Lockheed Model 14 Super Electra

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Model 14 Super Electra
Lockheed 14.jpg
Trans Canada Airlines Lockheed 14H2 c. 1938
Role Civil passenger and cargo transport
Manufacturer Lockheed Corporation
Designer Don Palmer
First flight 29 July 1937
Introduction October 1937
Primary user Airlines
Number built 354
Developed from Lockheed Model 10 Electra
Variants Lockheed Hudson
Lockheed Model 18 Lodestar

The Lockheed Model 14 Super Electra, more commonly known as the Lockheed 14, was a civil passenger and cargo aircraft built by the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation during the late 1930s. An outgrowth of the earlier Model 10 Electra, the Model 14 was also developed into larger, more capable civil and military versions. Neville Chamberlain flew in British Airways Lockheed 14s to Germany, and on the famous "Peace in our time" trip which resulted in the Munich Agreement, he delivered his speech beside G-AFGN.

Design and development[edit]

The design, developed by a team led by Don Palmer, was a scaled-up version of the original Model 10 Electra, with passenger seating increased from 10 to 14. It was intended to compete commercially with the contemporary Douglas DC-2 and the Boeing 247. The first Model 14 flew on 29 July 1937, piloted by Marshall Headle. Early 14's used the Pratt & Whitney R-1690 Hornet engine; later the Wright R-1820 Cyclone 9 was offered as an option.

Lockheed built a total of 114 Model 14s; another 119 were built under license in Japan by the Tachikawa Aircraft Company under the designation Tachikawa Type LO Transport Aircraft "Thelma". Another 121 were built by Kawasaki Aircraft Company under the designation Kawasaki Type 1 cargo transporter. The type 1 cargo's fuselage was lengthened by 1.4 m (4.6 ft), enabling the fitting of larger cargo doors.[1]

In Japan during the late 1930s and early 1940s, in common with most large economies of the time, research was being conducted into pressurised cabins for high altitude flight. In similar fashion to the Lockheed XC-35, in the United States, Tachikawa incorporated a pressurised cabin into new forward and centre fuselage sections for one of the locally built Lockheed Type LO Transport Aircraft. The resulting research aircraft was given the long designation Tachikawa-Lockheed Type-B high altitude research aircraft and the company designation Tachikawa SS-1. The first conversion was completed in May 1943, re-engined with 2x 810 kW (1,080 hp) Mitsubishi Ha-102 14-cylinder radial engines. The two conversions carried out a brief flight testing programme.

Operational history[edit]

KLM operated two Lockheed 14s within Europe during 1938/39

The Model 14 entered commercial service with Northwest Airlines in October 1937. Aircraft were exported for use by Aer Lingus of Ireland, British Airways Ltd later merged into BOAC of Britain, KLM of the Netherlands, Union Airways and National Airways Corporation (NAC) of New Zealand. The Model 14 was the basis for development of the Lockheed Hudson maritime reconnaissance and light bomber aircraft operated by the Royal Air Force, USAAF, United States Navy and many others during World War II.

Record-breaking flights[edit]

In May 1938, a team of aviators of the Polish airline LOT, made up of Waclaw Makowski, director of the LOT and first pilot, Zbigniew Wysiekierski, second pilot, Szymon Piskorz, mechanic and radionavigator, Alfons Rzeczewski, radio-navigator and Jerzy Krassowski, assistant, accomplished an experimental flight from the United States to Poland. This flight was carried out on board one of the aircraft bought by LOT and manufactured by Lockheed in California, a Lockheed Model 14H Super Electra (of which the Polish registration was SP-LMK.[2]). The crew took off from Burbank (Los Angeles) where these aircraft were manufactured,and after a tour of South America, flew the Atlantic from Brazil to West Africa en route to Warsaw. A poster celebrating the flight can be seen in a US Library of Congress/Matson Archive photo of the LOT/Imperial Airways Sales office in Jerusalem about 1939.[3]

The distance covered was of 15,441 mi (24,850 km; 13,418 nmi). They flew via the Central American cities of Mazatlan, Mexico City, Guatemala, and Panama, then via the South American cities of Lima, Peru; Santiago, Chile; Buenos Aires, Argentina; and Rio de Janeiro and Natal in Brazil. They flew across the South Atlantic to Dakar, Senegal, in Africa and then to Casablanca, Tunis, and then on to Rome, Italy. The final leg of the flight brought them to Warszaw, Poland. The flying time was 85 hours between 13 May and 5 June. The overflight of the Atlantic - from Natal to Dakar - lasted 11 hours and 10 minutes (1,908 mi/3,070 km). This feat by Polish aviators really marked the history of air communication on a world level.(Prior to this flight airliners were delivered across the Atlantic as deck cargo on ships [4]).

