Lockheed AC-130

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This article is about the ground attack aircraft. For the video game about the aircraft, see AC-130 Operation Devastation.
AC-130 Spectre / Spooky / Ghostrider / Stinger II
AC-130H Spectre jettisons flares.jpg
AC-130H Spectre gunship deploys flares in 2007
Role Fixed-wing Ground-attack and close air support gunship
Manufacturer Lockheed and Boeing
First flight AC-130A: 1966
Introduction AC-130A: 1968
Retired AC-130A: 1995
Status In service
Primary user United States Air Force
Number built 47 (in all variants)
Unit cost
AC-130H: US$132.4 million
AC-130U: US$190 million (2002)
Developed from Lockheed C-130 Hercules

The Lockheed AC-130 gunship is a heavily armed ground-attack aircraft variant of the C-130 Hercules transport plane. The basic airframe is manufactured by Lockheed, while Boeing is responsible for the conversion into a gunship and for aircraft support.[1] The AC-130A Gunship II superseded the AC-47 Gunship I during the Vietnam War.

The gunship's sole user is the United States Air Force, which uses AC-130H Spectre, AC-130U Spooky, AC-130J Ghostrider, and AC-130W Stinger II[2] variants for close air support, air interdiction and force protection. Close air support roles include supporting ground troops, escorting convoys, and flying urban operations. Air interdiction missions are conducted against planned targets and targets of opportunity. Force protection missions include defending air bases and other facilities. AC-130Us are based at Hurlburt Field, Florida, while AC-130Hs and AC-130Ws are based at Cannon AFB, New Mexico.[3] The AC-130s deploy to bases worldwide in support of operations. The gunship squadrons are part of the Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC), a component of the United States Special Operations Command (SOCOM).[4]

All of the weaponry aboard is mounted to fire from the left (port) side of the non-pressurised aircraft. During an attack the gunship performs a pylon turn, flying in a large circle around the target, allowing it to fire at it far longer than a conventional attack aircraft. The AC-130H Spectre was armed with two 20 mm M61 Vulcan cannons, one Bofors 40mm autocannon, and one 105 mm M102 cannon, although on most missions after 1994 the 20 mm cannons were removed due to their incompatibility with precision targeting and to carry more 40 mm and 105 mm ammunition. Another reason the 20 mm cannons were removed was due to insufficient slant range to target to operate outside of the shoulder launched missile threat envelope. The upgraded AC-130U "Spooky" has a single 25 mm GAU-12 Equalizer in place of the Spectre's twin 20 mm cannons, an improved fire control system, and increased ammunition capacity. New AC-130J gunships based on MC-130J Combat Shadow II special operations tankers were planned as of 2012. The AC-130W is armed with one 30 mm Bushmaster cannon and can release the AGM-176 Griffin missile.[2]

Development[edit]

Origins[edit]

During the Vietnam War, the C-130 Hercules was selected to replace the Douglas AC-47 Spooky gunship (Project Gunship I) in order to improve mission endurance and increase capacity to carry munitions. Capable of flying faster than helicopters and at high altitudes with excellent loiter time, the use of the pylon turn allowed the AC-47 to deliver continuous accurate fire to a single point on the ground.[5][6]

AC-130H Spectre near Hurlburt Field, Florida in 1988

In 1967, JC-130A USAF 54-1626 was selected for conversion into the prototype AC-130A gunship (Project Gunship II). The modifications were done at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base by the Aeronautical Systems Division. A direct view night vision telescope was installed in the forward door, an early forward looking infrared (FLIR) in the forward part of the left wheel well, and Gatling guns fixed facing down and aft along the left side. The analog fire control computer prototype was handcrafted by RAF Wing Commander Tom Pinkerton at the USAF Avionics Laboratory at Wright-Patterson AFB. Flight testing of the prototype was performed primarily at Eglin Air Force Base, followed by further testing and modifications. By September 1967, the aircraft was certified ready for combat testing and was flown to Nha Trang Air Base, South Vietnam for a 90-day test program.[5] The AC-130 was later supplemented by the AC-119 Shadow (Project Gunship III), which later proved to be underpowered.

An AC-130U firing flares

Seven more warplanes were converted to the "Plain Jane" configuration like the AC-130 prototype in 1968,[7] and one aircraft received the "Surprise Package" equipment in 1969.[8] Surprise Package included the latest 20 mm rotary cannons and 40 mm Bofors cannon but no 7.62 mm close support armament. Surprise Package served as a test bed for the avionic systems and armament for the AC-130E.

