4 sons
Full name
Surname: Liú ()
Given name: Jìxīng (), later changed to Chǎng ()
Era dates
Dàbǎo ()
Year 1: 23 January 958 – 10 February 959
Year 2: 11 February 959 – 30 January 960
Year 3: 31 January 960 – 19 January 961
Year 4: 20 January 961 – 7 February 962
Year 5: 8 February 962 – 27 January 963
Year 6: 28 January 963 – 15 February 964
Year 7: 16 February 964 – 4 February 965
Year 8: 5 February 965 – 24 January 966
Year 9: 25 January 966 – 11 February 967
Year 10: 12 February 967 – 1 February 968
Year 11: 2 February 968 – 20 January 969
Year 12: 21 January 969 – 8 February 970
Year 13: 9 February 970 – 29 January 971
Year 14: 30 January 971 – 18 January 972
Born 942
Died 980
Liu Chang
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese

Liu Chang (劉鋹) (942–980), originally Liu Jixing (劉繼興), was the fourth emperor of Southern Han during imperial China's Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, reigning from 958 until his country was annexed by the invading Song Dynasty army in 971.

Life[edit]

He succeeded Cheng because he was the eldest son. He only left eunuchs in power in his court.[1]

Reign[edit]

When Liu became Emperor, he was sixteen years old. During reign, he spent most of his time having sexual intercourse with women, including Persian women (波斯女子)who were prominent in his harem.[2][3] His particular favourite was one young girl he nicknamed "beautiful sow" or "Seductive Pig" (媚猪) (Mei Zhu or Mei Chu).[4] Liu doted on this young Persian woman,[5][6][7] who was also reportedly sixteen years old. The Persian girl was called a "princess".[8][9]

Liu liked the Persian girl (Mei Zhu) because of her brown skin color. He and the Persian girl also liked to forced young couples to go naked and played with them in the palace.[10][11]

The "rear palace" was where the Persian girls wand other women were kept, which was where they and Ch'ang engaged in intercourse.[12]

The Wu Tai Shï says that Liu Ch'ang [劉鋹, Emperor of the Southern Han dynasty reigning at Canton, about A.D. 970]. "was dallying with his palace girls and Persian [波斯] women in the inner apartments, and left the government of his state to the ministers."[13][14][15]

The History of the Five Dynasties (Wu Tai Shih) stated that- "Liu Chang then with his court- ladies and Po-ssu woman, indulged in amorous affiurs in the harem".[16]

Descriptions of the sexual activities between Liu Chang and the Persian woman in the Song dynasty book the "Ch'ing-i-lu" by T'ao Ku were so graphic that the "Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko (the Oriental Library), Issue 2" refused to provide any quotes from it while discussing the subject.[17]

In addition to being in Liu's harem, Persian women lived in Canton for a large period from the 900s to the 1100s AD. Wearing many earrings was a fashion among them.[18][19][20]

Besides spending time with his Persian concubines, he also wasted much money on renovating his palaces.[21]

A female shamaness was also prominent at Liu Chang's court.[22][23]

