Lockheed L-100 Hercules
|A Tepper Aviation L‑382 taking off from Mojave Spaceport, California|
|National origin||United States|
|First flight||20 April 1964|
|Introduction||30 September 1965|
|Primary users||Indonesian Air Force
Lynden Air Cargo
|Developed from||C-130 Hercules|
The Lockheed L‑100 Hercules is the civilian variant of the prolific C‑130 military transport aircraft made by the Lockheed Corporation. Its first flight occurred in 1964. Longer L‑100‑20 and L‑100‑30 versions were developed. L‑100 production ended in 1992 with 114 aircraft delivered.
In 1959, Pan American World Airways ordered 12 of Lockheed's GL‑207 Super Hercules to be delivered by 1962, to be powered by four 6,000 eshp Allison T61 turboprops. The Super Hercules was to be 23 ft 4 in (7.11 m) longer than the C‑130B; a variant powered by 6,445 Rolls‑Royce Tynes and a jet-powered variant with four Pratt & Whitney JT3D‑11 turbofans were also under development. Both Pan American and Slick Airways (which had ordered six) cancelled their orders and the other variants did not evolve past design studies.
Lockheed decided to produce a commercial variant based on a de-militarised version of the C‑130E Hercules. The prototype L‑100 (registered N1130E) first flew on 20 April 1964 when it carried out a 1-hour, 25-minute flight. The type certificate was awarded on 16 February 1965. Twenty-one production aircraft were then built with the first delivery to Continental Air Services on 30 September 1965.
Slow sales led to the development of two new, longer versions, the L‑100‑20 and L‑100‑30, both of which were larger and more economical than the original model. Deliveries totaled 114 aircraft, with production ending in 1992. Several L-100-20 aircraft were operated on scheduled freight flights by Delta Airlines between 1968 and 1973.
An updated civilian version of the Lockheed Martin C-130J‑30 Super Hercules was under development, but the program was placed on hold indefinitely in 2000 to focus on military development and production.
Civilian variants are equivalent to the C‑130E model without pylon tanks or military equipment.
- L‑100 (Model 382)
- One prototype powered by four Allison 501‑D22s and first flown in 1964
- L‑100 (Model 382B)
- Production variant
- L‑100‑20 (Model 382E and Model 382F)
- Stretched variant certified in 1968 with a new 5 ft (1.5 m) section forward of the wing and 3 ft 4 in (1.02 m) section aft of the wing.
- L‑100‑30 (Model 382G)
- A further stretched variant with an addition 6 ft 8 in (2.03 m) fuselage section.
In July 2009 a total of 36 Lockheed L‑100 Hercules aircraft were in commercial service. Operators include Safair (9), Lynden Air Cargo (6), Transafrik (5), Libyan Arab Air Cargo (3), First Air (2), and other operators with fewer numbers of the type.
In January 2009, 35 Lockheed L‑100s were in use with military operators, including:
- Indonesian Air Force (10 ordered, 8 current with 6 in service)
- Philippine Air Force (4)
- Libyan Air Force (5)
- Algerian Air Force (3)
- Ecuadorian Air Force (1)
- Kuwait Air Force (3 – L‑100‑30)
- Peruvian Air Force (3)
- Royal Saudi Air Force (3 L‑100‑30 for Royal Flight)
Other users with fewer aircraft.
- Gabon Air Force (2 – 1 L‑100‑20 and 1 L‑100‑30)
- United Arab Emirates Air Force (1 – L‑100‑30)
- Argentine Air Force (1 – L‑100‑30 – LV‑APW, later TC‑100)
- Free Libyan Air Force (1 L-100 following Libyan civil war)
Accidents and incidents
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (January 2013)|
- On December 24, 1968, an Interior Airways L‑100, registration N760AL, crashed at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska after the pilot failed to go-around, killing two of four on board.
- On October 10, 1970, a Saturn Airways L‑100‑20, registration N9248R, crashed short of the runway near Fort Dix due to crew disorientation, killing all three on board.
- On May 23, 1974, a Saturn Airways L‑100‑30 operating as Flight 14, broke up in flight due to metal fatigue and crashed near Springfield, Illinois, killing all four on board.
- On October 27, 1974, an Alaska International Air L‑100, registration N102AK, crashed near Old Man's Camp, Alaska, after a wing separated in flight, killing all four on board.
