Locomotives of India

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A passenger train with WDM-3D broad gauge diesel locomotive.

The locomotives of India presently consist of electric and diesel locomotives. Steam locomotives are no longer used in India, except in heritage trains. Locomotives are also called locos or engines.

The Bengal Sappers of the Indian Army were the first to run a steam locomotive in India. The steam locomotive named ‘Thomason’ ran with two wagons for carrying earth from Roorkee to Piran Kaliyar in 1851, two years before the first passenger train ran from Bombay to Thane in 1853.

Contents

Classification of Locomotives[edit]

In India, locomotives are classified according to their track gauge, motive power, the work they are suited for and their power or model number. The class name includes this information about the locomotive. It comprises 4 or 5 letters. The first letter denotes the track gauge. The second letter denotes their motive power (Diesel or Electric) and the third letter denotes the kind of traffic for which they are suited (goods, passenger, mixed or shunting). The fourth letter used to denote locomotives' chronological model number. However, from 2002 a new classification scheme has been adopted. Under this system, for newer diesel locomotives, the fourth letter will denote their horsepower range. Electric locomotives don't come under this scheme and even all diesel locos are not covered. For them this letter denotes their model number as usual.

A locomotive may sometimes have a fifth letter in its name which generally denotes a technical variant or subclass or subtype. This fifth letter indicates some smaller variation in the basic model or series, perhaps different motors, or a different manufacturer. With the new scheme for classifying diesel locomotives (as mentioned above) the fifth item is a letter that further refines the horsepower indication in 100 hp increments: 'A' for 100 hp, 'B' for 200 hp, 'C' for 300 hp, etc. So in this scheme, a WDP-3A refers to a 3100 hp loco, while a WDM-3F would be a 3600 hp loco.

Note: This classification system does not apply to steam locomotives in India as they have become non-functional now. They retained their original class names such as M class or WP class.

Heritage Gallery of Indian Railways[edit]

The classification syntaxes[edit]

The first letter (gauge)

The second letter (motive power)

  • D – diesel
  • C – DC electric (can run under DC overhead line only)
  • A – AC electric (can run under AC overhead line only)
  • CA – both DC and AC (can run under both AC and DC overhead line); 'CA' is considered a single letter
  • B – Battery electric locomotive (rare)

The third letter (job type)

  • G – goods
  • P – passenger
  • M – mixed; both goods and passenger
  • S – shunting (also known as switching engines or switchers in the USA and some other countries)
  • U – electric multiple unit (used to carry commuters in city suburbs)
  • R – Railcars

For example, in "WDM 3A":

  • "W" means broad gauge
  • "D" means diesel motive power
  • "M" means suitable for both goods and passenger service
  • "3A" means the locomotive's power is 3,100 hp ('3' stands for 3000 hp, 'A' denotes 100 hp more)

Or, in "WAP 5":

  • "W" means broad gauge
  • "A" mean AC electric traction motive power
  • "P" means suitable for Passenger service
  • "5" denotes that this locomotive is chronologically the fifth electric locomotive model used by the railways for passenger service.

Broad gauge (5 ft 6 in) locomotives used in India[edit]

Steam traction[edit]

Left:Indian Railways Preserved locomotive HPS, Right:Indian Railways class locomotive NRM WP 7200
Left:Indian Railways Preserved locomotive YP class, Right:Indian Railways class locomotive B-26

Company designs[edit]

In the nineteenth century, the various railway concessions ordered locomotives to their own specification, usually from British manufacturers. This multiplicity of similar, but different designs, increased manufacturers' costs and slowed production. During the 1890s, British manufacturers had full order books, so Indian railway companies looked to Germany and the United States for locomotives.[1]

Bengal Nagpur Railway[edit]
  • Class F – 0-6-0
  • Class GM – 2-6-0. Probably modified.
  • BNR class HSG – 2-8-0+0-8-2 Garratt homed at Bengal Nagpur Railway (BNR) now Eastern Railway and South-Eastern Railway. First successful Garratts in India.
  • Class M – 4-6-2. Probably modified.
  • BNR class N – 4-8-0+0-8-4 Garratt. Largest locomotive to run in India. Highest capacity to hold water as compared to any Garratt in the world. One is preserved at National Rail Museum, Delhi.
  • BNR class NM – 4-8-0+0-8-4 Garratt. Similar to N class. Ten built in 1931 by Beyer Peacock. Withdrawn in the late 1960s.
  • BNR class P – 4-8-2+2-8-4 Garratt. Four built by Beyer Peacock in 1939. In the early 1970s, they were at Bhilai (BIA) shed before being withdrawn.
Bombay, Baroda and Central India Railway[edit]
  • BB&CI class P – 4-6-2;
  • Class A - 2-4-0T. Probably an Atlantic. Belonged to Palej shed.
  • Class U36 – 0-4-2 used for hauling suburban trains at Mumbai.
  • Class D1 – 4-4-0. One of them named Princess May.
  • Class M – 4-6-2. Probably modified.
Eastern Bengal Railway[edit]
East Indian Railway Company[edit]
  • Class CT – 0-6-4T. Probably converted to Super-heater.
  • EIR class G – 2-2-2T. First two named Express and Fairy Queen Built in 1856, the latter is the world's oldest locomotive to be in working order. Later rebuilt by Perambur Loco Works. Housed at E.I.R.
  • EIR class P – 4-6-0;
Great Indian Peninsula Railway[edit]
  • GIPR classes Y1, Y2, Y3, and Y4 – 0-8-4T. Used on Thull ghat as bankers (for pushing trains up the ghat).
  • GIPR Class F – 2-6-0.
  • GIPR Class F3 – 2-6-0.
  • GIPR class J1 – 0-6-0
  • Class D4 – 4-6-0. One named Hero.
  • Class D5 – 4-6-0 Passenger locomotive.
  • Class E1 – 4-4-2 Atlantic built by North British Locomotive Co. Ltd between 1907-8. Rebuilt with super-heater between 1925-28.
  • Class T – Tank locomotive was used for hauling Mumbai suburban trains on G.I.P.R.
  • Class Y – 2-8-4T
  • Crane Tank – 0-6-0T. One is preserved at National Rail Museum, New Delhi.
Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway[edit]
  • M&SM class V – 4-4-0. One is preserved.
  • Class BTC – 2-6-4T. Based on BESA specifications.
  • Class T – 0-4-2 at Madras.
Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway[edit]
  • NSR class A - 2-6-0T owned by Nizam State Railway (NSR). One (No. 48) preserved at National Rail Museum,Delhi. Probably an Atlantic.
North Western Railway (British India)[edit]
  • Class EM – 4-4-2 probably modified. One preserved at National Rail Museum,Delhi.
  • NWR class GAS – 2-6-2+2-6-2 Garratt owned by North Western Railway (NWR) now most of which is in Pakistan. Only one built in 1925. Retired in 1937.
  • NWR class P – 2-4-0;
  • Class E1 – 4-4-2.
  • Class N1 – 4-8-0
Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway[edit]
  • Class B26 – 0-6-0. One preserved at National Rail Museum,Delhi.
South Indian Railway[edit]
Others[edit]
  • Class B – 2-6-0.
  • Class E – 2-4-0.
  • Class F – 2-8-2 built between 1926-1950 by Nasmyth Wilson for service on Central Railway (CR).
  • Class G – 2-6-0 probably meant for freight.
  • Class NA2
  • Class PTC – 2-6-4T owned by Delhi at Northern Railway (N.R.). Probably Converted Passenger locomotives.
  • Class Y2 – 2-8-2T. These are reclassified L2.
  • Phoenix – 0-4-0T. One is preserved at National Rail Museum, Delhi
  • Ramgotty – 2-2-0T. One is preserved at National Rail Museum, Delhi. Converted to Broad Gauge. Oldest locomotive at National Rail Museum, Delhi.
  • Sultan, Sahib and Sindh – These are the ones which hauled the legendary train from VT to Thana in 1853.