In 1970, ten more AC-130As were acquired under the "Pave Pronto" project.[9] In the summer of 1971, Surprise Package equipped AC-130s were converted to the Pave Pronto configuration and assumed their new nickname 'Thor'. Conversion of C-130Es into AC-130Es for the "PAVE Spectre" project followed.[10][11]

Regardless of their project names the aircraft were more commonly referred to by the squadron's call sign 'Spectre'.

Recent and planned upgrades[edit]

AC-130U armed with two 30mm Bushmasters, 2007

In 2007, Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC) initiated a program to upgrade the armament of AC-130s. The test program planned for the 25 mm GAU-12/U and 40 mm Bofors cannon on the AC-130U gunships to be replaced with two 30 mm Mk 44 Bushmaster II cannon.[12] In 2007, the Air Force modified four AC-130U gunships as test platforms for the Bushmasters. These were referred to as AC-130U Plus 4 or AC-130U+4. AFSOC, however, canceled its plans to install the new cannons on its fleet of AC-130Us. It has since removed the guns and re-installed the original 40 mm and 25mm cannons and returned the planes to combat duty.[13] Brigadier General Bradley A. Heithold, AFSOC's director of plans, programs, requirements, and assessments, said on 11 August 2008 that the effort was canceled because of problems with the Bushmaster's accuracy in tests "at the altitude we were employing it". There were also schedule considerations that drove the decision, he said.[14]

There were also plans to possibly replace the 105 mm cannon with a breech-loading 120 mm M120 mortar, and to give the AC-130 a standoff capability using either the AGM-114 Hellfire missile, the Advanced Precision Kill Weapon System (based on the Hydra 70 rocket), or the Viper Strike glide bomb.[15]

The Air Force awarded L-3 Communications a $61 million contract to add weapons packages to eight MC-130W Combat Spear special-mission aircraft[16] to give them a gunship-like attack capability. L-3 will provide weapons kits, named "precision strike packages", for installation on the aircraft at Warner Robins Air Logistics Center, Georgia. MC-130Ws fitted with the weapons will be known as Dragon Spears. Air Force Special Operations Command is arming these aircraft to relieve the high operational demands on its regular AC-130 gunships until new AC-130Js enter the fleet.[17] The MC-130W Dragon Spear was renamed the AC-130W Stinger II in 2011.[18]

The Air Force launched an initiative in 2011 to acquire 16 new gunships based on new-built MC-130J Combat Shadow II special operations tankers outfitted with a "precision strike package" to give them an attack capability. The Air Force is requesting $1.6 billion from Fiscal 2011 through 2015 for this recapitalization. These aircraft would increase the size of the Air Force's gunship fleet to 33 aircraft, a net increase of eight after the planned retirement of eight aging AC-130Hs. The first aircraft would be bought in Fiscal 2012, followed by two in Fiscal 2013, five in Fiscal 2014, and the final eight in Fiscal 2015.[19] The decision to remain with the C-130s to fill the need came after funding to acquire 16 C-27Js was removed from the fiscal 2010 budget.[20] The AC-130J will follow the path of the Dragon Spear program,[21] along lines generally similar to the USMC Harvest HAWK program.[citation needed] On January 9, 2013, the Air Force began converting the first MC-130J Combat Shadow II into the new AC-130J Ghostrider. It is expected to be completed in November 2013 with flight testing by December 2013.[22] The first AC-130J is to enter service in 2017.[23]

Design[edit]

Underside of an AC-130U Spooky

Overview[edit]

The AC-130 is a heavily armed long-endurance aircraft carrying an array of anti-ground oriented weapons that are integrated with sophisticated sensors, navigation, and fire control systems. It is capable of delivering precision firepower or area-saturation fire over a target area over a long period of time, at night or in adverse weather. The sensor suite consists of a television sensor, infrared sensor, and radar. These sensors allow the gunship to visually or electronically identify friendly ground forces and targets in most weather conditions.

The AC-130U is equipped with the AN/APQ-180, a synthetic aperture radar for long-range target detection and identification. The gunship's navigational devices include inertial navigation systems and a Global Positioning System. The AC-130U employs technologies developed in the 1990s which allow it to attack two targets simultaneously. It has twice the munitions capacity of the AC-130H.[1] Although the AC-130U conducts some operations in daylight, most of its combat missions are conducted at night.[24] The AC-130H's unit cost is US$132.4 million, and the AC-130U's cost is US$190 million (fiscal 2001 dollars).[4]

Upgrades[edit]

AC-130U sensor suite

During the Vietnam era, the various AC-130 versions following the Pave Pronto modifications were equipped with a magnetic anomaly detector (MAD) system called the Black Crow (AN/ASD-5), a highly sensitive passive device with a phased-array antenna located in the left-front nose radome that could pick up localized deviations in earth's magnetic field that is normally used to detect submerged submarines. The Black Crow system was slaved into the targeting computers of the AC-130A/E/H, enabling the detection of the unshielded ignition coils of North Vietnamese trucks hidden under dense jungle foliage, typical along the Ho Chi Minh trail. It could also detect hand-held transmitter signals of air controllers on the ground to identify and locate targets.