- On November 21, 1976, a Pacific Western Airlines L‑100‑20, registration C‑FPWX, crashed near Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo, after losing a wing while landing, killing five of six on board.
- On May 16, 1981, a TAAG Angola Airlines L‑100‑20, registration D2‑EAS, was shot down by a missile and crashed near Menongue, Angola, killing all four on board.
- On October 4, 1986, a Southern Air Transport L‑100‑30 operating as Flight 15, crashed at Kelly AFB after the elevator was raised using an incorrect device; the device lodged in the flight controls, causing a loss of control on takeoff; all three on board died.
- On April 8, 1987, a Southern Air Transport L‑100‑30, registration N517SJ, crashed on landing at Travis AFB due to engine problems caused by improper maintenance as well as pilot error, killing all five on board. The aircraft was operating a test flight as Flight 517.
- On March 16, 1991, a Transafrik L‑100‑30, registration CP‑1564, was shot down by a missile while at 17,000 feet, killing all nine on board.
- On September 17, 1991, an Ethiopian Airlines L‑100‑30, registration ET‑AJL, crashed into a mountain in Djibouti due to crew error, killing all four on board.
- On September 23, 1994, a Heavylift Cargo Service[a] L‑100‑30, PK‑PLV leased from Pelita Air Service, crashed off Kai Tak International Airport after the number four propeller oversped, killing six of 12 on board.
- On December 26, 1998, a UN L‑100‑30, leased from Transafrik and operating as Flight 806, crashed in dense jungle at Vila Nova, Angola, killing all 14 on board.
- On January 2, 1999, a UN L‑100‑30, registration D2‑EHD and leased from Transafrik, was shot down and crashed 50 mi north of Huambo, Angola, killing all nine on board.
- On August 13, 2006, an Air Algérie L‑100‑30 operating as Flight 2208, crashed near Piacenza, Italy due to autopilot failure, killing all three on board.
- On October 12, 2010, a National Air Cargo L‑100‑20, leased from Transafrik and operating as Flight 662, crashed 19 mi east of Kabul Airport, killing all eight on board.
- Crew: 3-4: (two pilots, navigator, flight engineer/loadmaster)
- Payload: 51,050 lb (23,150 kg)
- Length: 112 ft 9 in (34.35 m)
- Wingspan: 132 ft 7 in (40.4 m)
- Height: 38 ft 3 in (11.66 m)
- Wing area: 1,745 ft² (162.1 m²)
- Empty weight: 77,740 lb (35,260 kg)
- Max. takeoff weight: 155,000 lb (70,300 kg)
- Powerplant: 4 × Allison 501‑D22A turboprops, 4,510 shp (3,360 kW) each
- Maximum speed: 308 knots (354 mph (570 km/h)) at 20,000 ft (6,100 m)
- Cruise speed: 292 kn (336 mph (541 km/h))
- Range: 1,334 nmi (1,535 mi (2,470 km))
- Ferry range: 4,830 nmi(2,360 mi (3,800 km))
- Service ceiling: 23,000 ft (7,000 m)
- Rate of climb: 1,830 ft/min (9.3 m/s)
- Related development
- C-130 Hercules
- C-130J Super Hercules
- AC‑130 Spectre/Spooky
- Lockheed DC-130
- Lockheed EC-130
- Lockheed HC-130
- Lockheed LC-130
- Lockheed MC-130
- Lockheed WC-130
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Now defunct UK company, not to be confused with current Australian company
- Frawley, Gerald. The International Directory of Civil Aircraft, 2003/2004. Fishwick, Act: Aerospace Publications, 2003. ISBN 1‑875671‑58‑7.
- Lockheed L-100 Hercules. airliners.net
- "World Airliner Census". Flight International, 18–24 August 2009.
- "World Military Aircraft Inventory". 2009 Aerospace Source Book. Aviation Week and Space Technology, January 2009.
- US notifies Congress of potential Libyan C-130J sale - Flightglobal.com, 11 June 2013
- ASN Aircraft accident Lockheed L-100-30 Hercules PK-PLV Hong Kong-Kai Tak International Airport (HKG)
- Donald, David, ed. "Lockheed C‑130 Hercules". The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. Barnes & Nobel Books, 1997. ISBN 0‑7607‑0592‑5.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lockheed L-100 Hercules.|
- Lockheed L‑100 Hercules. airliners.net
- Lockheed L‑100 Hercules specifications compared next to other air cargo aircraft