He was the last Emperor of Southern Han, as his kingdom was defeated and taken over by the Song dynasty in 972. He reigned for a total of 14 years.[24]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Xiu Ouyang, Richard L. Davis (2004). Historical records of the five dynasties (illustrated, annotated ed.). Columbia University Press. p. 544. ISBN 0-231-12826-6. Retrieved January 4, 2012. Liu Chang, originally named Jixing, had been invested Prince of Wei. . .Because court affairs were monopolized by Gong Chengshu and cohort, Liu Chang in the inner palace could play his debauched games with female attendants, including a Persian. He never again emerged to inquire of state affairs 
  2. ^ Lombard-Salmon Claudine (2004). Les Persans à l'extrémité orientale de la route maritime (IIe A.E. -XVIIe siècle). Archipel. Volume 68. p. 40. Retrieved 3 March 2011. 
  3. ^ Société pour l'étude et la connaissance du monde insulindien, Association Archipel, Centre de documentatio et de recherches sur l'Asie du Sud-Est et le monde indonésien, Centre national de la recherche scientifique (France), Institut national des langues et civilisations orientales, École des hautes études en sciences sociales (2004). Archipel, Issues 67-68. SECMI. p. 40. Retrieved 2011-03-03. 
  4. ^ 東方文化學院 (Tokyo, Japan). 京都硏究所, 東方文化硏究所 (Kyoto, Japan), 京都大學. 人文科學硏究所 (1954). Journal of Oriental studies, Volume 25, Issue 1. 東方文化學院京都硏究所. p. 364. Retrieved January 4, 2012. 5) Ch'ang was particularly fond of a Persian girl whom he styled " Seductive Pig ". Like his uncle Pin, Ch'ang enjoyed naked revels ; see CIL a.7b for a description of his "Great Body Pairing" game. For more on Persians in Canton, see my "Iranian Merchants in T'ang Dynasty Tales ", Semitic and Oriental Studies, University of California Publications in Semitic Philology, XI. 403-422 (1951). 
  5. ^ http://books.google.com/books?ei=wwr6TrmhAcW30AHYtMGeAg&id=rBIUAQAAMAAJ&dq=63+At+the+foreign+quarter%2C+there+lived+of+course+many+foreign+women%2C+and+they+were+called+by+the+Chinese+Po-ssu-fu+M+%24f+jgf+%28lit.+Persian+women%29%2C1%273+perhaps+because+most+of+them+came+from+near+the+Persian+Gulf.18%29+During+the+Five+Dynasties+3%C2%A3+ft+%28907-959%29%2C+Liu+Chang+H%2C+king+of+the+Nan-han+Wi+Wh%2C+had+in+his+harem+a+young+Persian+woman%2C+whom+he+doted+upon+so+much&q=young+persian+woman. Retrieved January 4, 2012. 63 At the foreign quarter, there lived of course many foreign women, and they were called by the Chinese Po-ssu-fu M $f jgf (lit. Persian women),1'3 perhaps because most of them came from near the Persian Gulf.18) During the Five Dynasties 3£ ft (907-959), Liu Chang H, king of the Nan-han Wi Wh, had in his harem a young Persian woman, whom he doted upon so much  Missing or empty |title= (help)Original from the University of Michigan (63 At the foreign quarter, there lived of course many foreign women, and they were called by the Chinese Po-ssu-fu 波斯婦 (lit. Persian women),1'3 perhaps because most of them came from near the Persian Gulf.18) During the Five Dynasties 五代 (907-959), Liu Chang 劉鋹, king of the Nan-han 南漢, had in his harem a young Persian woman, whom he doted upon so much.Tōyō Bunko (Japan). Kenkyūbu (1928). "Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko (the Oriental Library), Issue 2". The Toyo Bunko. p. 34. 
  6. ^ Tōyō Bunko (Japan). Memoirs of the Research Department, Issue 2. Pennsylvania State University. p. 34. Retrieved 2010-12-30. 
  7. ^ Tōyō Bunko (Japan). Kenkyūbu (1928). Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko (the Oriental Library), Issue 2. the University of Michigan: The Toyo Bunko. p. 34. Retrieved February 9, 2011. 
  8. ^ HONG KONG BEFORE THE CHINESE THE FRAME, THE PUZZLE AND THE MISSING PIECES A lecture delivered on 18trh November 1963 by K. M. A. Barnett
  9. ^ BARNETT, K. M. A. (18 November 1963). "HONG KONG BEFORE THE CHINESE THE FRAME, THE PUZZLE AND THE MISSING PIECES". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society Hong Kong Branch: 58. ISSN 1991-7295. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  10. ^ Roger Darrobers (1998). Opéra de Pékin: théâtre et société à la fin de l'empire sino-mandchou (in French). Bleu de Chine. p. 31. ISBN 2-910884-19-8. Retrieved January 4, 2012. L'expression trouvait son origine sous le règne de Liu Chang (958-971), ultime souverain des Han du sud (917-971), un des États apparus dans la Chine du nord après la chute des Tang, avant que les Song ne réalisent pour leur propre... Liu Chang se rallia au nouveau pouvoir qui lui conféra le titre de Marquis de la Bienveillante Amnistie 17. Son règne a laissé le souvenir de ses nombreuses dépravations. S'en remettant aux eunuques pour gouverner, il prenait plaisir à assister aux ébats de jeunes personnes entièrement dévêtues. Il avait pour favorite une Persane de seize ans, à la peau mate et aux formes opulentes, d'une extrême sensualité qu'il avait lui-même surnommée « Meizhu » (« Jolie Truie »). Il déambulait en sa compagnie parmi les couples s'ébattant dans les jardins du palais, spectacle baptisé « corps en duo », on rapporte qu'il aimait voir la Persanne livrée à d'autres partenaires 18. Original from the University of Michigan