The PGM-38/U Enhanced 25 mm High Explosive Incendiary (HEI) round was created to expand the AC-130U gunships' mission in standoff range and survivability for its 25 mm GAU-12/U gun system. This round is a combination of the existing PGU-25 HEI and a M758 fuze designated as FMU-151/B to meet the MIL-STD-1316. The FMU-151 has an improved arming delay with multi-sensitive range.[25]

Operational history[edit]

Vietnam War[edit]

The AC-130 gunship first arrived in South Vietnam on 21 September 1967 under the Gunship II program and began combat operations over Laos and South Vietnam that year. In June 1968, AC-130s were deployed to Tan Son Nhut AB near Saigon for support against the Tet Offensive. By 30 October 1968 enough AC-130 Gunship IIs arrived to form a squadron, the 16th Special Operations Squadron (SOS) of the 8th Tactical Fighter Wing (TFW), at Ubon Royal Thai Air Force Base, Thailand. It was at this time that the C-130A gunship was designated the AC-130A.

On 18 August 1968, an AC-130 gunship flying an armed reconnaissance mission in Vietnam's III Corps was diverted to support a Special Forces base at Katum. The ground commander quickly assessed the accurate fire and capabilities of this weapon system and called for fire on his own perimeter when the Viet Cong attempted to bridge the wire on the west side of his position.

By December 1968 most AC-130s flew under F-4 Phantom II escort (to protect the gunship against heavy and concentrated AAA fire) from the 497th Tactical Fighter Squadron, normally three Phantoms per Gunship. In late 1969, under the code name of "Surprise Package", 56-0490 arrived with solid-state laser-illuminated low-light-level-TV with a companion YAG laser designator, an improved forward looking infrared (FLIR) sensor, video recording for TV and FLIR, an inertial navigation system, and a prototype digital fire control computer. The remaining AC-130s were refitted with upgraded similar equipment in the summer of 1970, and then redeployed to Ubon RTAFB. On 25 October 1971, the first "Cadillac" gunship, the AC-130E arrived in Vietnam. On 17 February 1972, the first 105 mm cannon arrived for service with Spectre and was installed on Gunship 570. It was used from mid-February until the aircraft received battle damage to its right flap. The 105 was switched to Gunship 571 and was used until 30 March when the aircraft was shot down.

Summary of AC-130 Spectre gunships Lost in the Vietnam War 1969–1972
Date Gunship Model Unit Cause of Loss/Remarks
5-24-69 AC-130A 16th Special Operations Squadron (SOS) Downed by 37 mm anti-aircraft artillery (AA) at 6,500 feet while on reconnaissance for enemy trucks.[26]
4-22-70 AC-130A 16th SOS Downed while truck hunting by 37 mm AA[27]
3-28-72 AC-130A 16th SOS Downed while truck hunting along the Ho Chi Minh Trail by a SA-2 Surface to air missile (SAM). Nose art named "Prometheus".[28]
3-30-72 AC-130E 16th SOS Downed while truck hunting by 57 mm AA at 7,500 feet. The "E" model was armed with a 105 mm howitzer. This search and rescue (SAR) mission was "overshadowed by the BAT-21 rescue mission."[29]
6-18-72 AC-130A 16th SOS Downed by a SA-7 shoulder fired SAM which struck the #3 engine and blew off the wing.[30]
12/21, 22/72 AC-130A 16th SOS Downed while trucking along the Ho Chi Minh trail at 7,800 feet by 37 mm AA.[31]

On 28 January 1973, the Vietnam peace accord went into effect, marking the end of Spectre operations in Vietnam. Spectre was still needed and active in the region, supporting operations in Laos and Cambodia. On 22 February 1973, American offensive operations in Laos ended and the gunships became totally committed to operations in the Cambodian conflict.

On 12 April 1975 Khmer Rouge were threatening the capital of Phnom Penh and AC-130s were called upon to help in Operation Eagle pull, the final evacuation of American and allied officials from Phnom Penh before it fell to the communists. The AC-130 was also over Saigon 30 April 1975 to protect the final evacuation in Operation Frequent Wind. When the SS Mayaguez was seized by Khmer Rouge soldiers and sailors on 15 May 1975, on the open sea, Spectres were called upon.

AC-130s destroyed more than 10,000 trucks and participated in many crucial close air support missions in Vietnam.

