Jeff Minter

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Jeff Minter
Jeff Minter - GDC 2007.jpg
Jeff Minter speaking at the Game Developers Conference in 2007.
Born (1962-04-22) 22 April 1962 (age 52)
Reading, England, UK
Other names Yak
Occupation programmer, game designer
Employer Llamasoft (founder)
Website
www.llamasoft.co.uk

Jeff 'Yak' Minter (born in Reading, 22 April 1962)[1] is an independent British video game designer and programmer. He is the founder of software house Llamasoft and has created dozens of games during his career. Minter's games are often arcade style shoot 'em ups. They often contain titular or in-game references demonstrating his fondness of ruminants (llamas, sheep, camels, etc.). Many of his programs also feature something of a psychedelic element, as in some of the earliest "light synthesizer" programs including his Trip-a-Tron.

Minter's works include Neon (2004), a non-game music visualisation program that has been built into the Xbox 360 console, and the video games Space Giraffe[2] (Xbox Live Arcade, 2007 and PC, 2008), and Space Invaders Extreme (Xbox Live Arcade, May 2009).

Game development career[edit]

Pre-commercial career (early years)[edit]

Minter had expressed an interest in programming computers from a young age. He wrote the game Deflex for the Commodore PET in 1979.[3] However it would not be until a long illness during secondary school that Minter's talents would develop in any meaningful way. Following a 3-month stint in which Minter was restricted to lying on his back and was confined to his bed between November 1981 and January 1982, boredom led him to take up computer programming in earnest to pass the time.[4]

Upon recovery, Minter teamed up with Richard Jones, a fellow pupil, and together they started writing their own games on their school's Commodore PET.[5] They soon parted ways. Jones went on to commercial projects, some of them in the software market (e.g., Interceptor Micros).

Commercial 8-bit games[edit]

In 1981 Minter started independently writing and selling video games for the Sinclair ZX80, the first machine he owned. Some were made for software company dk'tronics.[6] These titles were sold as a package but this was not available for very long, as Minter left the company following a royalties dispute.[7] He formed a partnership with his mother, Hazel Minter. Together they developed and commercially produced 20 games for the Sinclair ZX81, Commodore VIC-20, Atari 8-bit computers, ZX Spectrum and Commodore 64. Having been studying physics at the University of East Anglia, success in the programming industry prompted him to drop his studies and take up video game development full-time.[4]

The following year, he founded the software house Llamasoft.[8] His first Llamasoft game was a Defender clone for the Commodore VIC-20 called Andes Attack (US version: Aggressor). In Andes Attack, little llamas advanced upon and attacked the player instead of the spaceships from Defender. As a fan of Defender, Minter would remake it again as Defender 2000. Using the name 'Salamander Software', Minter released Gridrunner, published by Quicksilva Ltd. UK – this was written in a week and marked his first commercial success both in the UK and in the US.

Minter went on to develop a number of classic games, all written in assembly language, for the later home computers (such as the Commodore 64, Atari 400/800 and Atari ST) which were marketed mainly by word of mouth and by the occasional magazine advertisement. These games included: Gridrunner, Abductor, Matrix: Gridrunner 2, Hellgate, Hover Bovver, Attack of the Mutant Camels, Revenge of the Mutant Camels, Return of the Mutant Camels, Laser Zone, Mama Llama, Metagalactic Llamas Battle at the Edge of Time, Sheep in Space, Voidrunner, and Iridis Alpha.

Post 8-bit work[edit]

Minter developed Tempest 3000 and the second Virtual Light Machine for the Nuon game system.

In 1989, Minter helped in the production of the Konix Multisystem console.

Minter also worked for Atari[9] and VM Labs. For Atari he produced Tempest 2000 (1994) on the Jaguar. It was a remake of Dave Theurer's 1981 classic, Tempest. Minter also produced Defender 2000 (1995) on the Jaguar, remaking Eugene Jarvis's 1980 classic, Defender. Minter also produced the Virtual Light Machine (VLM-1) for the Jaguar CD-ROM add-on. For VM Labs, Minter designed related software for the Nuon chip including the creation of the VLM-2 Light Synth and the video game, Tempest 3000.