Howard Hughes flew a Super Electra (NX18973) on a global circumnavigation flight. With four crewmates (Harry Connor, copilot and navigator; Tom Thurlow, navigator; Richard Stoddart, radio operator; and Ed Lund, flight engineer), the plane took off from Floyd Bennett Field in New York on 10 July 1938. The flight, which circled the narrower northern latitudes, passed through Paris, Moscow, Omsk, Yakutsk, Fairbanks, Alaska and Minneapolis before returning to New York on July 14. The total distance flown was 14,672 mi (23,612 km).

Civilian variants[edit]

Data from:Lockheed Aircraft since 1913[5]

Model 14
The basic airliner version of the Super Electra, variants with cabin arrangement changes, engine types etc. denoted by an alpha-numeric suffix.
Model 14H
Twenty aircraft powered by 2x 875 hp (652 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-1690-S1E-G Hornet engines
Model 14H-2
Thirty-two aircraft powered by 2x 875 hp (652 kW) R-1690-S1E2-G engines, twelve of which were re-engined with 1,200 hp (890 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-1830-S1C3-G Twin Wasp engines to become 14-08s.
Model C-14H-1
A single 14-H (c/n 1401) converted with a bulged cabin roof and large freight door for carriage of bulky loads, later re-converted to 14-H for airline use in Brazil and Nicaragua.
Model 14-08
12 14H-2s re-engined with 1,200 hp (890 kW) R-1830-S1C3-G engines by Trans Canada Airlines (TCA)
Model 14-WF62
An exclusively export version powered by 2x 900 hp (670 kW) Wright SGR-1820-F62 Cyclone engines for British Airways (8), KLM (11) and Aer Lingus (2).
Model 14-WG3B
Another export version, a.k.a. 14-G3B, powered by 2x 900 hp (670 kW) GR-1820-G2B engines. With the exception of four aircraft delivered to Rumania, all WG3Bs were delivered to Japan, either to Tachikawa Hikoki K.K. for re-sale or direct to the operator Nihon Hikoki K.K. (Greater Japan Airways Co. Ltd).
Model 14-N
Two aircraft were completed as personal transports as 14-Ns, powered by 2x 1,100 hp (820 kW) GR-1820-G105 engines.
Model 14-N2
One aircraft built for Howard Hughes, for a round the world flight, powered by 2x 1,100 hp (820 kW) GR-1820-G102 and fitted with auxiliary tanks in the cabin as well as, survival equipment, navigation equipment and communication equipment.
Model 14-N3
One aircraft with 2x 1,100 hp (820 kW) GR-1820-G105A engines
Lockheed Type LO Transport Aircraft
Long designation given to 30 Model 14-WG3B aircraft delivered by Lockheed for use by Nihon Koku K.K. (Greater Japan Airways Co. Ltd). Given the allied reporting name Toby.

Military variants[edit]

Model 414
Company designation for the military A-28 / A-29 and Hudson variants.
Hudson I
Production aircraft for the Royal Air Force (RAF); 351 built and 50 for the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF).
Hudson II
As the Mk I but with spinnerless constant speed propellers; 20 built for the RAF and 50 for the RAAF.
Hudson III
Production aircraft with retractable ventral gun position; 428 built.
Hudson IIIA
Lend-lease variants of the A-29 and A-29A aircraft; 800 built.
Hudson IV
As Mk II with ventral gun removed; 30 built and RAAF Mk I and IIs were converted to this standard.
Hudson IVA
52 A-28s delivered to the RAAF.
Hudson V
Mk III with two 1,200 hp (890 kW) R-1830-S3C4-G engines; 409 built.
Hudson VI
A-28As under lend-lease; 450 built.
A-28-LO
US Military powered by two 1,050 hp (780 kW) R-1830-45 engines; 52 delivered to Australia as Hudson IVA.
A-28A-LO
A-28 with convertible interiors as troop transports; 450 delivered to RAF as Hudson VI; 27 units passed to the Brazilian Air Force
A-29-LO
A-28 powered by two 1,200 hp (890 kW) R-1830-87 engines; 416 built for the RAF, 153 diverted to United States Army Air Force (USAAF) as the RA-29 and 20 to the United States Navy (USN) as the PBO-1
A-29A-LO
A-29 with convertible interiors as troop transports; 384 to the RAF as Hudson IIIA, some retained by USAAF as the RA-29A.
A-29B-LO
24 repossesed A-29s converted for photo-survey.
AT-18-LO
Gunnery trainer version of the A-29 powered by two R-1820-87 engines, 217 built.
AT-18A-LO
Navigational trainer version with dorsal turret removed, 83 built.
C-63
Provisional designation changed to A-29A.
C-111
Three civil Model 14s impressed in Australia.
PBO-1
Twenty former RAF Hudson IIIAs repossesed for use by VP-82 Squadron of the USN
Tachikawa Type LO Transport Aircraft
Japanese licence production of the Model 14-38 by the Tachikawa Aircraft Company Ltd (立川飛行機株式会社 Tachikawa Hikōki K.K.?) powered by 2x 900 hp (670 kW) Mitsubishi Ha-26-I 14 cylinder radial engines. The 119 production aircraft were given the allied reporting name Thelma.
Kawasaki Army Type 1 Freight Transport
Long designation of the Ki-56
Kawasaki Ki-56
Freight transport aircraft redesigned by Takei Doi at Kawasaki Kokuki Kogoyo K.K. (Kawasaki Aircraft Company), from the Type LO. Careful attention to weight reduction, a 1.5 m (4.9 ft) increase in rear fuselage length and power from 2x 950 hp (710 kW) Nakajima Ha-25 14 cylinder radial engines improved performance and handling. The 121 production aircraft were given the allied reporting name Thalia.

