Lizzie Borden

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For other people named Lizzie Borden, see Lizzie Borden (disambiguation).
Lizzie Borden
Lizzie borden.jpg
c. 1889
Born Lizzie Andrew Borden
(1860-07-19)July 19, 1860
Fall River, Massachusetts, U.S.
Died June 1, 1927(1927-06-01) (aged 66)
Fall River, Massachusetts, U.S.A
Cause of death
Pneumonia
Resting place
Oak Grove Cemetery
Known for Being tried and acquitted for the murders of her parents.

Lizzie Andrew Borden[1] (July 19, 1860 – June 1, 1927) was an American woman who was tried and acquitted in the 1892 axe murders of her father and stepmother in Fall River, Massachusetts. The case was a cause célèbre throughout the United States. Following her release from the prison in which she had been held during the trial, Borden chose to remain a resident of Fall River, Massachusetts, for the rest of her life, despite facing significant ostracism. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts elected to charge no one else with the murder of Andrew and Abby Borden; speculation about the crimes still continues more than 100 years later.

Background[edit]

The Borden household at 92 Second Street in Fall River, Massachusetts
41°41′56″N 71°09′23″W / 41.698952°N 71.156251°W / 41.698952; -71.156251

Despite being the descendant of wealthy, influential area residents, Lizzie Borden's father, Andrew Jackson Borden, grew up in very modest surroundings and struggled financially as a young man. He eventually prospered through the manufacture and sales of furniture and caskets and went on to become a successful property developer who directed several textile mills including the Globe Yarn Mill Company, Troy Cotton, and Woolen Manufacturing Company.[2][3] He also owned considerable commercial property and was both president of the Union Savings Bank and a director of the Durfee Safe Deposit and Trust Co.[4] At the time of his death, his estate was valued at $300,000 ($7,874,444 as at 2014).[5]

Despite his wealth, Andrew was known for his frugality. For instance, the Borden home lacked indoor plumbing on its ground and first floor and was located near Andrew's businesses; although the residence was located in an affluent area, the wealthiest residents of Fall River, Massachusetts, which included Andrew Borden's cousins, generally lived in a more fashionable neighborhood ("The Hill") that was farther away from the industrial areas of the city and much more homogenous racially, ethnically, and socioeconomically.[5][6]

Lizzie and her older sister, Emma Lenora Borden (1851–1927), had a relatively religious upbringing and attended Central Congregational Church. As a young woman, Lizzie was very involved in activities related to her church, including teaching Sunday school to children of recent immigrants to America. She also was involved in Christian organizations such as the Christian Endeavor Society, for which she served as secretary-treasurer,[7] and contemporary social movements such as the Women’s Christian Temperance Union.[8] She was also a member of the Ladies' Fruit and Flower Mission.[7]

During the inquest, the Bordens' live-in maid Bridget Sullivan testified that Lizzie and Emma rarely ate meals with their parents.[9] During further police questioning, and during the inquest, Lizzie stated that she called her stepmother "Mrs. Borden" and demurred on whether they had a cordial relationship. In May 1892 Andrew, believing that pigeons in the barn were attracting local children to hunt them, killed the pigeons with a hatchet. Lizzie had recently built a roost for the pigeons and was upset at their deaths. A family argument in July 1892 prompted both sisters to take extended "vacations" in New Bedford. Returning to Fall River the week before the murders, Lizzie chose to stay in a Fall River rooming house for four days before returning to the family residence.[10]

Tension had been growing in the family in the months before the murders, especially over Andrew's gifts of real estate to various branches of Abby's family. After their stepmother's sister received a house, the sisters demanded and received a rental property (the home they had lived in until their mother died) which they purchased from their father for $1; they then sold the property back to their father for $5,000 ($131,241 as at 2014).[1][11] The night before the murders, John Vinnicum Morse, the brother of Lizzie and Emma's deceased mother, Sarah Anthony (Morse) Borden (1823–1863), visited and was invited to stay for a few days to discuss business matters with Andrew. Some writers have speculated that their conversation, particularly about property transfer, may have aggravated an already tense situation.