British Engineering Standards Association (BESA) designs[edit]

After acrimonious words in The Times and Parliament, the British Engineering Standards Committee (later British Engineering Standards Association or BESA) began to design a series of locomotives for use by all railways in India. The first two designs emerged in 1903: a 4-4-0 passenger, and 0-6-0 goods. The designs were revised in 1905 and 1906 with additional types added due to requests for heavier and more powerful locomotives:

These BESA designs however were advisory, not mandatory, and were customised by the railway companies to their own taste. The railway companies could not even agree to use the same classification system: only the state operated railways used the class designations SP, SG, PT, HP, AP, HG and HT. Once superheating became accepted, superheated versions were classified SPS, SGS, etc. if built with superheaters, and SPC, SGC, etc. if converted from saturated to superheated.

Indian Railways Standards (IRS) designs[edit]

After World War I, new, larger, more powerful locomotives were designed by the British consulting engineers to the Indian Government. These started to appear from 1927 onwards:

Left:Indian Railways locomotive XP class 1935, Right:Indian Railways class locomotive XB class 1927
  • Class XA – branch passenger 4-6-2 design, 12.5-ton axleload;
  • Class XB – light passenger 4-6-2 design, 17-ton axleload;
  • Class XC – heavy passenger 4-6-2 design, 19.5-ton axleload;
  • Class XD – light goods 2-8-2 design, 17-ton axleload;
  • Class XE – heavy goods 2-8-2 design, 22.5-ton axleload;
  • Class XF – light shunting 0-8-0 design, 18-ton axleload;
  • Class XG – heavy shunting 0-8-0 design, 23-ton axleload;
  • Class XH – 4-cylinder 2-8-2, 28-ton axleload (none built);
  • Class XP – experimental passenger 4-6-2, 18.5-ton axleload;
  • Class XS – experimental 4-cylinder 4-6-2, 21.5-ton axleload;
  • Class XT – light tank 0-4-2T, 15-ton axleload.

World War II designs[edit]

During World War II, large numbers of 2-8-2 locomotives were acquired from the United States and Canada, and were designated as classes AWD and CWD respectively. Several USATC S160 Class locomotives were adapted for broad gauge and became class AWC.

Indian Government Railways (IGR) standard designs[edit]

Shortly before World War II, new classes were designed; but it would post-war before many of them came into service. These new designs were signalled by the change of broad gauge prefix from 'X' to 'W'. In addition, plans were put into place to start manufacturing locomotives in India. The new classes were:

Left:Indian Railways locomotive WL class, Right:Indian Railways class locomotive YG class
Left:Model of a (decommissioned) WP Steam Locomotive at Guntur Division, Right:Model of a (decommissioned) Indian Railways steam locomotive M2-162

All broad gauge steam locomotives in India have been withdrawn from normal service, with only occasional steam specials continuing to operate.

Diesel traction[edit]

Classification codes[edit]

  • WDM – Wide Diesel Mixed
  • WDP – Wide Diesel Passenger
  • WDG – Wide Diesel Goods
  • WDS – Wide Diesel Shunter
  • WCDS – Wide Converted Diesel Shunter

Mixed type locomotives[edit]