Minter then wrote games for the Pocket PC platform, some of which also had PC conversions (using a customised Pocket PC emulator). During this time, Minter released three games: Deflex, Hover Bovver 2:Grand Theft Flymo (a reinterpretation of his own 1984 game, Hover Bovver), and the PC/Macintosh game Gridrunner++ (the third title in the Gridrunner series).

Jeff Minter at Assembly 2004

In 2002, he began work on a music video game for the Nintendo GameCube to be called Unity. Using the newest version of his VLM, the VLM-3 or Neon, Unity was to combine the two main threads of Minter's prior career: light synthesis and classic arcade style shooting. Minter was involved in writing this game for Peter Molyneux's Lionhead Studios throughout 2003; however, the project was cancelled in December 2004. Neon has since been reprogrammed and significantly expanded and is used in Xbox 360 media visualisation.[10]

In 2007 Minter released Space Giraffe, an action video game with similarities to Tempest. Space Giraffe was released for Xbox 360 through Xbox Live Arcade for 400 Microsoft Points, or US$5.

In 2008 it was announced at the Tokyo Game Show that designers at Llamasoft were working on the visualisation aspects of the Xbox 360 version of Space Invaders, called Space Invaders Extreme.[11] The game was released in 2008. In December 2008 Space Giraffe was released for the PC.

In September 2009 he released Gridrunner Revolution for Windows-based PCs as a digital download.

The Minotaur Project[edit]

In 2010, frustrated with the delays surrounding the release of his titles, Minter was keen to return to a style of game development where games could be produced and released quickly. The iOS platform was chosen and Llamasoft announced that a series of games would be produced under the banner The Minotaur Project.[12] The idea behind the series is that Llamasoft would develop a game in the style of an old piece of hardware but without the constraints of the original hardware.

On 5 January 2011 he released Minotaur Rescue for iPhone 3GS, iPhone 4, iPod touch (3rd generation), iPod touch (4th generation), and iPad.[13]

On 2 March 2011 Llamasoft released their second iOS game, Minotron: 2112.[14] Minotron: 2112 is the remake of the Atari ST / Amiga classic, Llamatron (which is inspired by the coin-op video game Robotron: 2084). An iOS version of Deflex was also released although this was not specifically labeled as being part of the Minotaur Project.

On 17 September 2011, Llamasoft released GoatUp, the first platform game they have produced.[15]

On 27 January 2012 Caverns of Minos was released[16] followed on 24 March by Gridrunner iOS.

Super Ox Wars, a shoot-em-up based on Ikaruga was released in July 2012; the final game in the series, GoatUp 2 was released in March 2013, unique in that it is the only Llamasoft title to feature a level editor. Minter then announced his intention to abandon mobile development due to lack of discoverability, low turnover, and the dominance of free-to-play and video game clones; he ultimately declared that, after accounting for his time, the Minotaur Project made a net loss.[citation needed] Jeff stated on Twitter than "Returning to iOS would be like returning to the scene of a mugging" [1] and "I would advise any dev valuing integrity and sanity to just get the hell out". [2]

The code framework for the Minotaur Project games enables them to be rebuilt for both Mac and PC versions.[17] Gridrunner was released for the Mac in August 2012.

Return to console games[edit]

In April 2013 it was announced that Llamasoft had signed a deal with Sony Computer Entertainment to create a tube shooter for the PlayStation Vita called TxK.[18] The game would be Llamasoft's fourth tube shooter in two decades and was described as the spiritual successor of 1994's Tempest 2000 for the Atari Jaguar. As Minter explained in his development blog the project goals were to create a more traditional, straightforward and accessible tube shooter than Space Giraffe, to improve on the flaws from Tempest 2000 and Tempest 3000, and to evoke the neo-retro aesthetic without being cheesy.[19] TxK was released on Feb 11, 2014, by digital download through PSN.[citation needed]

Personal life[edit]

In online forums and informal game credits pages Minter usually signs as "Yak", which is, in his own words

"a pseudonym chosen a long time ago, back in the days when hi-score tables on coin-op machines only held three letters, and I settled on Yak because the yak is a scruffy hairy beast – a lot like me ;-)."[20]

He lives in Wales with his partner Ivan "Giles" Zorzin, four sheep, two goats, two llamas and a dog.[21] Although Minter is synonymous with Llamasoft, Zorzin is also jointly responsible for the recent titles.