Six Spectres and 52 aircrew members were lost to enemy fire. On 24 May 1969, Spectre lost its first gunship.[32]

AC-130A performs a left-hand pylon turn

Cold War and later action[edit]

With the conclusion of hostilities in Southeast Asia in the mid-1970s, the AC-130H became the sole gunship in the regular Air Force, home based at Hurlburt Field, Florida, while the AC-130A fleet was transferred to the Air Force Reserve's 919th Tactical Airlift Group (919 TAG) at Eglin AFB Auxiliary Field #3/Duke Field, Florida. With the transition to the AC-130A, the 919 TAG was then redesignated as the 919th Special Operations Group (919 SOG).

In the late 1970s when the AC-130H fleet was first being modified for in-flight refueling capability, a demonstration mission was planned and flown from Hurlburt Field, Florida, non-stop, to conduct a 2-hour live-fire mission over Empire Firing Range in the Republic of Panama, then return home. This 13-hour mission with two in-flight refuelings from KC-135 tankers proved the validity of flying long-range missions outside the contiguous United States to attack targets then return to home base without intermediate stops.

AC-130s from both the 4th and 16th Special Operations Squadrons have been deployed in nearly every conflict the United States has been involved in, officially and unofficially, since the end of the Vietnam War.

In July 1979, AC-130H crews deployed to Howard Air Force Base, Panama, as a precaution against possible hostile actions against American personnel during the Nicaraguan Revolution. New time aloft and non-stop distance records were subsequently set by a 16th SOS 2-ship AC-130H formation flight that departed Hurlburt Field on 13 November 1979 and landed on 15 November at Andersen Air Force Base, Guam, a distance of 7,200 nautical miles (13,300 km) and 29 hours 43 minutes non-stop, refueling four times in-flight.[33][34] Refueling support for the Guam deployment was provided by KC-135 crews from the 305th Air Refueling Wing from Grissom AFB, Indiana.

In November 1979, four AC-130H gunships flew nonstop from Hurlburt Field to Anderson AFB, Guam, because of the hostage situation at the Embassy in Iran. At Guam, AC-130H crews developed communications-out/lights-out refueling procedures for later employment by trial-and-error. This deployment with the 1 SOW/CC as Task Force commander was directed from the office of the CJCS for fear that Iranian militants could begin executing American Embassy personnel who had been taken hostage on 4 November. One early option considered AC-130H retaliatory punitive strikes deep within Iran. Later gunship flights exceeded the 1979 Hurlburt-to-Guam flight. Upon return in March 1980, the four planes soon found themselves in Egypt to support the ill-fated hostage rescue attempt.

During Operation Urgent Fury in Grenada in 1983, AC-130s suppressed enemy air defense systems and attacked ground forces enabling the assault of the Point Salines Airfield via airdrop and air-land of friendly forces. The AC-130 aircrew earned the Lieutenant General William H. Tunner Award for the mission.

The AC-130Hs of the 16th Special Operations Squadron unit maintained an ongoing rotation to Howard AB, Panama, monitoring activities in El Salvador and other Central American points of interest, with rules of engagement eventually permitting attacks on FMLN targets. This commitment of Maintainers and crews started in 1983 and lasted until 1990.[35] The AC-130 is considered to have hastened the end of the Salvadoran Civil War in the 1980s. Crews flew undercover missions from Honduras and attacked guerrilla camps and concentrations.[citation needed]

AC-130s also had a primary role during the United States invasion of Panama (named Operation Just Cause) 1989 when they destroyed Panama Defense Force headquarters and numerous command-and-control facilities, and provided close air support for US ground troops. Aircrews earned the Mackay Trophy for the most meritorious flight of the year, and the Tunner Award.

Persian Gulf War and the 1990s[edit]

Smoke visible from Gatling gun during twilight operations in 1988

During the Gulf War of 1990–91 (Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm), Regular Air Force and Air Force Reserve AC-130s provided close air support and force protection (air base defense) for ground forces, and battlefield interdiction. The primary interdiction targets were early warning/ground control intercept (EW/GCI) sites along the southern border of Iraq. The first gunship to enter the Battle of Khafji helped stop a southbound Iraqi armored column on 29 January 1991. One day later three more gunships provided further aid to Marines participating in the operation. The gunships attacked Iraqi positions and columns moving south to reinforce their positions north of the city.

Despite the threat of surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) and increasing visibility during the early morning hours of 31 January 1991, one AC-130H, AF Serial No. 69-6567, call-sign Spirit 03, opted to stay to continue to protect the Marines. A lone Iraqi with a Strela-2 MANPAD shot Spirit 03 down, and all 14 crew members died.[36]

The military has used AC-130 gunships during the humanitarian operations in Somalia (Operation Restore Hope and Operation United Shield) in 1992–93, Operation Uphold Democracy in Haiti in 1994. AC-130s took part in Operation Assured Response in Liberia in 1996 and in Operation Silver Wake in 1997, the evacuation of American non-combatants from Albania.