Left:Indian Railways locomotive WDM-2, Right:Indian Railways locomotive WDM-2A (ABR)
Left:Indian Railways locomotive WDM-3D (JHS), Right:Indian Railways locomotive WDM-3A class
Left:Indian Railways locomotive WDM-3A , Right:Indian Railways locomotive WDM-4
  • WDM 1 (First mainline diesel electric locomotives used in India. Introduced in 1957. Imported from ALCO. Out of service now. 1950 hp)
  • WDM 2 (Most widely used and first homemade mainline diesel-electric locomotives in India. Original prototypes were made by ALCO. Introduced in 1962. More than 2700 have been made. Rated at 2600 hp)
  • WDM 2A,WDM 2B (Technical variants of WDM 2. WDM2A stands are dual braked and WDM2B are air braked usually)
  • WDM 2G It is the first Multi-Gen-set locomotive of Indian Railway manufactured by DLMW, Patiala in 2013. As of February 2014 only one loco has entered service and has been numbered as #80000.[2] It has been cleared for a max. speed of 105km/hr.[3]
  • WDM 3 (Only 8 were imported. They used hydraulic transmission and are currently non-functional. 2500 hp. 120kmph. Built in 1970 by Henschel & Son)
  • WDM 3A (Formerly WDM 2C. Another WDM 2 variant. It is not related to WDM 3. Max speed 120kmph. 30450kgf of tractive effort. Built since 1994)
  • WDM 3A R (Formerly WDM 2. It is a rebuilt with DBR fitted on Short Hood. It is not related to WDM 3. They are rebuilt at DLMW, Patiala)
  • WDM 3B (Co-Co bogies. Rated at 120 kmph. Homed at Uttar Pradesh sheds. 23 built by DLW. Similar to WDM3D. 3100 hp)[4]
  • WDM 3C, WDM 3D (higher powered versions of WDM 3A. 3300 hp. WDM3C is rebuilt from WDM2. WDM3C max speed 120kmph. WDM3D max speed 160kmph)
  • WDM 3E (Reclassified as WDM 3D. Restricted to freight at 105kmph. 8 units known. Manufactured by DLW. 3500 hp)
  • WDM 3F Manufactured by Diesel Locomotive Works (DLW).3600 hp.HAHS bogies. Conventional DBR. Air brake only.
  • WDM 4 (Entered service along with WDM 2. Prototypes designed by General Motors. Though considered superior to WDM 2 in many ways, these locomotives weren't chosen as General Motors did not agree to a technology transfer agreement. 2600 hp)
  • WDM 6 (Very rare class; only two were made; Exported to Sri Lanka. Rated at 1350 HP. Max speed 75kmph. 19200kgf tractive effort. Fabricated Bo-Bo bogies)
  • WDM 7 (Fifteen of these locos were built from June 1987 through 1989, they were designed for branch-line duties, but they are now used mostly for shunting. Rated at 2000 hp)

Note: No locomotive class was designated as WDM 5 in India.

Passenger locomotives[edit]

Left:Indian Railways locomotive WDP-4, Right:Indian Railways locomotive WDP-4B
Left:Indian Railways locomotive WDP-4D, Right:Indian Railways locomotive WDP-4 (KJM)
  • WDP 1 (Bo-Bo bogies. 80 tons weight. Rated speed of 140 kmph. 12 cylinder engine. 2300 hp. Built by DLW in 1970. Homed at Vijayawada and Tughlakabad sheds only.
  • WDP 2 (New class name WDP 3A. Dedicated passenger diesel locomotive. Entered service in 1998. Max speed 140kmph. Built by DLW. 29.25 tons of tractive effort. 3100 hp)[5]
  • WDP 3 (This locomotives are actually prototypes of the class WDP 1 and never entered serial production. Designed in 1996 by DLW. 2300 hp. Co-Co bogies. )
    The WDP-3A class Locomotive of Shed GOC #15515 bringing Thirukural Express to Nagercoil.
  • WDP 4 (EMD (former GM-EMD) GT46PAC, fundamentally a passenger version of the WDG 4 (GT46MAC). 4000 hp)
  • WDP 4B (EMD (former GM-EMD) GT46PAC, An improved version of the WDP 4, this is a more powerful version and has 6 traction motors, just like the WDG 4. Also comes with wider cabin to aid visibility and minor exterior design changes.As of now,serial production of the single cab locomotives has been stopped. 4500 hp)
  • WDP 4D (EMD (former GM-EMD) GT46PAC, This is basically a WDP 4B with twin cabs. Minor changes were made to the locomotive to facilitate the addition of a second cabin. This locomotive comes with LCD instrument display and toilet for the drivers. Has entered serial production and regular service. 4500 hp

Goods locomotives[edit]

Left:Indian Railways locomotive WDG-3A, Right:Indian Railways locomotive WDG-4
  • WDG 2 (New class name WDG 3A. These class is actually a technically upgraded form of WDM 2. Max speed 100kmph. Built by DLW)
  • WDG 3B, WDG 3C, WDG 3D (Technical upgraded forms of WDG 2 or WDG 3A. WDG 3B and WDG 3C are rebuilt to WDG 3A. WDG 3C is rated at 3330 hp.)[6]
  • WDG 4 (Dedicated goods locomotives. These are General motors' GT46MAC models. First units were imported in 1999. They are numbered from #12000 upward till #12999 and #70000 upwards.[7] Local production started in 2002. 4000-4500 hp)
  • WDG 4D (Technical variant of WDG4 with dual cabs. IGBT. Max speed 105kmph restricted to 100kmph. Air conditioned cabs. First dual cab freight dedicated diesel engine in India)[8]
  • WDG 5 (Another Freight dedicated Locomotive developed by Diesel Locomotive Works and Supported by Electro Motive Diesels. First unit was rolled out from DLW on 25 February 2012. They are numbered from #50001 upward (Only one produced till date). Rated at 5500 hp. Equipped with Fire Control System, TFT Display and Driver's Toilet.)Loco is still under trials in DLW, Varanasi. The locomotive/series is named 'BHEEM', after the strong Pandav brother from epic of Mahabharat. The locomotive is still undergoing trials.

Shunting locomotives (also known as switching engines)[edit]

Left:Indian Railways Shunting locomotive WDS-4D, Right:Indian Railways WDS-4 Shunting locomotive
  • WDS 1 (First widely deployed and successful diesel locomotives used in India. Imported in 1944-45. currently out of service. 386 hp)
  • WDS 2 (o-C-o bogies. 8 cylinder engine. Homed at Central Railway. Max speed 54 kmph. Built by Kraus Maffei in 1954-55. 440 hp. 15420kgf of tractive effort)
  • WDS 3 (All locomotives of this class were rebuilt and reclassified as WDS 4C in 1976-78. 618 hp. 17100kgf of tractive effort. Built in 1961)
  • WDS 4,WDS 4A,WDS 4B,WDS 4D (Designed by Chittaranjan Locomotive Works. 600-700 hp. C bogies. Built between 1968-97.)
  • WDS 4C (Rebuilt by CLW, WDS 3 locos as mentioned above. 700 hp. 18000kgf tractive effort. C bogies. Out of service. Max speed 65kmph.)
  • WDS 5 (Some of these locomotives are used for industrial shunting. A few are used on Indian Railways. Rated at 1065 hp)
  • WDS 6 (Heavy-haul shunters made in large numbers for industrial concerns as well as for Indian Railways Rated at 1200/1350 hp)
  • WDS 6R, WDS 6SL and WDS 6AD (Technical variants of WDS 6. WDS6SL is exported to Sri Lanka. WDS6AD has a max speed of 50 kmph and a 6 cylinder engine.)[9]
  • WDS 8 (Only five of these were made by CLW, and all were transferred to steel works 800 hp. Max speed 35kmph. 22000kgf tractive effort)

There were also a few hydraulic diesel shunters in use at Integral Coach Factory, Diesel Locomotive Works and Chittaranjan Locomotive Works. These were rated at 250 hp.[10]

Note: There is no electric shunting engine in India. Classes from WDS 1 to WDS 4D have hydraulic transmission. The WDS 4, 4B, 4C and 4D are the only still existing broad gauge locomotives with diesel-hydraulic transmission.

