Livno (pronounced [lǐːʋnɔ]) is a town in western Bosnia and Herzegovina, in Canton 10 of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, located between Tomislavgrad, Glamoč, Bosansko Grahovo, Kupres and the Croatian border.
The plains of Livno have been populated since approximately 2000 BC, and well into the Roman era. Before the Roman conquest it has been inhabited by the indigenous Iron Age population known to the ancient writers as the Delmatae. During the Roman period, the city was known as Pelva. It is assumed that the Slavs arrived to the region in the 7th century. The Illyrian population assimilated into the Slav culture, and eventurally lost their language and customs. Through the next three centuries, they turned to Christianity.
Livno celebrates its founding as being 28 September 892 AD due to it being mentioned in a document of the Croatian Duke Mutimir released at that time. It was the centre of Hlebiana (ή Χλεβίανα) županija (province) of the Kingdom of Croatia (Medieval), as mentioned in the tenth century work De Administrando Imperio (chapter 30). From 1199 Emeric until 1326 Mladen II Šubić of Bribir, who was a resident of Livno, it was part of the Chelmensis territory.
From 1326 until 1463 Livno was part of the Bosnian Kingdom. One of the noble families of the Bosnian Kingdom bought Livno, Duvno, and Kupres (12th to 13th century) then called "Tropolje," (Three Fields).
The beginning of 14th century saw the Ottoman Empire advance, invade, and occupy Bosnia for the next 400 years. Mosque complex in the picture (left) the Hajji Ahmed the Ducat Minter's Mosque (more commonly known as the Glavica ("Head") Mosque, called after the knap above town on which is erected) is one of the most recognizable architectural symbols of Livno and national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Constructed upon design by Mimar Sinan in 1574. (some date to 1587.), it is situated on a hill overlooking old town of livno, the river Bistrica and the spring Duman in the upper section of the old town of Livno. The mosque complex consists of compact main building of the mosque under a dome and uncharacteristically short minaret, with a clock tower which is erected some 100 years later, between 1670.- 1680. but more likely in 1659. and is still in function today, and finally within perimeter is almost 500 years old necropolis with characteristic early Bosnian Muslim tombstones and later ones.
In 1878 Livno was occupied by the Austro-Hungarian Empire. From 1918 it was part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. In 1929 the kingdom was renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and divided into nine banates (banovine). Livno was divided into the Littoral Banovina, with its centre in the city of Split. This division brought Livno politically closer to Croatia. In 1939, the banates were further redrawn so that there was a Croatian banate (Banovina Hrvatska) which Livno was also a part of.
From 1941 to 1945 Livno was part of the made Independent State of Croatia. In 1945 the Ustaša forces massacred Bosnian Serb civilians in the Livno area. Croatian writer Ivan Goran Kovačić joined the communist movement "Partisans" where he wrote his epic poem Jama (The Pit) about the crimes. He finished his poem in Livno. At the end of World War II, Livno was a part of Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Yugoslavia, and after its collapse, a part of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
In recent years there has been some debate over whether Livno is part of the historical region of Bosnia, or of Herzegovina. Whatever the case, the city is culturally on the crossroads between Dalmatia, Bosnia, and Herzegovina. Recently, however, local courts have ruled that using Herzeg or Herzegovina to describe Canton 10 is unconstitutional and disallowed it on the grounds that no part of the Canton including Livno is a part of Herzegovina. One of the city's landmarks is a monument to Croatian King Tomislav, who was crowned at the nearby fields of Duvno[dubious ]. One of the largest partisan cemeteries in Bosnia is also located in Livno.
Livno is also known for its cheese, Livanjski sir or Livno cheese, which was first made during the Austro-Hungarian period.