AC-130s took part in the NATO missions in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo during the 1990s.

The AC-130U gunship set a new record for the longest sustained flight by any C-130 on 22 and 23 October 1997, when two AC-130U gunships flew 36 hours nonstop from Hurlburt Field, Florida to Taegu Air Base (Daegu), South Korea, being refueled seven times in the air by KC-135 tankers. The two gunships took on 410,000 lb (186,000 kg) of fuel. Gunships also were part of the buildup of U.S. forces in 1998 to compel Iraq to allow UNSCOM weapons inspections.

Operations since 2001[edit]

The United States used gunships during War in Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom) in Afghanistan (2001–), and Iraq War (Operation Iraqi Freedom) in Iraq (2003–10). In 2007, US Special Operations forces also used the AC-130 in attacks on suspected al-Qaeda militants in Somalia.[37][38]

Close air support was the main mission of the AC–130 in Iraq. Night after night, at least one AC–130 was in the air to fulfill one or more air support requests (ASRs). A typical mission had the AC–130 supporting a single brigade’s ASRs followed by aerial refueling and another 2 hours with another brigade or SOF team. The use of AC-130s in places like Fallujah, urban settings where insurgents were among crowded populations of non combatants, was criticized by human rights groups. AC-130s were also used for intelligence gathering with their sophisticated long-range video, infrared and radar sensors.

AC-130 strikes were directed by special forces on known Taliban locations during the early days of the war in Afghanistan. U.S. Special Operations Forces are using the AC-130 to support its operations. The day after arriving in Afghanistan, the AC-130s attacked Taliban and Al-Qaeda forces near the city of Konduz and were directly responsible for the city's surrender the next day. On 26 November 2001, AC-130 Spectres were called in to put down a rebellion at the prison fort of Qala-i-Janghi. The 16 SOS flew missions over Mazar-i-Sharif, Konduz, Kandahar, Shkin, Asadabad, Bagram, Baghran, Tora Bora, and virtually every other part of Afghanistan. Spectre participated in countless operations within Afghanistan, performing on-call close air support and armed reconnaissance.

In March 2002, three AC-130 Spectres provided 39 crucial combat missions in support of Operation Anaconda in Afghanistan. During the intense fighting, the planes expended more than 1,300 40 mm and 1,200 105 mm rounds.

There are eight AC-130H and seventeen AC-130U aircraft in active-duty service as of July 2010.[4]

In March 2011, the U.S. Air Force deployed two AC-130U gunships to take part in Operation Odyssey Dawn, the U.S. military intervention in Libya,[39] which eventually came under NATO as Operation Unified Protector.[40]

As of September 2013, 14 MC-130W Dragon Spear aircraft have been converted to AC-130W Stinger II gunships. The Stinger gunships have been deployed to Afghanistan to replace the aging AC-130H and provide an example for the new AC-130J Ghostrider. Modifications began with crews cutting holes in the plane to make room for weapons, and adding kits and bomb bases for laser-guided munitions. Crews added a 105 mm cannon, 20 in infrared and electro-optical sensors, and the ability to carry 250-pound bombs on the wings.[41]

Variants[edit]

AC-130A Spectre (Project Gunship II, Surprise Package, Pave Pronto)
Nineteen converted from C-130As, transferred to Air Force Reserve in 1975, retired in 1995.[9][42]
AC-130E Spectre (Pave Spectre, Pave Aegis)
Eleven converted from C-130Es, ten upgraded to AC-130H configuration.[43]
AC-130H Spectre
Eight operational (active duty USAF)
AC-130U Spooky II
Seventeen operational with (active duty USAF) [4]
AC-130J Ghostrider[22]
Sixteen planned to replace AC-130H and increase fleet size. First test flight occurred 31 January 2014.[44]
AC-130W Stinger II (MC-130W Dragon Spear)
MC-130Ws conversions (active duty USAF).[45]

Operators[edit]