  11. ^ Société pour l'étude et la connaissance du monde insulindien, Association Archipel, Centre de documentatio et de recherches sur l'Asie du Sud-Est et le monde indonésien, Centre national de la recherche scientifique (France), Institut national des langues et civilisations orientales, École des hautes études en sciences sociales (2004). Archipel, Issues 67-68 (in French). SECMI. p. 40. Retrieved January 4, 2012. Les chroniques 52 gardent le souvenir d'une dame persane qui était dans le harem du quatrième et dernier souverain, Liu Chang glJH (959-971). Les débuts du commerce international sur le territoire des souverains de l'État de Min sont Original from the University of Michigan
  12. ^ 東方文化學院 (Tokyo, Japan). 京都硏究所, 東方文化硏究所 (Kyoto, Japan), 京都大學. 人文科學硏究所 (1954). Journal of Oriental studies, Volume 25, Issue 1. 東方文化學院京都硏究所. p. 364. Retrieved January 4, 2012. When Ch'eng-shu and the others took autocratic control of the regime, Ch'ang played wantonly with palace maidservants, Persian girls and such like in the " rear palace and did not come forth again attend to affairs.5' Furthermore , Yen-shou brought in the female shaman Fan Hu-tzu #J and he himself stated that the Jade Illustrious [Deity] 3s ll had descended into Hu-tzu's person. 
  13. ^ Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. North China Branch, Shanghai, China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. China Branch, Shanghai Literary and Scientific Society (1890). Journal of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volume 24. SHANGHAI: Kelly & Walsh. p. 299. Retrieved January 4, 2012. The II w Tai Slu says that Liu Ch'any [g|] §g, Emperor of the Southern I Ian dynasty reigning at Canton, about A.D. 1*70], "was dallying with his palace girls and Persian [-Jj£ ^)f] "women in the inner apartments, and left the government of "his state to the ministers." Original from the University of Michigan
  14. ^ Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. China Branch (1890). Journal of the China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society for the year ..., Volumes 24-25. SHANGHAI: The Branch. p. 299. Retrieved January 4, 2012. The W11 Tut Shi says that Lin Ch'niia [g|] §J|. Emperor of the Southern I Ian dynasty reigning at Canton, about AD U70], "■ was dallying with his palace girls and Persian [jjjj Jjf] " women in the inner apartments, and left the government of " his state to the ministers. Original from Princeton University
  15. ^ Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. North-China Branch (1889). Journal of the North-China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volumes 24-25. Kraus Reprint, Ltd. p. 299. Retrieved January 4, 2012. The Wit Tut fi/n says that Lin Cli'iiiiy [ §lj JJ|, Emperor of the Sontlier Han dynasty reigning at Canton, AD 570], " was dallying with Iiis palace girls and Persian women in the inner Original from the University of Virginia
  16. ^ Tōyō Bunko (Japan). Kenkyūbu (1928). Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko (the Oriental Library), Issue 2. The Toyo Bunko. p. 54. Retrieved January 4, 2012. 22) In the Wu-tai-shih-cM 2.^ jfc,12, we read, "Liu Chang then with his court- ladies and Po-ssu woman, indulged in amorous affiurs in the harem The names of Po-li i£ >f Il ( = P'o-li JSiflJ) and Original from the University of Michigan ()
  17. ^ Tōyō Bunko (Japan). Kenkyūbu (1928). Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko (the Oriental Library), Issue 2. The Toyo Bunko. p. 55. Retrieved December 26, 2011. and did not came out to see governmental business." IF1 §§71#il5i$S£$l?;£c 3£ (2L« jfe3B,«/S+ a, SiaitB:*). In the Ch'ing-i-lu m »»(ed. of ttl&fFSSO attributed to T'AO Ku ft ft towards the beginning of the North Sung era, we have a minute description of Liu Chang's licentious conduct with the Po-ssu woman, but decency would forbid as to give quotations from the book. Original from the University of Michigan ()