Converted locomotives[edit]

WCDS6 is a converted YDM4 locomotive into a broad gauge locomotive. This rebuilding was carried out by the Golden Rock shed. It was built for large industrial concerns. The first one was delivered to RITES. Rest being same, new water and air lines are added. They also have a modified control stand and dual brake system. Also, they have Broad Gauge bogies and under-frames.

Diesel multiple units[edit]

Left:Indian Railways DHMU, Right:Indian Railways DEMU

A few routes in India currently have Diesel multiple unit service. Depending on the transmission system they are classified as DEMU (diesel-electric transmission) or DHMU (diesel-hydraulic transmission). There are diesel railcar service in a few places known as 'railbus'.

DC electric traction[edit]

Note: These locomotives are, or were used only in sections around and in Mumbai which is the only location in India still or was using DC traction.The power operated is 1500V DC.

Mixed type locomotives[edit]

  • WCM 1 (First electric locomotives with the now familiar Co-Co wheel arrangement to be used in India. Seven built by English Electric at Vulcan Foundry in 1954–55. 3700 hp)
  • WCM 2 (Out of service. Co-Co bogies. 120 kmph speed. 12 Built by Vulcan Foundry between 1956-57. Modified by RDSO. 3120 hp)
  • WCM 3 (3600 hp. Co-Co – Used in Kolkata, then transferred to Mumbai; three built by Hitachi in 1958. Out of service. Max speed 120kmph)
  • WCM 4 (4000 hp. Co-Co – seven built by Hitachi in 1960. Out of service. Rated at 120 kmph. Meant for freight. 31300kgf tractive effort)
  • WCM 5 (Built by Chittaranjan locomotive works to RDSO's design specifications. Auxiliaries by Westinghouse and North Boyce. Built in 1962, these are India's first indigenously designed DC electric locomotives. The first was named Lokamanya after the freedom fighter Bal Gangadhar Tilak. 3700 hp Co-Co.)
  • WCM 6 (5000 hp, only two were built in 1995 by CLW. Now converted to run on AC power. 105kmph initially now restricted to 65kmph )

Passenger locomotives[edit]

Preserved WCP1
  • WCP 1, WCP 2 (GIPR EA/1 and EA/2. Historically very important locomotives as these are the very first electric loco to be used in India. The first locomotive was named as Sir Roger Lumley and is currently preserved in the National Rail Museum, New Delhi. Swiss Locomotive and Machine Works (SLM) built one in 1928 and 21 in 1930 (WCP1), and one in 1938 (WCP2). 1′Co2′ wheel arrangement; 2160 hp)
  • WCP 3, WCP 4 (GIPR EB/1 and EC/1, these are also among the earliest electric locos used in India. One of each class built by Hawthorn Leslie and Company in 1928; 2′Co2′ wheel arrangement.)

Goods locomotives[edit]

Preserved WCG1

Electric multiple units[edit]

Mumbai suburban Railway EMU
  • WCU 1 to WCU 15 (Used in Mumbai region only)

AC electric traction[edit]

The 25 kV AC system with overhead lines is used throughout the rest of the country.

Mixed type locomotives[edit]

  • WAM 1 (Among the first AC electric locomotives used in India. Introduced in 1959. Now out of service. 3010 hp. Max speed 112kmph)
  • WAM 2 (Out of service. Bo-Bo Bogies. Max speed 112 kmph. Built by Mitsubishi between 1960-64. 2910 hp. 25240kgf tractive effort)
  • WAM 3 (Out of service. Bo-Bo bogies. Same as WAM 2 except for reverse pantographs. Built in 1964 by Mitsubishi)
  • WAM 4 (Indigenously designed by Chittaranjan Locomotive Works in 1970. Highly powerful class. One of the most successful locomotives in India. 3850 hp)
  • WAM 4B, WAM 4P, WAM 4PD, WAM 4PR, WAM 4PDBHS, WAM 46PD, WAM 4PDB3P, WAM 42S3P, WAM 46PDBHS, WAM 46PE, WAM 4G, WAM 4H and WAM 4E (Technical variants of WAM4)

Passenger locomotives[edit]

Left:Indian Railways class WAM-4 (ET), Right:Indian Railways class WAM-4 (MGS)
Indian Railways class WAP-7
Indian Railways class WAP-4
  • WAP 1 (Designed by Chittaranjan locomotive works in 1980 for the Kolkata-Delhi Rajdhani Express. A very successful class. 3900 hp)
  • WAP 2 (Decommissioned in the late 1980s. Similar to WAM2 & 3. 4 built. Also had Flexicoil Mark -ll bogies. 2910 hp. Only 4 units built)
  • WAP 3 (Rebuilt to WAP-1. Similar to WAP-1. Approximated speed of 160 kmph restricted to 145 kmph. 5 Built since 1987.)
  • WAP 4 (Upgraded from WAP 1 for higher loads by Chittaranjan locomotive works in 1994. One of the most successful locomotives in India. Very powerful class. 5350 hp)
  • WAP 5 (Imported in 1995 from Switzerland and used on premier express trains. 5450 hp)
  • WAP 6 (Out of service. Max speed 170 kmph. 16 built by Chittaranjan Locomotive Works in 1997. 5350 hp.)
  • WAP 7 (Same design as WAG 9 with modified gear ratio. Highly powerful class. 6250 hp. Max speed 205 kmph. Built by CLW since 2000)[13]
  • WAP 7D (Technical variant of WAP 7. A proposed design. IGBT. Lighter than WAP 7. The 'D' would probably stand for dual brakes. Likely to have 7000 hp).