For several days before the murders, the entire household had been violently ill. A family friend later speculated that mutton left on the stove for use in meals over several days was the cause, but Abby had feared poisoning, as Andrew Borden had not been a popular man.[12] It should be noted that the Bordens did have an icebox, and some historians feel that the hot weather at the time makes it unlikely it was not used.

Murders[edit]

Body of Andrew Borden

Abby Durfee Gray Borden[edit]

Although cleaning the guest room was one of Lizzie and Emma's regular chores, John Morse had slept in the room the previous night, and Abby had gone up to the room to make the bed. According to the forensic investigation, Abby was facing her killer at the time of the attack. She was struck on the side of the head with a hatchet which cut her just above the ear, causing her to turn and fall facedown on the floor, which created contusions on her nose and forehead. Her killer is then assumed to have sat on her back and delivered 19 direct hits to the back of her head.[13]

Andrew Jackson Borden[edit]

One year before the murders, the family home had been invaded, and items and cash were stolen from Andrew's bedroom; from then on Andrew had become paranoid and insisted on locking all doors (including those inside the house), even when someone was at home.

After breakfast, Andrew and Morse went to the sitting room where they chatted for an hour. Morse left to visit a relative at 8:45 am and Andrew left for his morning walk sometime after 9 am. When he returned at around 10:30 am, his key failed to open the door, so he knocked for attention. Bridget went to unlock the door; finding it jammed, she uttered an expletive. She would later testify that she heard Lizzie laughing immediately after this; she didn't see Lizzie, but she stated that the laughter was coming from the top of the stairs. This was later considered significant because Abby's body was visible through the gap between bed and floor when climbing the stairs, only becoming hidden by the bed upon reaching the top. Lizzie later denied being upstairs and testified that her father had asked her where Abby was, and she had replied that a messenger had delivered a summons to visit a sick friend. Lizzie then removed Andrew's boots and helped him into his slippers before he lay down on the sofa for a nap. Next she informed Bridget of a department-store sale and permitted her to go, but Bridget felt unwell and went to take a nap in her bedroom instead.

Lizzie gave two different accounts of what happened next: Originally she stated that she went to the barn to look for iron or tin to fix a door and remained in the loft for 20 to 30 minutes eating pears. Police were skeptical, finding it unlikely that anyone could stand the stifling heat of the loft for that long; they also reported finding no footprints in the dust. At the trial, Lizzie changed the story, saying that she had spent only 10 minutes in the barn hunting sinkers for a fishing trip her father was planning for the following week, then returned to the house to find her father dead.[13][14]

Investigation[edit]

Bridget Sullivan testified that she was in her third-floor room, resting from cleaning windows, when just before 11:10 am she heard Lizzie call from downstairs, "Maggie, come quick! Father's dead. Somebody came in and killed him." (Lizzie always called Bridget Sullivan "Maggie," the name of an earlier maid.)[6][15] Andrew was slumped on a couch in the downstairs sitting room, struck 10 or 11 times with a hatchet-like weapon.[8] One of his eyeballs had been split cleanly in two, suggesting that he had been asleep when attacked.[16][17] His still-bleeding wounds suggested a quite recent attack.[13]

Lizzie's answers to the police officers' questions were at times strange and contradictory. Initially she reported hearing a groan, or a scraping noise, or a distress call, before entering the house, but two hours later she said she had heard nothing and entered the house not realizing that anything was wrong. When asked where her stepmother was, she recounted Abby receiving a note asking her to visit a sick friend. She also stated that she thought Abby had returned and asked if someone could go upstairs and look for her. Bridget and a neighbor, Mrs. Churchill, were halfway up the stairs, their eyes level with the floor, when they looked into the guest room and saw Abby lying facedown on the floor. Most of the officers who interviewed Lizzie reported that they disliked her attitude; some said she was too calm and poised. Despite Lizzie's "attitude" and changing alibis, nobody bothered to check her for bloodstains. Police did search her room, but it was merely a cursory inspection; at the trial they admitted to not doing a proper search because Lizzie wasn't feeling well. They were subsequently criticized for their lack of diligence.[18]

