柳州市 · Liujcouh Si
Clockwise, from top: City center skyline by night, Dongmen ancient city, Longtan Park, Temple of Confucius, Chengyang Bridge, and a temple at Saddle Mountain (马鞍山)
Location of Liuzhou City jurisdiction in Guangxi
|• Prefecture-level city||18,677 km2 (7,211 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 census)|
|• Prefecture-level city||3,758,700|
|• Density||200/km2 (520/sq mi)|
|Time zone||China Standard (UTC+8)|
Liuzhou (Chinese: 柳州; pinyin: Liǔzhōu; Zhuang: Liujcouh), formerly romanized as Liuchow, is a prefecture-level city in north-central Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. The prefecture's population was 3,758,700 in 2010, including 1,436,599 in the built-up area made of 4 urban districts. Its total area is 18,777 km2 (7,250 sq mi) and 667 km2 (258 sq mi) for built up area.
Liuzhou is located on the banks of the winding Liu River, approximately 255 km (158 mi) from Nanning, the regional capital. By road, it is about 167 km (104 mi) to Guilin, 167 km (104 mi) to Hechi, 237 km (147 mi) to Nanning, 373 km (232 mi) to Fangchenggang, 448 km (278 mi) to Beihai.
Swimming in the river is a tradition of the city. The river is normally green, but sometimes in summer, floods from the mountain areas upstream bring sediment which colors the water yellow. In early 2012, a cadmium spill upstream caused serious pollution worries.
|Climate data for Liuzhou (1971−2000)|
|Average high °C (°F)||14.2
|Average low °C (°F)||7.7
|Precipitation mm (inches)||47.2
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||13.4||14.2||16.6||17.0||17.0||16.0||15.4||14.4||8.8||8.8||7.5||7.2||156.3|
|Source: Weather China|
Liuzhou has a history of more than 2,100 years. The city was founded in 111 B.C. when it was known as Tanzhong.
In 742 A.D. it became known as Longcheng (龙城, "Dragon City"), after the Long River, before finally changing to Liuzhou ("Liu Prefecture") after the Liu River in 1736. The most famous historic figure is Liu Zongyuan (773-819), who was a poet and politician in the Tang Dynasty and who died in Liuzhou. He is commemorated by a park in the city.
Liuzhou was the site of Liuchow Airfield, used by Nationalist Chinese and American Army Air Forces in World War II. It was captured by the Japanese army on 7 November 1944 during the Battle of Guilin–Liuzhou and recaptured by Nationalist Chinese forces on 30 June 1945 prior to the Second Guangxi Campaign.
Liuzhou is the second largest city in Guangxi and is the region's industrial center. According to statistics issued by the Liuzhou government in 2009, the city’s GDP was 103.2 billion yuan.
Among important companies based in Liuzhou are:
- LiuGong - a multinational construction machinery manufacturer
- SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile - a joint venture between General Motors, SAIC Motor and Liuzhou Wuling Motors Co., Ltd.
- Guangxi Liuzhou Steel and Iron (Group) Corp. (广西柳州钢铁（集团）公司 Liugang)
As with much of Guangxi, the landscape around Liuzhou is a mix of rolling hills, mountain peaks, caves and karst scenery. It is an ideal base for exploring the minority villages in the area.
- Rongshui: Rongshui Miao Autonomous County is located in the north of Liuzhou prefecture, 118 km (73 mi) away from Liuzhou and 168 km (104 mi) from Guilin. The territory is inhabited by Miao, Yao, Dong, Zhuang, Han nationality.
- Dayaoshan scenic area is in Jinxiu Yao Autonomous County, 154 km (96 mi) from the city of Liuzhou. It has a scenic area of over 500 km2 (190 sq mi).
- Sanjiang lies to the north of Liuzhou near the Hunan border. It is a Dong minority area and is surrounded by picturesque ethnic minority villages.
- Liuzhou Airport provides flights to major cities in China.
- Liuzhou has extensive rail connections with the rest of China. Hunan-Guangxi Railway (Hengyang - Pingxiang, a.k.a. Xiang-Gui Line), Jiaozuo-Liuzhou Railway (Jiaozuo - Zhicheng - Liuzhou, a.k.a. Jiao-Liu Line) Railway and Guizhou-Guangxi Railway (Guiyang - Liuzhou, a.k.a. Qian-Gui Line) make Liuzhou the center of freight transportation in Guangxi.
- China National Highway 209
Liuzhou is the headquarters of the 41st Group Army of the People's Liberation Army, one of the two group armies that comprise the Guangzhou Military Region responsible for the defense of China's southern coast and its border with Vietnam.
Liuzhou appears in the Chinese saying 生在苏州, 活在杭州, 吃在广州, 死在柳州.
because, in the past, the city was known for its coffins, made from firwood, camphor wood, and sandalwood, which are said to preserve the body after death. Guangzhou's "Cantonese" cuisine is famous worldwide, and Hangzhou is known for its prosperity and the beauty of its location. Suzhou is reputed to have the most beautiful people in China, so the line is sometimes given as "Marry in Suzhou...".
Today many tourists buy miniature coffins, about 3 to 30 cm (1.2 to 11.8 in) long, as souvenirs or good luck charms. The coffins are usually inscribed 升官发财 (shēng guān fā cái) which means 'win promotion and get rich". The second and fourth characters are homophones of 棺材 (guān cái) meaning 'coffin'.
Some miniature coffins are used as caskets to hold the ashes of ancestors.
- Liuzhou was the home of Li Ning (born 1963), gymnast and entrepreneur who lit the Olympic torch in Beijing in 2008.
- Chinese gymnast, Jiang Yuyuan was also born in Liuzhou.
- http://www.danwei.com/panic-buying-of-water-in-liuzhou-a-report-from-the-ground/ Panic buying of water in Liuzhou – a report from the ground
- Hump Express, Vol. 1, 25. "Liuchow Victory Complete as Chinese Force Enters Smashed and Burned City". India China Division, Air Transport Command, 5 July 1945.
- http://www.hktdc.com/info/mi/a/mpcn/en/1X072H6F/1/Profiles-Of-China-Provinces-Cities-And-Industrial-Parks/Liuzhou-Guangxi-City-Information.htm Liuzhou ( Guangxi ) City Information
- Du Feibao, Du Bai, Lin Nianpei; Things Chinese, China Travel and Tourism Press, 2002, ISBN 7-5032-1856-8
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