Goods locomotives[edit]

Indian Railways class WAG-1 (BZA)
Left:Indian Railways class WAG-7 (old Variant), Right:Indian Railways class WAG-7 (New Livery)
Left:Indian Railways class WAG-5 (JHS) , Right:Indian Railways class WAG-5 (VSKP)
  • WAG 1 (Out of service after 2002. B-B bogies. Max speed 80 kmph. Built by several builders between 1963-66. 2930 hp. First freight dedicated locomotive under AC traction)
  • WAG 1S (Technical variants of WAG 1)
  • WAG 2 ( Out of service. B-B bogies. Max speed 80 kmph. WAP 2 are technical variants of WAG 2. Built by several builders between 1964-65. 3450 hp)
  • WAG 3 (Out of service. Monomotor bogies. Max speed 80 kmph. 10 Built in 1965. 3590 hp. 30000kgf tractive effort. Above 6000 tons hauling capacity up to 70kmph on level track)[14]
  • WAG 3A (Technical variant of WAG 3)
  • WAG 4 (Out of service. B-B bogies. Max speed 80 kmph. Technical variants are WAG 4A,D. Built by Chittaranjan Locomotive Works between 1966-71. 3590 hp)
  • WAG 5 (The most successful electric locomotives in India. Designed by Chittaranjan locomotive works in 1984. More than 1100 were made. 3850 hp)
  • WAG 5A,WAG 5B,WAG 5D,WAG 5E,WAG 5H,WAG 5HA,WAG 5HB,WAG 5HD,WAG 5HE,WAG 5PE,WAG 5RH. (Technical variants of WAG 5)
  • WAG 6A (Imported from Allmänna Svenska Elektriska Aktiebolaget(ASEA). 6110 hp. Max speed 100kmph. Bo-Bo-Bo Bogies. The most powerful non-3 phase AC electric locomotives in India)
  • WAG 6B,WAG 6C (Variants of WAG 3A. Built by Hitachi in 1988. Regenerative brakes. 44950kgf tractive effort. Upgradeable to 160kmph)
  • WAG 7 (Very successful class. Built by CLW and BHEL. 5350 hp. 41000kgf. Max speed 100kmph. 123tons in weight)
  • WAG 7H (Technical variant of WAG7 with 132tons of weight and 45000kgf of tractive effort. Two units built)
  • WAG 8 (Out of service. Similar in looks to WCAM 2 and technically to WCAM 3. Built by BHEL in 1998. Experimental class)
  • WAG 9 (Currently the most powerful class in India, rated at 6350 hp. Same design as WAP 7 with modified gear ratio. Designed by Adtranz, Switzerland.)
  • WAG 9H, WAG9i and WAG9Hi (Technical variants of WAG9. WAG9H is the heavier version. WAG9i is the one fitted with IGBT traction converters. WAG9Hi is probably a combination of WAG9H and WAG9i)[12]

Electric multiple units[edit]

  • WAU 1 to WAU 4
Left:Chennai EMU, Right:Hyderabad MMTS

Dual (both AC and DC) traction[edit]

Note: These locomotives are used only in sections around Mumbai. They can run under AC traction too. The main purpose behind the manufacture of these type of locomotives was to provide transportation in and out Mumbai area without changing the engine.

Mixed type locomotives[edit]

Left:Indian Railways locomotive WCAM-2P, Right:Indian Railways locomotive WCAM-3
  • WCAM 1 (Designed by Chittaranjan Locomotive works, total 53 were built and supplied between 1975-79. All owned by Western Railway)
  • WCAM 2/2P (Designed by Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, total 20 were built and supplied between 1995-96. Tested 135kmph under AC)
  • WCAM 3(50 Designed by Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. 4600 hp under DC traction and 5000 hp under AC traction. All owned by Central Railway)

Goods locomotives[edit]

  • WCAG 1 (12 Designed by Bharat heavy electricals limited between 1999-00. 2930 hp under DC traction and 4720 hp under AC traction. )

Note:There is no dedicated dual current passenger locomotive in India, but in Mumbai area, there are some EMUs which can run under dual traction.

Battery traction[edit]

In 1927, English Electric and WBC built 2 shunters for use in yards at Bombay(now Mumbai). They had Bo-Bo bogies. Rated at 240 hp. They weighed 58 tons.[15]

Metre Gauge (3 ft 3⅜ in) locomotives used in India[edit]

Steam traction[edit]

Company types[edit]

BESA designs[edit]

Wartime designs[edit]

Indian Railway Standards designs[edit]

  • Class YA – 4-6-2 with 9-ton axleload (none built);
  • Class YB – 4-6-2 with 10-ton axleload
  • Class YC – 4-6-2 with 12-ton axleload
  • Class YD – 2-8-2 with 10-ton axleload
  • Class YE – 2-8-2 with 12-ton axleload (none built)
  • Class YF – 0-6-2; later examples were 2-6-2
  • Class YK – 2-6-0 version of the 2-6-2 YF
  • Class YL – 2-6-2
  • Class YT – light 0-4-2T
  • Class YG – 2-8-2 goods locomotive
  • Class YP – 4-6-2 passenger locomotive

Diesel traction (mixed type only)[edit]

Left:Indian Railways locomotive YDM-1, Right:Indian Railways locomotive YDM-4

Currently all diesel locomotives except YDM-4 and YDM-4A are supposed to be withdrawn from service.

Electric traction[edit]

Electric locomotives[edit]

Metre-gauge electric loco - YAM1
  • YCG 1 (These locomotives are among the earliest electric locomotives in India. This class was imported to serve the Chennai area in the early 1930s.)
  • YAM 1 (These locomotives were in service until 2002 around Chennai. 1740 hp) 20 were Imported from Japan

Electric multiple units[edit]

  • YAU class (First EMU service in India. Introduced in the 1920s in Chennai area)

Narrow Gauge (2 ft 6 in and 2 ft) locomotives used in India[edit]

Steam traction (2 ft 6 in)[edit]

Company designs[edit]

Indian Railway Standards designs[edit]

  • Class ZA – 2-6-2 with 4.5-ton axleload (none built);
  • Class ZB – 2-6-2 with 6-ton axleload;
  • Class ZC – 2-8-2 with 6-ton axleload (none built);
  • Class ZD – 4-6-2 with 8-ton axleload (none built);
  • Class ZE – 2-8-2 with 8-ton axleload;
  • Class ZF – 2-6-2T with 8-ton axleload

Steam traction (2 ft)[edit]

Company designs[edit]

Indian Railway Standards designs[edit]

  • QA – 2-6-2 with 4.5-ton axleload (none built).
  • QB – 2-6-2 with 6-ton axleload (none built);
  • QC – 2-8-2 with 6-ton axleload (none built).