AC-130U over Hurlburt Field

 United States: United States Air Force

Tactical Air Command 1967-83
Military Airlift Command, 23d Air Force 1983–90
Air Force Special Operations Command 1990–
  • Detachment 2, 14th Air Commando Wing – Nha Trang AB, RVN 1967–68
  • 8th Tactical Fighter Wing – Ubon AB, Thailand 1968–74
16th Special Operations Squadron
  • 388th Tactical Fighter Wing – Korat AB, Thailand 1974–75
16th Special Operations Squadron
4th Special Operations Squadron 2006–
8th Special Operations Squadron 1975
16th Special Operations Squadron 1975–93, 2006–09
18th Flight Test Squadron 2006-
19th Special Operations Squadron 2006–
  • 16th Special Operations Wing – Hurlburt Field, FL 1993–2006 (redesignated 1st SOW)
4th Special Operations Squadron 1995–2006
16th Special Operations Squadron
18th Flight Test Squadron
19th Special Operations Squadron 1996–2006
16th Special Operations Squadron 2009–
73rd Special Operations Squadron 2008–
551st Special Operations Squadron 2009–

Air Force Reserve

711th Special Operations Squadron

Air Force Systems Command

6518th Test Squadron

Air Force Materiel Command

413th Flight Test Squadron
418th Flight Test Squadron

Aircraft on display[edit]

Nose art on AC-130A AF Serial No. 53-3129 at the USAF Armament Museum, Eglin AFB, Florida

One of the first seven AC-130A aircraft deployed to Vietnam was AF Serial No. 53-3129, named First Lady in November 1970. This aircraft was a conversion of the first production C-130. On 25 March 1971, it took an anti-aircraft artillery hit in the belly just aft of the nose gear wheel well over the Ho Chi Minh trail in Laos. The 37 mm shell destroyed everything below the crew deck and barely missed striking two crew members. In 1975, after the conclusion of US involvement in the Vietnam war, it was transferred to the Air Force Reserve, where it served with the 711th Special Operations Squadron of the 919th Special Operations Wing. In 1980, the aircraft was upgraded from the original three-bladed propellers to the quieter four-bladed propellers and was eventually retired in late 1995. The retirement also marked an end to the Air Force Reserve Command flying the AC-130A. The aircraft now sits on display in the final Air Force Reserve Command configuration with grey paint, black markings, and the four-bladed Hamilton Sunstrand 54H60-91 props at the Air Force Armament Museum at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, USA.[46][47]

A second AC-130A, AF Serial No. 56-0509, named the Ultimate End, was accepted by the Air Force on 28 February 1957, and modified to the AC-130A configuration on 27 July 1970. The aircraft participated in the Vietnam War and the rescue of the SS Mayaguez. Ultimate End demonstrated the durability of the C-130 after surviving hits in five places by 37 mm anti-aircraft artillery on 12 December 1970, extensive left wing leading edge damage on 12 April 1971 and a 57 mm round damaging the belly and injuring one crewman on 4 March 1972. "Ultimate End" was reassigned to the Air Force Reserve's 919th Special Operations Wing at Eglin AFB Auxiliary Field No.3 / Duke Field on 17 June 1975, where it continued in service until retired in the fall 1994 and transferred to Air Force Special Operations Command's Heritage Air Park at Hurlburt Field, Florida. While assigned to the 711th Special Operations Squadron, Ultimate End served in Operations JUST CAUSE in Panama, DESERT STORM in Kuwait and Iraq, and UPHOLD DEMOCRACY in Haiti. After 36 years and seven months of service, 24 years as a gunship, Ultimate End retired from active service on 1 October 1994. It made its last flight from Duke Field to Hurlburt Field on 20 October 1994. The Spectre Association dedicated "Ultimate End" (which served with the 16 SOS in Vietnam) on 4 May 1995. Lt Col Michael Byers, then 16 SOS commander, represented the active-duty gunship force and Clyde Gowdy of the Spectre Association represented all Spectre personnel past and present for the unveiling of a monument at the aircraft and the dedication as a whole.[48]

A third AC-130A, AF Serial No. 54-1630, is on display in the Cold War Gallery at the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. Named Azrael for the angel of death in Islam who severs the soul from the body. This aircraft figured prominently in the closing hours of Operation Desert Storm. On 26 February 1991, Coalition ground forces were driving the Iraqi Army out of Kuwait. With an Air Force Reserve crew called to active duty, Azrael was sent to the Al Jahra highway (Highway 80) between Kuwait City and Basra, Iraq, to intercept the convoys of tanks, trucks, buses, and cars fleeing the battle. Facing SA-6 and SA-8 surface-to-air missiles and 37 mm and 57 mm radar-guided anti-aircraft artillery the crew attacked and destroyed or disabled most of the convoys. Azrael was also assigned to the 919th Special Operations Wing and retired to the museum in October 1995.[49]

Another AC-130A, AF Serial No. 54-1626, the original prototype AC-130 named "Gunship II" is on display at the outdoor Air Park at the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio.[50] This aircraft served in Southeast Asia from 1967 to 1972, then served in JC-130A test configuration. It was transferred to the National Museum of the United States Air Force in 1976, and converted back to AC-130A configuration in the late 1990s.