In the basement, police found two hatchets, two axes, and a hatchet-head with a broken handle.[19] The hatchet-head was suspected of being the murder weapon as the handle looked like a fresh break and the ash and dust on the head, unlike that on the other bladed tools, appeared to have been deliberately applied to make it look as if it had been in the basement for some time. However, none of these tools were removed from the house.[18]

The sisters' friend, Alice Russell, decided to stay with them while John Morse spent the night in the attic guest room, contrary to later accounts that he slept in the murder-site guest room. Police were stationed around the house, and later that night an officer saw Lizzie enter the basement and bend over the pails containing her parents' bloody clothing, an action never explained. The following night, Morse left the house and was swarmed by hundreds of people; police had to escort him back to the house. On 6 August, police conducted a more thorough search of the house, inspecting the sisters' clothing and confiscating the broken-handled hatchet-head. That evening a police officer and the Mayor visited the Bordens, and Lizzie was informed that she was a suspect in the murders. The next morning, Alice Russell entered the kitchen to find Lizzie Borden burning a dress on the fire. Lizzie explained that she was burning it because it was covered in paint. This may have been an innocent reaction to the anxiety of being suspected; it was never determined whether it was the actual dress she had been wearing on the day of the murders.[18]

Inquest[edit]

Lizzie appeared at the inquest hearing on 8 August. Her request to have her family attorney present was refused under a state statute providing that an inquest may have been held in private. She had been prescribed regular doses of morphine to calm her nerves, and it is possible her testimony was affected by this. Lizzie's behavior was erratic, and she often refused to answer a question even if the answer would be beneficial to her. She often contradicted herself, such as claiming to have been in the kitchen reading a magazine when her father arrived home, then claiming to have been in the dining room doing some ironing, and then claiming to have been coming down the stairs. She had also claimed to have removed her father's boots and put slippers on him despite police photographs clearly showing Andrew wearing his boots. The District Attorney was very aggressive and confrontational. On 11 August, Lizzie was served with a warrant of arrest and jailed. The inquest testimony, the basis for the modern debate regarding her guilt or innocence, was later ruled inadmissible at her trial in June 1893.[18][20]

A grand jury began hearing evidence on 7 November, and Lizzie was indicted on 2 December.

Trial[edit]

Lizzie Borden during the trial, by Benjamin West Clinedinst
"...with a certain weapon, to wit, a sharp cutting instrument, the name and a more particular description of which is to the Jurors unknown..."

Lizzie's trial took place in New Bedford the following June.[21] Prosecuting attorneys included future Supreme Court Justice William H. Moody; defending were Andrew V. Jennings,[19] Melvin O. Adams, and former Massachusetts governor George D. Robinson.

Prominent points in the trial (or press coverage of it) included:

  • The hatchet-head found in the basement was not convincingly shown to be the murder weapon. Prosecutors argued that the killer had removed the handle because it was bloody, but while one officer testified that a hatchet handle was found near the hatchet-head, another officer contradicted this.
  • Though no bloody clothing was found, a few days after the murder Lizzie burned a dress in the stove, saying it had been ruined when she brushed against fresh paint.[19]
  • There was a similar axe-murder nearby shortly before the trial, though its perpetrator was shown to have been out of the country when the Bordens were killed.[22]
  • Evidence was excluded that Lizzie had sought to purchase prussic acid (for cleaning a sealskin cloak, she said) from a local druggist on the day before the murders when the judge ruled that the incident was too remote in time to have any connection.[23][24]
  • Because of the mysterious illness that had struck the household before the murders, the family's milk and Andrew's and Abby's stomachs (removed during autopsies performed in the Borden dining room) were tested for poison;[25] none was found.[26]
  • The victims' heads were removed during autopsy.[27] After the skulls were used as evidence during the trial – Borden fainted upon seeing them[28] – the heads were later buried at the foot of each grave.