Diesel traction (2 ft 6 in) (mixed type only)[edit]

Left:Indian Railways locomotive ZDM-3, Right:Indian Railways locomotive ZDM-5
  • ZDM 1
  • ZDM 2
  • ZDM 3 (Later rebuilt as ZDM 4C class)
  • ZDM 4
  • ZDM 4A
  • ZDM 4B, 4C, 4D
  • ZDM 5

Diesel traction (2 ft) (mixed type only)[edit]

NDM-1 Diesel loco on the Matheran Hill Railway
ZDM4A at Rajim

Battery traction[edit]

NBM 1 – designed by BHEL in 1987; powered by battery.

Note: All narrow gauge locomotives in India are mixed type locomotives.

Special names[edit]

  • Antim Sitara — (“Final Star” in Hindi) Last broad-gauge steam locomotive (WP) produced in India.
  • Abhinav - Named to the first WAP6 initially now rebuilt to a WAP4 numbered 22401 homed at Howrah(HWH) shed
  • Airavat - Named to some WDG-4's which belong to Gooty Diesel locomotive shed. These are named after Lord Indra's white elephant.
  • Baaz - (Bird of prey in Hindi) Mainly two WDP 4's 20011 & 20012 are called BAAZ, WDP-4's 20000-20009 also have the name stencilled on them in the side.
  • Baba Saheb - Named to a WAP-1 numbered 22021 homed at Royapuram(RPM) shed which is named after B. R. Ambedkar. It was the 110th electric locomotive of the year 1990-91.
  • Vallabh-Named to first WCAM1 #21800 now no longer in service. It means beloved. WCAM1 is also the first bi-current charged locomotive class in India.
  • Balwant - Named to first WCAM2 #21861. It means strong. WCAM2 was the most powerful bi-current charged locomotive class in India at the time.
  • Cheetah - Named to some Broad Gauge locomotives. They include a WDM3A #16612, WAG5H #24404, WAP4E #22541, WAP4 #22382 and some WDM3Ds.
  • Gajraj - Named to some Broad Gauge locomotives. They include some WAG7s and ALCo(American Locomotive Company) based locomotives.
  • Gajodhar
  • Garuda - Named to first Microprocessor controlled WDG-2a reclassified as WDG3A. It means eagle. This name is no longer in use. They had an unusual livery.
  • Jagjivan Ram - Named WAM-1 which is named after India's ex-Railway Minister Babu Jagjivan Ram.[24]
  • Jawahar - Named to the first WAP3 later rebuilt to a WAP1 #22005 homed at Arrakonam(AJJ) shed which is named after India's first prime minister Jawahar Lal Nehru.
  • Krishnaveni - Named to a WAG-5E #23989 homed at Vijayawada(BZA) shed. It is named after Krishna River. It has a modified shell and single windscreen on either sides.
  • Navodit - Named to first natively produced 3-phase Electric Passenger locomotive WAP-5 #30011 homed at Ghaziabad(GZB) shed. It means 'New shining'.
  • Nav Jagran - Named to a WAP-5 # 30012 homed at GZB shed. It means 'New awakening'. It is the second indigenously produced 3-phase electric locomotive by CLW.
  • Gaurav - Named to some electric locomotives. It means pride. They include a WAP5 #30044 homed at Vadodara(BRC) shed and a WAP6 #22404 now rebuilt to WAP4.
  • Nav Shakti - Named to a WAG-9 #31030 homed at GMO shed. It was a prototype for WAG9H but it was later rebuilt to a standard WAG9. It has twin white stripes in the livery.
  • Nav yug - (New era in Hindi) Named to first natively produced 3-phase Electric Goods locomotive: WAG-9. It is numbered 31022 homed at GMO shed.
  • Prabal - Named to some ALCo based locomotives which belongs/belonged to Lucknow(LKO) Shed. They include WDM3A, WDM2A, WDM2B, WDM2, WDM3D, WDG3A and WDM3B.
  • Prayas - Named to a WAG-7 #27512 homed at Kanpur(CNB) shed located in the Allahabad division of Railways. It has a Silver livery. It looks unlike any other WAG7.
  • Pushpak - Named to some WDP-3As homed at Tughlaqabad(TKD) shed of Northern Railway zone on Kanpur-Delhi section in Delhi. It means floriculture.
  • Rajhans - Named to some Passenger dedicated electric locomotives built by CLW. It means 'Royal Swan'. They include some WAP1s and a WAP4E # 22540.
  • Airavat - Named to a WAP-4e #22393 which belongs to Vadodara Shed at Sayajigunj of Western Railway zone in Gujarat. It has an unusual Red/Grey livery.
  • Mayur - Named to a WAP-4e #22678 which belongs to Vadodara Shed. It means peacock. It is the first locomotive built by CLW in the year 2007.
  • Pawanhans - Named to a WAP-4e #22234 which belongs to Vadodara Shed. It means 'Air Swan'. It has been fitted with three compressors.
  • Arjun - Named to a WAP-4e #22604 which belongs to Vadodara Shed. It is the name of the lead character in Mahabharata. It is the first WAP4 allotted to the shed with roof-mounted headlamps.
  • Panther -Named to WAP-4e #22335 which belongs to Vadodara Shed.
  • Sahyattri - Named to a WAP-4e #22286 which belongs to Howrah(HWH) Shed of Eastern Railway zone in West Bengal at Howrah. It means co-passenger.
  • Samrat - Named to a WAG-7 #27455 homed at TKD shed. It means emperor. It looks unlike any other WAG7.
  • Shakthi - (Power in Hindi) Named to Some Micro-processor controlled WDG-3A locomotives. This name is still used unlike Garuda.
  • Shantidan - Named to first WAG-7 #27001 homed at GMO shed (29 March 1992) (christened by Mother Teresa). It means 'Gift of peace'.
  • Sukh Sagar Naveen - Named to a WAM-4BDR #20420 (not in service). It means 'New sea of happiness'. It is the first WAM4 allotted to the BZA shed and also the first WAM4 with a BDR sub-class.
  • Tiger Face - Refers to those WAG-7 locomotives which have red and white stripes on their front and painted red, white, blue. This was their original livery.
  • Velociti - Named to some ALCo based locomotives homed at Vatva(VTA) shed. It includes WDM3D and WDM3A. The name probably has the same meaning as velocity.