Games[edit]

Second Generation games

  • Deflex (PC/VIC-20, 1981; iPod Touch/iPhone 3GS/iPad/iPhone 4, 2011) (a.k.a. Deflex V)
  • Centipede (ZX81, 1982)[22]
  • 3D Labyrinth (VIC-20, 1982)
  • Abductor (VIC-20, 1982)
  • Andes Attack (VIC-20, 1982)[23] (a.k.a. Defenda)
  • Bomb Buenos Aires (VIC-20, 1982;[24] Atari ST, 1988) (a.k.a. Aggressor, Bomber, Blitzkrieg)
  • City Bomber (ZX Spectrum, 1982)[25]
  • Gridrunner (Atari 8-bit computers (400/800/XL)/VIC-20/ZX Spectrum, 1982; C64, 1983)
  • Matrix: Gridrunner 2 (VIC-20, 1982; Atari 8-bit computers (400/800/XL) and C64, 1983; C16, 1986)
  • Rat Man (VIC-20, 1982)
  • Rox III (VIC-20/ZX Spectrum, 1982)
  • Super Deflex (ZX Spectrum, 1982)
  • Attack of the Mutant Camels (Atari 8-bit computers (400/800/XL) and C64, 1983)[26] (UK: Advance of the Megacamel)
    • Attack of the Mutant Camels – Matrix Version (C64, 1983)
  • Headbangers Heaven (ZX Spectrum, 1983)[27]
  • Hover Bovver (C64, 1983;[28] Atari 8-bit computers (400/800/XL), 1984)
  • Laser Zone (VIC-20/C64, 1983; C16, 1986)
  • Metagalactic Llamas Battle at the Edge of Time (VIC-20, 1983; C64, 1984) (a.k.a. Meta-Llamas)
  • Revenge of the Mutant Camels (C64, 1983)
  • Rox 64 (C64, 1983)[29]
  • Traxx (VIC-20/ZX Spectrum, 1983)
  • Ancipital (C64, 1984)[30]
  • Hellgate (VIC-20/C64, 1984)[31]
  • Psychedelia (VIC-20/ZX Spectrum/C64/MSX, 1984) – A light synthesizer.
  • Sheep in Space (C64, 1984)[32]
  • Batalyx (C64, 1985)[33]
  • Colourspace (Atari 8-bit computers (400/800/XL/XE), 1985) – A light synthesizer.
  • Mama Llama (C64, 1985)[34]
  • Yak's Progress (C64, 1985) - a compilation of eight previously released titles.[35]
  • Iridis Alpha (C64, 1986)[36]
  • Made in France II (C64, 1987)
  • Return of the Mutant Camels (C64, 1987;[37] Atari 8-bit computers (400/800/XL/XE), 1988) (a.k.a. Revenge of the Mutant Camels 2)
  • Voidrunner (C64, 1987)[38]

Third Generation games

Fifth Generation games

Sixth Generation games

Seventh Generation games

Minotaur Project series: This series of games pay homage to classic retro platforms. Each game is implemented as if running on a modernised version of the classic platform it represents. Originally developed for the iOS platform the games are being ported to both OSX and Android.