Operators[edit]

British Airways G-AFGN featured peripherally in one of the most significant events of its time, the 1938 signing of the Munich Agreement

Civilian[edit]

 Australia
 Belgium
  • SABENA (in Africa)
  • John Mahieu Aviation (postwar)
 Brazil
 Canada
 Dutch East Indies
  • KNILM (Royal Netherlands Indian Airways)
 France
 Honduras
 Ireland
 Japan
 Netherlands
  • KLM (mostly for KLM's West Indian Section in the Caribbean)
 Poland
 Portugal
 Romania
  • LARES (Liniile Aeriene Române Exploatate cu Statul)
 Trinidad and Tobago
 United Kingdom
  • British Airways Ltd. (not to be confused with the modern airline of the same name)
  • BOAC (British Overseas Airways Corporation), which British Airways Ltd. was merged into.
 United States
 Venezuela

Military[edit]

 Canada
 Japan
 South Africa
 United States

Accidents and incidents[edit]

  • On January 10, 1938, Northwest Airlines Flight 2, an L14H, crashed near Bozeman, Montana, due to structural failure caused by a design defect, killing all ten passengers and crew on board.
  • On July 8, 1938, Northwest Airlines Flight 4, an L14H, registration NC17383, stalled and crashed on takeoff from Billings Municipal Airport, killing one of ten on board.[6]
  • On July 22, 1938, a LOT Polish Airlines L14H, registration SP-BNG, crashed near Stulpicani, Romania, killing all 14 on board; the cause was unknown, but the aircraft may have been struck by lightning.[7]
  • On November 18, 1938, a Trans-Canada Air Lines L14H2, registration CF-TCL, crashed shortly after takeoff from Regina Airport, killing both pilots.[8]
  • On November 22, 1938, a British Airways Ltd. L14-WF62, registration G-AFGO, crashed at Walton Bay, Somerset while on a test flight, killing both pilots Commander E. G. Robinson and Commander Robert P. J. Leborgne.[9]
  • On December 9, 1938, a KLM L14-WF62, registration PH-APE and named "Ekster", crashed on takeoff from Schiphol Municipal Airport due to engine failure while on a training flight, killing all four on board.[10]
  • On January 13, 1939, Northwest Airlines Flight 1, an L14H2, crashed at Miles City Municipal Airport after an in-flight fire caused by a fuel leak, killing all four passengers and crew on board.
  • On December 21, 1939, a BOAC L14-WF62, registration G-AFYU, ditched in the Mediterranean between Malta and Sicilia, killing five of 11 on board.[11]
  • On January 22, 1940, a KNILM L14-WF62, registration PK-AFO, crashed off Ngurah Rai Bali International Airport after losing altitude on takeoff, killing eight of nine on board.[12]
  • On April 22, 1940, a BOAC L14-WF62, registration G-AFKD and named "Loch Invar", crashed near Loch Lomond, Scotland while being ferried from Perth International Airport to Heston Airport, killing all three crew on board.[13]
  • On February 6, 1941, a Trans-Canada Air Lines L14H2, registration CF-TCP, crashed into trees while on approach to Armstrong Airport, killing all 12 passengers and crew on board.[14]
  • On February 20, 1941, a Royal Air Force Hudson III, serial T9449, suffered a double engine failure and crashed near Musgrave Harbour, Newfoundland. The pilot Captain Joseph Mackay survived, but the two other crew and the sole passenger died. The passenger was the very distinguished Canadian doctor, Sir Frederick Banting.[15]
  • On December 20, 1942, a Canadian Pacific Air Lines L14H2, registration CF-TPD, crashed into Mount William Knight, killing all 13 passengers and crew on board; the wreckage was found in August 1943.[16]
  • On January 13, 1943, an Air France L14H2, registration F-ARRF, crashed at Aguelhok, Mali due to engine failure, killing all three crew on board.[17]
  • On March 28, 1946, a Dalstroi Aviation L14, registration 514, crashed on takeoff from Zyrianka, Russia due to crew error, killing the pilot.[18]
  • On December 7, 1946, a Dalstroi Aviation L14, registration 6, crashed on climbout from Berelakh, Magadan, Russia (then part of the Khabarovsk Territory) due to double engine failure, killing all seven on board.[19]
  • On October 29, 1948, an R.A Brand & Co. Ltd. L14-08, registration G-AKPD, crashed off Elba, killing all four passengers and crew on board; the wreckage was found in March 1954 during the search for BOAC Flight 781.[20]
  • On July 14, 1951, an Airtaco L14H, registration SE-BTN, crashed on takeoff from Stockholm due to double engine failure caused by fuel starvation, killing four of six on board.[21]

