The traditional location of the Roman city is at Tell er-Rameh, a small hill rising in the plain beyond Jordan, about twelve miles from Jericho. However, evidence from the Tell el-Hammam excavations raises questions about this identification. It has been proposed that, while Tell er-Rameh was the commercial and residential center of Livias, the area around Tall el-Hammam, which grew in the Early Roman period, was the administrative epicentre of Livias. Archaeological evidence from Shuneh al-Janubiyyah has shown the existence of a church in the diocese, dating from the sixth-eighth centuries. A third Byzantine church was discovered between Tall Kafrayn and Tell el-Hammam (2.6 kilometres (1.6 mi) to the west of Tell el-Hammam) with a large mosaic floor now being used as a Muslim cemetery.
Under the name of Betharan, Livias is twice mentioned in the Bible. About 80 B.C. Alexander Jannaeus captured it from the King of the Arabs; it was then called Betharamphtha. Somewhat later Herod Antipas, Tetrarch of Galilee, fortified it with strong walls and called it Livias after the wife of Augustus; Josephus calls it Julias also, because he always speaks of the wife of Augustus as Julia. Nero gave it with its fourteen villages to Agrippa II, and the Roman general Placidus captured it several years later.
- Letoius, who was at Ephesus in 431;
- Pancratius, at Chalcedon in 451;
- Zacharias, at Jerusalem in 536.
- Morris Jastrow and Frants Buhl, “Beth–Aram,” Jewish Encyclopedia (New York, N.Y.: Funk & Wagnalls, 1906), 119; Siméon Vailhé, “Livias,” trans. Mario Anello, Catholic Encyclopedia (New York, N.Y.: Appleton Company, 1910), 9:315; William F. Albright, “The Jordan Valley in the Bronze Age,” Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research 6 (1925 1924): 49 (JSTOR 3768510); Nelson Glueck, “Some Ancient Towns in the Plains of Moab,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 91 (1943): 11 (JSTOR 3219054); Kay Prag, “A Walk in the Wadi Hesban,” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 123 (1991): 60–61; Herbert Donner, The Mosaic Map of Madaba. An Introductory Guide, Palaestina Antiqua 7 (Kampen: Kok Pharos, 1992), 39; Estee Dvorjetski, Leisure, Pleasure, and Healing: Spa Culture and Medicine in Ancient Eastern Mediterranean, Supplements to the Journal for the Study of Judaism 116 (Leiden: Brill, 2007), 202.
- Tall el-Hammam Excavation Project
- Graves, David E.; Stripling, Scott (2011). "Re-Examination of the Location for the Ancient City of Livias". Levant 43 (2): 178–200.
- Piccirillo, Michele. "The Christian Sanctuaries in Transjordan, part 07". Franciscan Archaeological Institute.
- Graves and Stripling: 195.
- Numbers 32:36; Joshua 13:27
- Josephus: PACE: AJ, 14.1.4 (Whiston); Perseus Project AJ14.1.4.
- Josephus: PACE: AJ, 18.2.1 (Whiston); Perseus Project AJ18.2.1. . Josephus: PACE: BJ, 2.9.1 (Whiston); Perseus Project BJ2.9.1.
- Josephus: PACE: AJ, 20.8.4 (Whiston); Perseus Project AJ20.8.4.
- Josephus: PACE: BJ, 4.7.6 (Whiston); Perseus Project BJ4.7.6.
- "Livias". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.
- Oriens Christianus, III, 655.