Liubartas

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Demetrius of Liubar
Liubartas King Galicia-Volhynia.jpg
Modern Illustration
Grand Prince of Volhynia
Reign 1340–1383
Predecessor George II Boleslav (as King of Rus)
Successor Theodore of Volhynia
Grand Prince of Galicia
Reign 1340–1349
Predecessor George II Boleslav (as King of Rus)
Successor Casimir III of Poland (as King of Poland and Rus)
Spouse 1. Euphemia of Volhynia;
2. Agatha of Muscovy
Issue
House Gediminas
Father Gediminas
Died 1383
Lutsk Castle, Ukraine, built by Liubartas and improved by Vytautas the Great. During Lithuanian rule the city started to prosper

Demetrius of Liubar or Liubartas (also Lubart, Lubko, Lubardus, baptized Dmitry; died ~1383) was Prince of Lutsk and Liubar (Volhynia) (1323-1383), Prince of Zhytomyr (1363-1374), Grand Prince of Volhynia (1340-1383), Grand Prince of Galicia and Volhynia (1340-1349).

Biography[edit]

The origin of Liubartas is uncertain. It is known that he was the youngest son of Gediminas, Grand Duke of Lithuania. In the early 1320s he married a daughter of Andrew of Galicia and ruled Lutsk with Liubar (today town in Zhytomyr Oblast) in eastern Volhynia.[1] After Andrew and his brother Lev II died around 1322, Galicia–Volhynia did not have a male successor. Instead of promoting Liubartas and causing a war with Poland, Gediminas compromised with Władysław I of Poland. Both parties agreed to install Boleslaw-Yuri II, nephew of Leo and Andrew.

Boleslaw-Yuri was a son of Trojden I of Masovia from the Piast dynasty, a cousin of Władysław I, and nephew of Gediminas' son-in-law Wacław of Płock.[2] At the time Boleslaw was fourteen years old and was betrothed to Eufemija, daughter of Gediminas. Liubartas continued to rule Lutsk and Volodymyr-Volynskyi. That way the Galicia–Volhynia Wars were postponed until after Boleslaw's poisoning in 1340.[2] He was poisoned by rebellious nobles, who invited Liubartas to become the ruler for both Galicia and Volhynia.[1] Sources are too scarce to fully reconstruct events between 1341–1349.[3]

Despite the support from his brothers Algirdas and Kęstutis, Liubartas lost all territories except for eastern Volhynia with Lutsk to Casimir III of Poland in 1349. In 1351 he was even taken prisoner during a battle, and Kęstutis had to rescue him. In 1366 a treaty was signed: Liubartas retained eastern Volhynia with Lutsk, while Poland got western Volhynia and Galicia. However the matter was settled only in 1370: Liubartas took advantage of Casimir's death and captured all of Volhynia.[1] The territories changed again only in 1569, when Volhynia, including Lutsk, was transferred to Poland by the Union of Lublin.

In 1382, after death of Louis I of Hungary, Liubartas captured Kremenets, Przemyshl, and other cities from Hungary.[4] He supported his brother Kęstutis against nephew Jogaila during the succession fights. He built a castle in Lutsk, known as the Lubart's Castle, that survives to this day. Liubartas died ca. 1385, having ruled Volhynia for roughly sixty years. He married for the second time ca. 1350 to an unnamed daughter of Konstantin of Rostov, a relative of Simeon of Moscow.[4] He had three sons, Fëdor, Symeon, and Lazar. Fëdor inherited Volhynia, and died in 1431.

Family[edit]

See also[edit]

Ancestry[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Simas Sužiedėlis, ed. (1970–1978). "Liubartas". Encyclopedia Lituanica III. Boston, Massachusetts: Juozas Kapočius. pp. 411–412. LCC 74-114275. 
  2. ^ a b Rowell, C. S. (1994). Lithuania Ascending: A Pagan Empire Within East-Central Europe, 1295–1345. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought: Fourth Series. Cambridge University Press. p. 224. ISBN 978-0-521-45011-9. 
  3. ^ Rowell, C. S. Lithuania Ascending, pp. 268–269
  4. ^ a b (Lithuanian) Jasas, Rimantas (2004). "Liubartas". In Vytautas Spečiūnas. Lietuvos valdovai (XIII-XVIII a.): enciklopedinis žinynas. Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidybos institutas. p. 44. ISBN 5-420-01535-8. 
Liubartas
Born: c.1300 Died: December c.1383
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Leo II of Galicia (as King of Rus)
Prince of Liubar
1323–1340
Succeeded by
Grand Prince of Rus
Prince of Lutsk
1323–1324
Succeeded by
George II Boleslav (as King of Rus)
Preceded by
George II Boleslav (as King of Rus)
Grand Prince of Volhynia
1340–1383
Succeeded by
Alexander of Podilia (as Prince of Volodymyr)
Preceded by
Alexander of Podilia (as Prince of Volodymyr)
Succeeded by
Theodore of Volhynia