  • Tez - Named to some WDM3Ds in 111xx series which were previously homed at Gonda(GD) shed in Gonda district in Uttar Pradesh(UP). It means fast in Hindi.
  • Natraj - Named to a WDG4 numbered 12119 homed at Hubli(UBL) shed at Hubli in Dharwad district in Karnataka. It is the name of an Indian Goddess of dance.
  • Neelkanth - Named to a WDG4 numbered 12169 homed at UBL shed. It has been fitted with Distributed Power System(DPS). It is a name of Lord Shiva.
  • Maruraj - Named to some WDG4s homed at Bhagat Ki Kothi(BGKT) shed of North Western Railway zone in Rajasthan near Jodhpur.
  • Ajeet Maruraj - Named to a WDG4 numbered 12192 homed at BGKT shed. Ajeet means invincible.
  • Amit - Named to a WDG4 numbered 12195 homed at BGKT shed. It means Infinite.
  • Gir Lions - Named to some Sabarmati(SBI) shed WDG4s of Western Railway zone of Ahmedabad division in Gujarat. Gir is a name of a National Park.
  • Kaushal - Named to a WDG4 numbered 12253 homed at SBI shed. It means perfect. It is the first WDG4 built rated at 4500 hp built indigenously at DLW.
  • Vijay - Named to a WDG4D numbered 12681 homed at SBI shed. It has twin cabs and an unusual livery. It is the latest class of locomotives. It means victory.
  • Chetak - Named to some broad gauge locomotives. It is the name of Maharana Pratap's renowned horse. It includes a WDP1, WAP4E, WAG5A and some WAG5s, WAG5HEs,
  • Awadh - Named to a some WDM3As homed at Gonda(GD) shed. It was the name of a kingdom.[25]
  • Firex - Named to some American Locomotive Company based locomotives homed at Jhansi(JHS) shed of North Central Railway zone. It includes some WDM3As and WDM2As.
  • Sher Punjab - Named to a WDM3A numbered 16370 homed at Ludhiana(LDH) shed. It has an Orange/Dark Blue with white stripes livery. Sher means Lion.
  • Prachand - Named to WDM2A numbered 16852 homed at GD shed at Gonda, Uttar Pradesh. It means huge.
  • Deshbandhu - Named to a WDM2 numbered 17279 withdrawn from service. It means country brother. It is the first WDM2 of Andal shed withdrawn from service.
  • Kundan - Named to a WDM2 numbered 18233 preserved at Diesel Locomotive Works. It is the first WDM2 built on kits supplied by ALCo. Named after a form of a traditional Indian gemstone jewellery.
  • Veer - Named to a WDM3A numbered 18745R homed at JHS shed at Jhansi in UP under Jhansi division. It means brave. It is the first WDM2 rebuild of its shed.
  • Indraprastha - Named to a WDS4A numbered 19057 preserved at Regional Rail Museum, Howrah. It was the name of a city in which Pandavas lived.
  • Swachchata - Named to a WDS4D numbered 19571 homed at Beliaghata(BGA) shed at Kolkata. It has been fitted with mechanized track apron cleaning system.
  • Subhash - Named to a WDS4D numbered 19577 homed at BGA shed at Sealdah railway station in West Bengal. It is named after Subhas Chandra Bose.
  • Viraam - Named to a WDS4D numbered 19732 which was scrapped in October 2011. It was the last WDS4 produced. It means end. It was homed at Kurla(CLA) shed.
  • Aravali - Named to some WDP4s homed at BGKT shed. It is named after a mountain range running through the Rajasthan which is close to the shed.
  • Agni - Named to a WDP4 numbered 20090 homed at BGKT shed. It means fire. It is the first locomotive produced by DLW in July 2009.
  • Vikram - Named to a WDP4 numbered 20092 homed at BGKT shed. It means victory. It is the last WDP4 allotted to BGKT shed.
  • Rajatabha - Named to a WAM4G numbered 20401 which is scrapped. It was the first WAM4G. It was homed at Bhilai(BIA) shed of Durg district in Chhattishgarh.
  • Surubhi - Named to a WAM4P numbered 20615 which is scrapped. It is the name of Goddess Lakshmi. It was homed at Asansol(ASN) shed in West Bengal.
  • Navchetna - Named to a WAM46P numbered 21380 homed at Asansol(ASN) shed. It means new feeling. First WAM4 at this shed to be fitted with SI unit and Microprocessor.
  • Anant - Named to a WAM46P numbered 21399 homed at Bhusaval(BSL) shed of Central Railway zone at Bhusawal. It means infinite. The last WAM4 to be built.
  • Ravindra - Named to a WAP1 numbered 22043 homed at GZB shed. It means 'Lord of the Sun'. It is the first WAP1 fitted with SI unit with top-mounted headlamps at this shed.
  • Vidyasagar - Named to a WAP1 numbered 22058 homed at Royapuram(RPM) shed of Southern Railway zone in Chennai. It means 'Sea of knowledge'.
  • Aastha - Named to a WAP1 numbered 22076 homed at GZB shed at Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh in UP. It means faith. It was the last WAP1 produced.
  • Swarnanjali - Named to a WAP4 numbered 22242 homed at HWH shed. It means 'Gold Offerings to God'. It is the first WAP4 in the Red with yellow stripe livery.
  • Louhapurush - Named to a WAP4E numbered 22333 homed at BRC shed. It means 'Iron Man'. Named after Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. The locomotive has a unique road number.
  • Yugantar - Named to a WAP4 numbered 22591 homed at GZB shed. It means ever-lasting. It is the first WAP4 to be fitted with top-mounted headlamps along with Microprocessor control.
  • Avtar - Named to a WAP4 numbered 22615 homed at GZB shed in Ghaziabad district, India. It means same as Avatar. It has been fitted with static converter.
  • Khandesh - Named to a WAP4E numbered 22680 homed at BSL shed. It refers to the north-western portion of Maharashtra state where the locomotive runs.