AC-130A Serial No. 54-1623, c/n 3010, named "Ghost Rider" served in Southeast Asia and later conflicts until being retired in 1997 to Dobbins AFB, Georgia. Ghost Rider eventually was transferred and displayed at the Lockheed Museum at Marietta, Georgia.

Specifications[edit]

AC-130U Line Drawing.svg
AC-130U Spooky

Data from USAF Fact Sheet[4]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 13
    • Officers: 5 (pilot, copilot, navigator, fire control officer, electronic warfare officer)
    • Enlisted: 8 (flight engineer, TV operator, infrared detection set operator, loadmaster, four aerial gunners)
  • Length: 97 ft 9 in (29.8 m)
  • Wingspan: 132 ft 7 in (40.4 m)
  • Height: 38 ft 6 in (11.7 m)
  • Wing area: 1745.5 ft² (162.2 m²)
  • Loaded weight: 122,400 lb (55,520 kg)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 155,000 lb (69,750 kg)
  • Powerplant: 4 × Allison T56-A-15 turboprops, 4,910 shp (3,700 kW) each

Performance

Armament[edit]

Gunners loading 40 mm cannon (background) and 105 mm cannon (foreground)
AC-130H Spectre over Santa Rosa Island, Northwest Florida coast.
AC-130A Project Gunship II
AC-130A Surprise Package, Pave Pronto, AC-130E Pave Spectre
  • 2× 7.62 mm GAU-2/A miniguns
  • 2× 20 mm M61 Vulcan cannon
  • 2× 40 mm (1.58 in) L/60 Bofors cannon
AC-130E Pave Aegis
  • 2× 20 mm M61 Vulcan cannon
  • 1× 40 mm (1.58 in) L/60 Bofors cannon
  • 1× 105 mm (4.13 in) M102 howitzer
AC-130H Spectre[51]

(Prior to c. 2000)

  • 2× 20 mm M61 Vulcan cannon
  • 1× 40 mm (1.58 in) L/60 Bofors cannon
  • 1× 105 mm (4.13 in) M102 howitzer

(Current Armament)

  • 1× 40 mm (1.58 in) L/60 Bofors cannon
  • 1× 105 mm (4.13 in) M102 howitzer
AC-130U Spooky II
AC-130W Stinger II / AC-130J Ghostrider[22]

Avionics[edit]

AC-130H Spectre
  • Mission systems:
    • Northrop Grumman AN/APN-241 multimode navigation radar – derived version of AN/APG-66 radar (formerly used on F-16A Fighting Falcon) consisting of precised navigation and air-to-ground modes including Monopulse Ground Mapping (MGM), Doppler Beam Sharpening (DBS), high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Terrain Avoidance/Terrain Following (TA/TF), skin paint (for Station KEeping; SKE), maritime detection, weather/turbulence detection, wind shear alert, and ballistic wind measurement (for precision airdrop)[55]
    • Motorola (now General Dynamics) AN/APQ-150 Beacon Tracking Radar (BTR) – side-looking radar designed to search, acquire, and track ground beacon signal (X-band transponder) located at a friendly position from 10 nautical miles, beacon coordinate is used as a reference point for ground troop to give the gunship a bearing and range from the beacon to the desired target (mounted between 40 mm cannon and 105 mm howitzer)[56][57]
    • Cubic Corporation AN/ARS-6 Personnel Locator System (PLS) – radio navigation set[57]
    • Raytheon AN/AAQ-26 Infrared Detecting Set (IDS) – long-wave infrared (LWIR) band Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) (mounted forward of the nose landing gear door)[57][58]
    • General Electric (now Lockheed Martin) AN/ASQ-145 Low Light Level Television (LLLTV) – EO fire control system consists of television camera (CCD-TV), AN/AVQ-19 Laser Target Designator/Ranger (LTD/R – 1064 nm laser emitter with permanently preset PRF code) with eyesafe mode (1570 nm laser emitter), AN/AAT-3 Ambient Temperature Illuminator (ATI – wide beam 860 nm laser illuminator), and Infrared Zoom Laser Illuminator Designator (IZLID – airborne version of 860 nm narrow beam laser pointer/marker and illuminator AN/PEQ-18) (mounted in the crew entrance door)[56][57]
  • Navigation systems:
  • Previously installed systems:
    • AN/APN-59 radar – search and weather radar[57]
AC-130U Spooky II
  • Mission systems:
    • Raytheon AN/APQ-180 multimode attack radar – enhanced version of AN/APG-70 radar (used on F-15E Strike Eagle) incorporating several enhanced air-to-ground modes such as fixed target track, ground moving target indication and track, projectile impact point position, beacon track, and a weather detection[57][59][60]
    • Raytheon AN/AAQ-26 IDS – LWIR FLIR (mounted on port side of the nose landing gear door)[57][58]
    • Lockheed Martin AN/AAQ-39 Gunship Multispectral Sensor System (GMS2) – EO/IR fire control system consists of mid-wave infrared (MWIR) FLIR, two Image-Intensified Television (I2TV) cameras (CCD-TV), laser target designator/rangefinder with eyesafe mode (1064 and 1570 nm dual mode laser emitter), and near-infrared (NIR) laser pointer/marker (860 nm laser emitter) (mounted under the nose of port landing gear sponson)[61]
  • Previously installed systems:
    • GEC-Marconi All Light Level Television (ALLTV) – EO fire control systems consists of CCD-TV, Laser Target Designator/Range Finder (LTD/RF – 1064 nm laser emitter with in-flight programmable PRF code) with eyesafe mode (1570 nm laser emitter), and Laser Illuminator Assembly (LIA – 860 nm laser emitter)[57]
  • Countermeasures:

Notable appearances in media[edit]

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References[edit]

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  2. ^ a b c d "MC-130W Dragon Spear". Air Force Special Operations. Retrieved 16 September 2012. 
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  5. ^ a b AC-130A (fact sheet), National Museum of the United States Air Force .
  6. ^ Douglas AC-47D (fact sheet), National Museum of the United States Air Force .
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  10. ^ Lockheed AC-130E "PAVE Spectre". National Museum of the United States Air Force. Accessed on 5 April 2009.
  11. ^ Lockheed AC-130E "PAVE Aegis". National Museum of the United States Air Force. Accessed on 5 April 2009.
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  16. ^ DoD "Contracts". U.S. Department of Defense, 21 September 2010.
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  38. ^ "US plane 'bombed Somalia targets'", Africa News (BBC) .
  39. ^ McGarry, Brendan (28 March 2011), Coalition Isn’t Coordinating Strikes With Rebels, US Says, Bloomberg .
  40. ^ Schmitt, Eric (29 March 2011). "US Gives Its Air Power Expansive Role in Libya". The New York Times. p. A13. Retrieved 29 March 2011. 
  41. ^ "AFSOC's new weapon: Portable unmanned aircraft bases", The Military Times, 17 September 2013 .
  42. ^ "AC-130A Spectre" GlobalSecurity.org
  43. ^ Lockheed AC-130H fact sheet National Museum of the United States Air Force
  44. ^ King Jr., Samuel (7 February 2014). "New AC-130J completes first test flight". af.mil. Team Eglin Public Affairs. Retrieved 9 February 2014. 
  45. ^ John Pike. "MC-130W Combat Spear / AC-130W Stinger II". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2013-11-16. 
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  47. ^ "First Lady retires, era ends."[dead link] Gunships. Retrieved 6 June 2011.
  48. ^ AC-130A Spectre. USAF Hurlburt Field
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  50. ^ Lockheed AC-130A, image[dead link]. National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved 17 July 2010.
  51. ^ AC-130H/U Gunship (fact sheet), US: Air Force, December 2015  (20 mm guns were removed).
  52. ^ "ATK's GAU-23 30mm Automatic Cannon Receives Type Classification for Use on U.S. Air Force AC-130W Gunships". PR NewsWire. Retrieved 9 July 2012. 
  53. ^ "BRU-61/A Bomb Rack". Armed Forces International. Retrieved 22 March 2011. 
  54. ^ "Daytime Gunships Galore", Strategy page, November 29, 2012 .
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  58. ^ a b "AN/AAQ-26 Infrared Detecting Set". Raytheon. Retrieved 11 June 2013. 
  59. ^ a b c Pushies, Fred J. United States Air Force Special Ops, pp. 42–26. Zenith Press, 2007. ISBN 0-760-32947-8. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
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  61. ^ "AN/AAQ-39". Lockheed Martin. Retrieved 12 June 2013. 
  62. ^ "AN/ALR-69A(V) Radar Warning Receiver". Raytheon. Retrieved 12 June 2013. 
  63. ^ "AN/AAR-44 – Infrared Warning Receiver". American Special Ops. Retrieved 11 August 2014. 
  64. ^ "ALQ-172 (EW Integrated Self Protection System)". ITT Exelis. Retrieved 12 June 2013. 
  65. ^ "BAe Systems Jammer for Special Hercs". Aero News Network. Retrieved 12 June 2013. 
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  67. ^ Pike, John. "AC-130 Project Gunship II". Global security. Retrieved 12 June 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]