On June 20, after deliberating an hour and a half, the jury acquitted.[19]

The trial has been compared to the later trials of Bruno Hauptmann, Ethel and Julius Rosenberg, and O.J. Simpson as a landmark in publicity and public interest in the history of American legal proceedings.[29][30][31][32][33][34]

Other theories[edit]

Trial jury

No one else was charged in the murders, and they continue to be the subject of research and speculation. Among those suggested to be the killers by various authors are:

  • Lizzie herself, despite her acquittal—one writer proposing that she killed while in a fugue state,[35] while mystery author Ed McBain proposed on an episode of the 1999 Film Garden Entertainment video series Case Reopened[36] that Lizzie and Bridget Sullivan had been engaged in a lesbian affair, that Mrs. Borden had caught them together and had reacted with horror and disgust, and that Lizzie had killed Mrs. Borden with a candlestick; when her father returned she had confessed to him, but he had reacted to her revelation of the affair exactly as Mrs. Borden had, and in a rage she had gotten one of the hatchets and killed him with it, with Bridget disposing of the hatchet somewhere afterwards.
  • Bridget Sullivan, perhaps in a rage at being ordered to clean windows on a hot day—the day of the murders was unusually hot—and while still recovering from the mystery illness that had struck the household.[37]
  • A "William Borden" (who was Andrew Borden's illegitimate son) after (according to this theory) failing to extort money from his father. Arnold Brown, the author of a book on this theory, mentions that William was in the horsemeat trade, a butcher and slaughterer.[38]
  • Emma Borden, having established an alibi at Fairhaven, Massachusetts (about 15 miles away from Fall River, Massachusetts) comes secretly to Fall River to commit the murders and returns to Fairhaven to receive the telegram informing her of the murders.[39]

Subsequent life[edit]

After the trial, the sisters moved into a large, modern house in the neighborhood called "The Hill" in Fall River. Around this time, Lizzie began using the name Lizbeth A. Borden.[21][40] At their new house, which Lizbeth named "Maplecroft," the sisters had a staff that included live-in maids, a housekeeper, and a coachman. Because Abby was ruled to have died before Andrew, her estate went first to Andrew and then, at his death, passed to his daughters as part of his estate; a considerable settlement, however, was paid to settle claims by Abby's family (especially Abby's two sisters).[21][40]

Despite the acquittal, Lizbeth was ostracized by Fall River society.[41] Lizbeth Borden's name was again brought into the public eye when she was accused of shoplifting in 1897 in Providence, Rhode Island.[42]

In 1905, shortly after an argument over a party that Lizbeth had given for actress Nance O'Neil,[43] Emma moved out of the house. She never saw her sister again.

Lizbeth was ill in her last year following the removal of her gallbladder; she died of pneumonia on June 1, 1927 in Fall River. Funeral details were not published and few attended.[44] Nine days later, Emma died from chronic nephritis at the age of 76 in a nursing home in Newmarket, New Hampshire,[42][45] having moved to this location in 1923 both for health reasons and to get away from the public eye, which had renewed interest in the sisters at the publication of another book about the murders. The sisters, neither of whom had ever married, were buried side by side in the family plot in Oak Grove Cemetery.[42]

Lizbeth left $30,000 ($546,555 as of 2014).[46] to the Fall River Animal Rescue League[47][48] and $500 ($9,109 as of 2014)[46] in trust for perpetual care of her father's grave; her closest friend and a cousin each received $6,000 ($109,311 as of 2014)[46]—substantial sums at the estate's distribution in 1933 during the Great Depression.[49]

Folk rhyme[edit]

The case was memorialized in a popular skipping-rope rhyme:[50]

Lizzie Borden took an axe
And gave her mother forty whacks.
When she saw what she had done,
She gave her father forty-one.