  18. ^ Walter Joseph Fischel (1951). Walter Joseph Fischel, ed. Semitic and Oriental studies: a volume presented to William Popper, professor of Semitic languages, emeritus, on the occasion of his seventy-fifth birthday, October 29, 1949. Volume 11 of University of California publications in Semitic philology. University of California Press. p. 407. Retrieved January 4, 2012. At least from the tenth to the twelfth century, Persian women were to be found in Canton, in the former period observed among the inmates of the harem of Liu Ch'ang, Emperor of Southern Han,'2 and in the latter seen as typically wearing great numbers of earrings and cursed with quarrelsome dispositions. 
  19. ^ Walter Joseph Fischel, ed. (1951). Semitic and Oriental studies: a volume presented to William Popper, professor of Semitic languages, emeritus, on the occasion of his seventy-fifth birthday, October 29, 1949. Volume 11 of University of California publications in Semitic philology. University of California Press. p. 407. Retrieved January 4, 2012. At least from the tenth to the twelfth century, Persian women were to be found in Canton, in the former period observed among the inmates of the harem of Liu Ch'ang, Emperor of Southern Han,'2 and in the latter seen as typically wearing great numbers of earrings and cursed with quarrelsome dispositions. 
  20. ^ Walter Joseph Fischel, ed. (1951). Semitic and Oriental studies: a volume presented to William Popper, professor of Semitic languages, emeritus, on the occasion of his seventy-fifth birthday, October 29, 1949. Volume 11 of University of California publications in Semitic philology. University of California Press. p. 407. Retrieved January 4, 2012. At least from the tenth to the twelfth century, Persian women were to be found in Canton, in the former period observed among the inmates of the harem of Liu Ch'ang, Emperor of Southern Han,'2 and in the latter seen as typically wearing great numbers of earrings and cursed with quarrelsome dispositions. Original from the University of Michigan
  21. ^ Herbert Franke, ed. (1976). Sung biographies, Volume 2. Steiner. p. 620. ISBN 3-515-02412-3. Retrieved January 4, 2012. During his reign the number of castrati at the palace increased to about 5 000. Great power was also given to a palace beauty named Liu Ch'iung- hsien JäP) 3^ iA* , and especially to a female shaman Fan Hu-tzu ^ fcfi 3~ , who claimed to. . .But Liu was free to spend his days with the Persian girls in his harem, and to oversee the decoration of his splendid new palaces with costly substances. It is said that he used 3 000 taels of silver in making a single column of the ceremonial hall named Wan-cheng tien 
  22. ^ Walter Joseph Fischel (1951). Walter Joseph Fischel, ed. Semitic and Oriental studies: a volume presented to William Popper, professor of Semitic languages, emeritus, on the occasion of his seventy-fifth birthday, October 29, 1949. Volume 11 of University of California publications in Semitic philology. University of California Press. p. 407. Retrieved January 4, 2012. Nakamura Kujiro, in his Tdjidai no KotS (Shigahu Zasshi 28.561-563), argues that the shamaness who wielded considerable power at the court of Liu Ch'ang, in view of her name "Hu-tzu" and her strange garments, must have been a Persian; but the name is probably a euphemism for hu-tzu 'fox,' signifying possession by a fox spirit, and the fantastic garments were Taoist and shamanistic. 
  23. ^ Phi Theta (University of California, Berkeley), Oriental Languages Students Association (University of California, Berkeley) (1984). Phi Theta papers, Volume 16. University of California. p. 9. Retrieved January 4, 2012. In addition to presaging Schafer's long interest in the history and culture of southern China, this work contains detailed chapters on the Chinese word for " jasmine" (see Bl), the history of female shamans and their place in Liu Ch'ang' Original from Indiana University
  24. ^ Gan Fuxi, Fuxi Gan, Robert Brill (2009). Ancient glass research along the Silk Road. World Scientific. p. 387. ISBN 981-283-356-0. Retrieved 2010-06-29. 
  •  This article incorporates text from Journal of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volume 24, by Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. North China Branch, Shanghai, China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. China Branch, Shanghai Literary and Scientific Society, a publication from 1890 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from Journal of the China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society for the year ..., Volumes 24-25, by Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. China Branch, a publication from 1890 now in the public domain in the United States.