Eighth Generation games

Notes[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ Boule, Pete. "Jeff Minter, fondateur de Llamasoft – Interview ." Eurogamer. 10 July 2012.
  2. ^ Fulton, Jeff; Fulton, Steve (19 March 2010). The Essential Guide to Flash Games: Building Interactive Entertainment with ActionScript. Apress. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-4302-2614-7. Retrieved 26 April 2011. 
  3. ^ http://minotaurproject.co.uk/blog/?p=302
  4. ^ a b "Business Born in Bed". Home Computing Weekly Issue 4, 29 March – 4 April 1983 on page 11
  5. ^ Jeff Minter. "Llamaosft History Part 7". Llamasoft. 
  6. ^ http://www.dadgum.com/halcyon/BOOK/MINTER.HTM
  7. ^ http://minotaurproject.co.uk/blog/?p=302
  8. ^ Purchese, Robert (16 December 2008). "Llamasoft's Jeff Minter -Interview". Eurogamer. Retrieved 19 September 2010. 
  9. ^ http://www.dadgum.com/halcyon/BOOK/MINTER.HTM
  10. ^ "X05: Live in the Next Generation – IGN". Xbox360.ign.com. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  11. ^ "Gamasutra – Topic: Console/Digital Games". Gamerbytes.com. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  12. ^ "Llamasoft announcement of the Minotaur Project". Retrieved 23 March 2012. 
  13. ^ a b "Minotaur Rescue for iPhone 3GS, iPhone 4, iPhone 4S, iPhone 5, iPod touch (3rd generation), iPod touch (4th generation), iPod touch (5th generation) and iPad on the iTunes App Store". Itunes.apple.com. 28 September 2011. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  14. ^ a b "Minotron: 2112 for iPhone 3GS, iPhone 4, iPhone 4S, iPhone 5, iPod touch (3rd generation), iPod touch (4th generation), iPod touch (5th generation) and iPad on the iTunes App Store". Itunes.apple.com. 16 September 2011. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  15. ^ "App Store entry for GoatUp". Retrieved 23 March 2012. 
  16. ^ "App Store entry for Caverns of Minos". Retrieved 23 March 2012. 
  17. ^ "Eurogamer interview with Jeff Minter". Retrieved 23 March 2012. 
  18. ^ "Cult Studio Llamasoft Blazes Onto PS Vita With TxK". Sony Computer Entertainment. 
  19. ^ Jeff Minter. "The Road to TxK: Genesis of a Genre". Llamasoft. 
  20. ^ Minter, Jeff. Llamasoft: Home of the Virtual Light Machine – An Introduction. 2005.
  21. ^ http://minotaurproject.co.uk/jeff.php
  22. ^ "ZX81 Cassette Tape Information for Centipede". Zx81stuff.org.uk. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  23. ^ http://www.medwaypvb.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/gruntingoxfiles/znotb1.html
  24. ^ http://www.the-commodore-zone.com/articlelive/articles/83/2/Jeff-Minter/Page2.html
  25. ^ http://www.worldofspectrum.org/infoseekid.cgi?id=0000972
  26. ^ http://www.the-commodore-zone.com/articlelive/articles/83/9/Jeff-Minter/Page9.html
  27. ^ http://www.worldofspectrum.org/infoseekid.cgi?id=0002263
  28. ^ http://www.the-commodore-zone.com/articlelive/articles/83/8/Jeff-Minter/Page8.html
  29. ^ http://www.lemon64.com/games/details.php?ID=3141
  30. ^ http://www.lemon64.com/?mainurl=http%3A//www.lemon64.com/games/details.php%3FID%3D3018
  31. ^ http://www.lemon64.com/?mainurl=http%3A//www.lemon64.com/games/details.php%3FID%3D3018
  32. ^ Couper, Heather (20–27 December 1984). "Wooly Logic". New Scientist. p. 73. Retrieved 26 April 2011. 
  33. ^ Newman, James; Simons, Iain (4 June 2007). 100 Videogames. BFI. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-84457-161-1. Retrieved 26 April 2011. 
  34. ^ http://www.the-commodore-zone.com/articlelive/articles/83/11/Jeff-Minter/Page11.html
  35. ^ http://www.medwaypvb.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/gruntingoxfiles/Yak's%20Progress.htm
  36. ^ http://www.the-commodore-zone.com/articlelive/articles/83/11/Jeff-Minter/Page11.html
  37. ^ http://www.lemon64.com/games/details.php?ID=3140
  38. ^ http://www.gamefaqs.com/c64/572185-voidrunner
  39. ^ http://www.gamefaqs.com/c64/566155-bombuzal
  40. ^ http://www.edge-online.com/features/making-tempest-2000/
  41. ^ http://www.the-commodore-zone.com/articlelive/articles/83/7/Jeff-Minter/Page7.html
  42. ^ http://uk.ign.com/games/neon/xbox-360-747919
  43. ^ http://www.eurogamer.net/articles/gridrunner-revolution-out-now
  44. ^ http://minotaurproject.co.uk/blog/?p=9
  45. ^ http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/jun/03/30-greatest-british-video-games

External links[edit]