Folklore says that the rhyme was made up by an anonymous writer as a tune to sell newspapers. Others attribute it to the ubiquitous, but anonymous, "Mother Goose."[51] In reality, Lizzie's stepmother suffered 18[52] or 19[41] blows; her father suffered 11 blows.

See also[edit]

In popular culture[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Inquest Testimony of Lizzie Borden". University of Missouri–Kansas City School of Law. Retrieved April 19, 2011. "Q. Give me your full name. // A. Lizzie Andrew Borden. // Q. Is it Lizzie or Elizabeth? // A. Lizzie. // Q. You were so christened? // A. I was so christened." 
  2. ^ Fanthorpe, R. Lionel; Fanthorpe, Patricia (2003). The World's Most Mysterious Murders. Dundurn. p. 142. ISBN 1-550-02439-6. 
  3. ^ Scott, Gini Graham (2005). Homicide By The Rich And Famous: A Century Of Prominent Killers. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 134. ISBN 0-275-98346-3. 
  4. ^ David Kent, "The Lizzie Borden Sourcebook," (Boston: Brandon Publishing Company, 1992). Assessed February 2, 2012
  5. ^ a b "Fall River history". The Lizzie Borden Collection. Retrieved 30 January 2014. 
  6. ^ a b Newton, Michael (2009). The Encyclopedia of Unsolved Crimes. Infobase Publishing. p. 49. ISBN 1-438-11914-3. 
  7. ^ a b King, Florence (1996). The Florence King Reader. Macmillan. p. 369. ISBN 0-312-14337-0. 
  8. ^ a b Hoogenboom, Olive (2000). "Lizzie Andrew Borden". American National Biography Online. Retrieved January 30, 2012. 
  9. ^ “Testimony of Bridget Sullivan in the Trial of Lizzie Borden”. University of Missouri–Kansas City School of Law: Famous Trials. Accessed September 5, 2011.
  10. ^ Douglas, John E.; Olshaker, Mark (2001). The Cases That Haunt Us: From Jack the Ripper to Jon Benet Ramsey, The FBI's Legendary Mindhunter Sheds New Light on the Mysteries That Won't Go Away. Simon and Schuster. p. 111. ISBN 0-743-21239-8. 
  11. ^ Rehak, David (2005). Did Lizzie Borden Axe for It?. Just My Best Publishing Company. pp. 67–69. ISBN 1-4505-5018-5. Retrieved April 19, 2011. 
  12. ^ Kent, David (1992). The Lizzie Borden Sourcebook. Branden Books. p. 26. ISBN 0-828-31950-2. 
  13. ^ a b c "Abby Durfee Gray Borden". The Lizzie Borden Collection. Retrieved 30 January 2014. 
  14. ^ "Andrew Jackson Borden". The Lizzie Borden Collection. Retrieved 30 January 2014. 
  15. ^ Philbin, Tom; Philbin, Michael (2011). The Killer Book of Infamous Murders: Incredible Stories, Facts, and Trivia from the World's Most Notorious Murders. Sourcebooks, Inc. p. 40. ISBN 1-402-23746-4. 
  16. ^ Porter, Edwin H. (1893). The Fall River Tragedy: A History of the Borden Murders. Fall River: Press of J.D. Munroe. Retrieved April 19, 2011. 
  17. ^ "Testimony of Bridget Sullivan in the Trial of Lizzie Borden". University of Missouri–Kansas City School of Law: Famous Trials. Retrieved April 19, 2011. 
  18. ^ a b c d "The Investigation". The Lizzie Borden Collection. Retrieved 30 January 2014. 
  19. ^ a b c d Linder, Doug. "The Trial of Lizzie Borden". University of Missouri–Kansas City School of Law: Famous Trials. Retrieved June 14, 2008. 
  20. ^ "The Inquest". The Lizzie Borden Collection. Retrieved 30 January 2014. 
  21. ^ a b c Cantwell, Mary (July 26, 1992). "Lizzie Borden Took an Ax". The New York Times. Retrieved April 19, 2011. 
  22. ^ Noe, Denise (October 1999). "The Murderer Who Inadvertently Helped Miss Lizzie". The Lizzie Borden Quarterly: 8. Retrieved June 3, 2008. 
  23. ^ "Prussic Acid In The Case". New York Times. June 15, 1893. Retrieved April 19, 2011. 
  24. ^ Lanahan, Daniel J. (2006). Justice for All: Legendary Trials of the 20th Century. AuthorHouse. ISBN 1-425-94785-9. 