Specifications (Model 14-WF62 Super Electra)[edit]

Data from Lockheed Aircraft since 1913[5]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2
  • Capacity: 12-14 passengers
  • Length: 44 ft 4 in (13.51 m)
  • Wingspan: 65 ft 6 in (19.96 m)
  • Height: 11 ft 5 in (3.48 m)
  • Wing area: 551.0 sq ft (51.19 m2)
  • Empty weight: 10,750 lb (4,876 kg)
  • Gross weight: 15,650 lb (7,099 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 17,500 lb (7,938 kg)
  • Fuel capacity: 644 US gallons (2,440 l; 536 imp gal)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Wright SGR-1820-F62 Cyclone 9-cyl. air-cooled radial piston engines, 900 hp (670 kW) each

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 250 mph (402 km/h; 217 kn) at 5,800 ft (1,800 m)
  • Cruise speed: 215 mph (187 kn; 346 km/h)
  • Range: 851 mi; 740 nmi (1,370 km)
  • Ferry range: 2,125 mi; 1,847 nmi (3,420 km)
  • Service ceiling: 24,500 ft (7,468 m)
  • Rate of climb: 1,520 ft/min (7.7 m/s)
  • Wing loading: 28.4 lb/sq ft (138.7 kg/m2)
  • Power/mass: 0.115 hp/lb (0.256 kW/kg)

See also[edit]

Related development
Related lists

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Kawasaki Type 1." sakura.ne.jp Retrieved: June 16, 2010.
  2. ^ Coates, Ed. "SP-LMK Lockheed 14-H." edcoatescollection.com. Retrieved: February 19, 2010.
  3. ^ "LOT Poster Historic Flight." flickr.com. Retrieved: March 1, 2010.
  4. ^ "Aviation en Pologne: (1934-1938)." pallas.cegesoma.be. Retrieved: February 19, 2010.
  5. ^ a b Francillon, Rene J. (1987). Lockheed Aircraft since 1913 (2nd ed.). London: Putnam Aeronautical Books. ISBN 0870218972. 
  6. ^ Accident description for NC17383 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 9 January 2013.
  7. ^ Accident description for SP-BNG at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 9 January 2013.
  8. ^ Accident description for CF-TCL at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 9 January 2013.
  9. ^ Accident description for G-AFGO at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 9 January 2013.
  10. ^ Accident description for PH-APE at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 9 January 2013.
  11. ^ Accident description for G-AFYU at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 9 January 2013.
  12. ^ Accident description for PK-AFO at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 9 January 2013.
  13. ^ Accident description for G-AKFD at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 9 January 2013.
  14. ^ Accident description for CF-TCP at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 9 January 2013.
  15. ^ http://aviation-safety.net/wikibase/wiki.php?id=74088
  16. ^ Accident description for CF-TPD at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 9 January 2013.
  17. ^ Accident description for F-ARRF at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 9 January 2013.
  18. ^ "Катастрофа L-14 Super Electra авиаотряда Дальстроя МВД СССР в а/п Зырянка" [Accident L-14 Super Electra near Zyrianka] (in Russian). airdisaster.ru. Retrieved 24 October 2013. 
  19. ^ "Катастрофа L-14 Super Electra авиаотряда Дальстроя МВД СССР близ Берелёха" [Accident L-14 Super Electra near Berelakh] (in Russian). airdisaster.ru. Retrieved 24 October 2013. 
  20. ^ Accident description for G-AKPD at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 9 January 2013.
  21. ^ Accident description for SE-BTN at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 9 January 2013.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Francillon, Rene J. (1987). Lockheed Aircraft since 1913 (2nd ed.). London: Putnam Aeronautical Books. ISBN 0870218972. 

External links[edit]