livenka ( Russian: ливенка) or Livenskaya garmoshka ( Russian: Ливенская гармошка) is a specific variety of accordion used in Russian folk music, specifically in the region around the town of Livny ( Oryol Oblast), from which the instrument takes its name.
Physical description [ edit ]
The livenka is a
unisonoric instrument, meaning that each button produces the same tone, regardless of the direction of the bellows. The right-hand buttons (of which there may be 12 to 15) play the notes of the
pitch set, which may also be thought of as a series of overlapping obikhodnyy Mixolydian modes. (Banin, A.A. 1997. p.161) The left-hand levers play intervals of thirds or fourths, so that adjacent levers operated simultaneously will play a triad.
The livenka has a very long
bellows, when compared to other accordions—sometimes having forty folds, and extending to over a meter in length.
History [ edit ]
The name of the inventor of the livenka was not preserved. It is believed to have been developed in the second half of the 19th century as a modification of existing
German or Russian button accordions.
Bibliography [ edit ]
Russkaia instrumentalnaia muzyka folklornoi traditsii. Moscow, 1997. (p.159-163) Blagodatov G.I.
Russkaia garmonika. Leningrad, 1960. Egorov S.P.
Noveishyi prakticheskii samouchitel dlia ruchnoi garmoniki roialnogo stroia - viatskoi, livenskoi i klarnetnoi. "Baian". Smolensk, 1903. Mirek A.M.
Spravochnik po garmonikam. Moscow, 1968. Mirek A.M.
I zvuchit garmonika. Moscow, 1979. Rodin E.
Novyi samouchitel i sbornik pesen dlia odnoriadnoi livenskoi garmonii. Saint Petersburg, 1906.
External links [ edit ]