Municipality of Livno - total: 42,118
- Croats- 31,657 (75.16%)
- Bosniaks - 5,087 (12.07%)
- Serbs - 4,791 (11.37%)
- Yugoslavs - 434 (1.03%)
- Others - 149 (0.37%)
Municipality of Livno - total: 40,438
- Croats - 28,918 (71.51%)
- Bosniaks - 4,418 (10.92%)
- Serbs - 3,898 (9.63%)
- Yugoslavs - 2,657 (6.57%)
- Others - 547 (1.35%)
The city of Livno itself - total: 9,002
- Croats - 2,890 (32.10%)
- Bosniaks - 2,714 (30.14%)
- Serbs - 1,206 (13.39%)
- Yugoslavs - 2,093 (23.25%)
- Others - 99 (1.09%)
Municipality of Livno - total: 40,600
- Croats - 29,324 (72.22%)
- Bosniaks - 5,793 (14.26%)
- Serbs - 3,913 (9.63%)
- Yugoslavs - 1,125 (2.77%)
- others and unknown - 445 (1.09%)
The city of Livno itself - total 10,080
- Bosniaks - 3,899 (38.68%)
- Croats - 3,504 (34.76%)
- Serbs - 1,556 (15.43%)
- Yugoslavs - 946 (9.38%)
- others and unknown - 175 (1.75%)
The territory of the municipality is 994 km2 (384 sq mi). Livno is both the cultural and industrial center of the canton. It is the biggest city in the canton and situated 730 meters above sea level. The Bistrica river flows through the city and is itself is 3 km (1.9 mi) long, which means that it is a very small river. Livno is also situated in the Livanjsko field which is the largest field in the entire country. The field is situated between the mountains Dinara and Kamešnica in the south, Tušnica in the east, Cincar in the north and Šator in the west. Livanjsko field is 405 km2 (156 sq mi), making it almost half of the Livno municipality.
• Bila • Bilo Polje • Bogdaše • Bojmunte • Čaić • Čaprazlije • Čelebić • Čuklić • Ćosanlije • Dobro • Donji Rujani • Drinova Međa • Držanlije • Golinjevo • Gornji Rujani • Grborezi • Grgurići • Gubin • Komorani • Kovačić • Lipa • Lištani • Livno • Lopatice • Lusnić • Ljubunčić • Mali Guber • Mali Kablići • Miši • Odžak • Orguz • Podgradina • Podgreda • Podhum • Potkraj • Potočani • Potok • Priluka • Prisap • Prolog • Provo • Radanovci • Rapovine • Sajković • Smričani • Srđevići • Strupnić • Suhača • Tribić • Veliki Guber • Veliki Kablići • Vidoši • Vrbica • Vržerala • Zabrišće • Zagoričani • Zastinje • Žabljak i Žirović.
Livno has a stable continental climate with cold winters and hot summers. It is situated between big mountains like Cincar and Kamesnica which make the climate more continental than the climate in Mostar and Capljina for example. The winters in that part of the country are not as cold as in Livno. Climate in this area has mild dfferences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate).
The local football club is NK Troglav.
- Gabrijel Jurkić, artist
- Mladen II Šubić of Bribir, Croatian leader and member of the Šubić noble family
- Davor Šuker, retired footballer and 1998 FIFA World Cup Golden Boot
- Vukašin Mrnjavčević, ruler
- Medzlis (27 December 2010). "Džemat Glavica – Milošnik". medzlis-livno.com. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
- Sir H. A. R. Gibb; J H Kramers (1954). The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Leiden : E. J. Brill. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
- Michelin Livno Mostar
- Michelin Livno-Sarajevo
- Michelin Livno-Banja Luka
- Michelin Livno-Split
- Official results from the book: Ethnic composition of Bosnia-Herzegovina population, by municipalities and settlements, 1991. census, Zavod za statistiku Bosne i Hercegovine - Bilten no.234, Sarajevo 1991.
- Climate Summary for Livno
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Livno.|
- Municipality of Livno website (BCS)
- Livno Online
- Aero Club of Livno
- Tourism Association of Bosnia-Herzegovina site about Livno