  25. ^ Katz, Hélèna (2010). Cold Cases: Famous Unsolved Mysteries, Crimes, and Disappearances in America. ABC-CLIO. p. 29. ISBN 0-313-37692-1. 
  26. ^ Miller, Wilbur R., ed. (2012). The Social History of Crime and Punishment in America: An Encyclopedia. SAGE. p. 146. ISBN 1-412-98876-4. 
  27. ^ Kent, David (1992). The Lizzie Borden Sourcebook. Branden Books. p. 158. ISBN 0-828-31950-2. 
  28. ^ Kent, David (1992). The Lizzie Borden Sourcebook. Branden Books. p. 210. ISBN 0-828-31950-2. 
  29. ^ Chiasson, Lloyd Jr (1997). The Press on Trial: Crimes and Trials as Media Events. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-30022-4. 
  30. ^ Knox, Sara L. (1998). Murder: A Tale of Modern American Life. Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-2053-3. 
  31. ^ Cramer, Clayton E. (1994). "Ethical Problems of Mass Murder Coverage in the Mass Media". Journal of Mass Media Ethics 9: 26. doi:10.1207/s15327728jmme0901_3. 
  32. ^ Beschle, Donald L. (1997). "What's Guilt (or Deterrence) Got to Do with It?". William and Mary Law Review 38. 
  33. ^ Eaton, William J. (December 1995). "Just like O.J.'s Trial, but without Kato". American Journalism Review 17. 
  34. ^ Scott, Gina Graham (2005). Homicide by the Rich and Famous: A Century of Prominent Killers. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-275-98346-3. 
  35. ^ Lincoln, Victoria (1967). "1". A Private Disgrace: Lizzie Borden by Daylight (Book Club ed.). New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. pp. 44–60. ISBN 0-930330-35-8. 
  36. ^ http://www.amazon.com/Case-Reopened-Lizzie-Borden-McBain/dp/B00002SSLK/ref=sr_1_1?s=movies-tv&ie=UTF8&qid=1392922780&sr=1-1&keywords=Case+Reopened%3A+Lizzie+Borden
  37. ^ Kent, David (1992). "4". Forty Whacks: New Evidence in the Life and Legend of Lizzie Borden (1 ed.). Emmaus, PA: Yankee Books. p. 39. ISBN 0-89909-351-5. 
  38. ^ Arnold R. Brown, Lizzie Borden: The Legend, The Truth, The Final Chapter
  39. ^ Spiering, Frank (1984). "3". Lizzie (1 ed.). New York: Dorset Press. p. 28. ISBN 0-88029-685-2. 
  40. ^ a b "Cast of Characters". LizzieAndrewBorden.com. Retrieved June 13, 2008. 
  41. ^ a b Adams, Cecil (March 13, 2001). "Did Lizzie Borden kill her parents with an axe because she was discovered having an affair?". The Straight Dope. Retrieved November 21, 2008. 
  42. ^ a b c "Dates in the Borden Case". Fall River Historical Society. Archived from the original on February 5, 2008. Retrieved June 13, 2008. [dead link]
  43. ^ "Sisters Estranged Over Nance O'Neill". The San Francisco Call. June 7, 1905. Retrieved June 13, 2008. 
  44. ^ "Few at Borden Burial" (fee required). The New York Times. June 6, 1927. Retrieved June 13, 2008. 
  45. ^ The Cases That Haunt Us. Google Books. 2001. ISBN 978-0-7432-1239-7. Retrieved April 19, 2009. 
  46. ^ a b c Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2014. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
  47. ^ "Lizzie Borden's Will Is Probated". The New York Times. Associated Press. June 25, 1927. 
  48. ^ "Lizzie Borden's Last Will and Probate Records" (PDF). Lizzieandrewborden.com. Retrieved June 13, 2008. 
  49. ^ "Bequest for Tomb of Slain Father" (fee required). The New York Times. June 8, 1927. Retrieved April 19, 2011. 
  50. ^ "Lizzie Borden". Womenshistory.about.com. 1927-06-01. Retrieved 2012-07-10. 
  51. ^ Mother Goose's Melodies – Google Books. Books.google.com. 1970. ISBN 9780486225777. Retrieved 2012-07-10. 
  52. ^ "Lizzie Borden Took An Ax". Crime Library. Retrieved November 21, 2008. 
  53. ^ http://www.mylifetime.com/movies/lizzie-borden-took-an-ax

Further reading[edit]

A number of works expounding the facts and different theories have been written about the crime. These include:

  • Asher, Robert, Lawrence B. Goodheart and Alan Rogers. Murder on Trial: 1620—2002 New York: State University of New York Press, 2005, ISBN 978-0-7914-6377-2.
  • Brown, Arnold R. Lizzie Borden: The Legend, the Truth, the Final Chapter. Nashville, TN: Rutledge Hill Press, 1991, ISBN 1-55853-099-1.
  • Davidson, Avram. "The Deed of the Deft-Footed Dragon" in several collections, most recently The Other Nineteenth Century, ed. Grania Davis and Henry Wessels. New York; TOR, 2001.
  • de Mille, Agnes. Lizzie Borden: A Dance of Death. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1968.
  • Kent, David Forty Whacks: New Evidence in the Life and Legend of Lizzie Borden. Yankee Books, 1992, ISBN 0-89909-351-5.
  • Kent, David The Lizzie Borden Sourcebook. Boston: Branden Publishing Company, 1992, ISBN 0-8283-1950-2.
  • King, Florence. WASP, Where is Thy Sting? Chapter 15, "One WASP's Family, or the Ties That Bind." Stein & Day, 1977, ISBN 0-552-99377-8 (1990 Reprint Edition).
  • Lincoln, Victoria. A Private Disgrace: Lizzie Borden by Daylight. NY: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1967, ISBN 0-930330-35-8.
  • Martins, Michael and Dennis Binette. Parallel Lives: A Social History of Lizzie A. Borden and Her Fall River. Fall River: Fall River Historical Society, 2011. 1,138 pages with much previously unavailable information including letters written by Lizzie Borden while in jail and photographs of her in later life. ISBN 978-0-9641248-1-3 Parallel Lives Official Website
  • Masterton, William L. Lizzie Didn’t Do It! Boston: Branden Publishing Company, 2000, ISBN 0-8283-2052-7.
  • Pearson, Edmund Lester. Studies in Murder Ohio State University Press, 1924.
  • Pearson, Edmund Lester. Trial of Lizzie Borden, edited, with a history of the case, Doubleday-Doran, 1937. Main text is a transcript of the trial.
  • Radin, Edward D. Lizzie Borden: The Untold Story Simon and Schuster, 1961.
  • Rebello, Leonard. Lizzie Borden: Past & Present Al-Zach Press, 1999.
  • David Rehak. Did Lizzie Borden Axe For It? Angel Dust Publishing, 2008.
  • Spiering, Frank. Lizzie: The Story of Lizzie Borden. Dorset Press, 1991, ISBN 0-88029-685-2.
  • Sullivan, Robert. Goodbye Lizzie Borden. Brattleboro, VT: Stephen Greene Press, 1974, ISBN 0-14-011416-5.

External links[edit]