  • Ranjeet - Named to a WAP4 numbered 22688 homed at GZB shed. It means 'Battle Victory'. It is the first WAP4 produced in 2007 without a sub-class 'E'.
  • Ajit - Named to some WAP4s homed at GZB shed. It means invincible. These are the first WAP4 fitted simultaneously with Roof-mounted headlamps and DBRs, SI unit and Microprocessor.
  • Kewal - Named to a WAP4 numbered 22692 homed at LDH shed at Ludhiana in Ludhiana district in Punjab. It means 'Only'.
  • Rajinder - Named to a WAP4 numbered 22699 homed at GZB shed at Daulatpura. It means 'Lord of Kings'. It has WAP5 type cabin windows.
  • Davendra - Named to a WAP4 numbered 22700 homed at GZB shed under Delhi division at Kanpur-Delhi section. It means 'Lord of Gods'. It is fitted with SIV.
  • Satya Pal - Named to a WAP4 numbered 22707 homed at BSL shed.It means 'Protected by truth'. It is the first locomotive produced by CLW in the second quarter of the financial year 2007-08.
  • Priyadarshini - Named to a WAG5A numbered 23080 homed at BSL shed at Howrah-Nagpur-Mumbai line in Maharashtra in Jalgaon district. It means 'Delightful to look at'.
  • Basanti - Named to a WAG5A numbered 23122 homed at BRC shed at Vadodara in Vadodara district on Mumbai-New Delhi route.. It means spring.
  • Nouvion - Named to a WAG5A numbered 23141 homed at BIA shed at Bhilai. Commissioned by Sir Ferdinand Nouvion(pioneer of 25kV AC traction in India).
  • Janmashati - Named to a WAG5RH numbered 23356 homed at ASN shed. It means 'Birth Centenary'. It is built in the birth centenary year of Jawaharlal Nehru.
  • Ajay - Named to a WAG5RH numbered 23357 homed at ASN shed. It means invincible. It is the first locomotive built in the year 1989-90 at Chittaranjan Locomotive Works.
  • Kirtimaan - Named to a WAG5RH numbered 23456 homed at ASN shed at Asansol in Bardhaman district. It means record. The locomotive has a unique road number.
  • Ekta - Named to a WAG7 numbered 27006 homed at Mughalsarai(MGS) shed at Mughalsarai under East Central Railway zone and Mughalsarai division in UP. It means unity.
  • Karamvir - Named to a WAG7 numbered 27116 homed at Bondamunda(BNDM) shed. It means 'Brave in deeds'. It is the first WAG7 homed at this shed.
  • Swarna Abha - Named to few WAG7s homed at New Katni(NKJ) shed under West Central Railway zone at Katni in Madhya Pradesh. It means 'Golden shine'.
  • Sarvottam - Named to a WAG7 numbered 27425 homed at CNB shed. It means 'Best of all'. It is the first WAG7 homed at this shed with a Microprocessor control.
  • Samarpan - Named to a WAG7 numbered 27430 homed at GMO shed at Gomoh under East Central Railway zone and Dhanbad division. It means dedication.
  • Cauvery - Named to few WAG7s homed at Erode(ED) shed. They are named after a river. These are the first locomotives at this shed fitted with Vertical DBR.
  • Navkirti - Named to a WAP5 numbered 30013 homed at GZB shed under Northern Railway zone. It means 'New fame'. It is built using a damaged WAP5's sphere parts.
  • Vijay Utkarsh - Named to a WAP5 numbered 30015 homed at GZB shed. It means 'Success progress'. Fourth WAP5 built by Chittaranjan Locomotive Works.
  • Nav Kiran - Named to a WAP7 numbered 30201 homed at GZB shed. It means 'New ray(of light)'. It is the first WAP7 built.
  • Nav Bharati - Named to a WAP7 numbered 30202 homed at BIA shed. It means 'New recruitment'. It is the second WAP7 built.
  • Nav Chetak - Named to a WAP7 numbered 30209 homed at GZB shed. It means 'New Chetak (horse)'.
  • Nav Gati - Named to a WAP7 numbered 30215 homed at GZB shed. It means 'New speed'.
  • Nav Jyoti - Named to a WAG9 numbered 31023 homed at GMO shed in Dhanbad district in Jharkhand. It means 'New Flame'. It is the second indigenously built WAG9.
  • Nav Disha - Named to a WAG9 numbered 31024 homed at GMO shed on Grand Chord. It means 'New Direction'. It is the third indigenously built WAG9.
  • Navoday - Named to a WAG9 numbered 31033 homed at Ajni shed at Nagpur. It means 'New rise'. It is the first indigenously built WAG9 homed at this shed.
  • Nav Ghanshakti - Named to a WAG9 numbered 31058 homed at GMO shed. It means 'New dense power'.
  • Navshatak - Named to a WAG9 numbered 31100 homed at Ajni shed near Ajni railway station in Maharashtra. It means 'New century'. It is the 100th WAG9 built.
  • Nav Pragati - Named to few WAG9s in the 311xx series which are or were homed at Lallaguda(LGD) shed at Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh. It means 'New progress'.
  • Naveen - Named to a few WAG9is homed at Gomoh(GMO) shed. They are fitted with Inverted Gate Bi-polar Transistors(IGBT) traction converters. It means new.
  • Prateek - Named to a WDP4B numbered 40079 homed at Tughlakabad(TKD) shed. It is built as a Golden Jubilee celebration locomotive of Diesel Locomotive Works.
  • Yugantar - named to a KANPUR[CNB] WAP4 22591.YUGANTAR MEANS English meaning 'New Era'.
  • Gajraj - Named to WDM3D/WDM3B class type locos. GAJRAJ means Elephant'.
  • Pushpak - Named to WDP3A loco class from TKD shed.Pushpak means Mythical vehicle of lord Vishnu'.
  • MAHABALI - Named to WDG4 loco class homed to Andal(UDL) Means More Powerful'.

Image Gallery[edit]

Diesel Locomotives[edit]

Electric Locomotives[edit]

Multiple Units[edit]

Research and Development[edit]

Diesel Locomotives in Indian Railways are now fitted with Auxiliary Power Units which saves nearly 88% of Fuel during the idle time when train is not running.[26]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Hughes, Hugh (1976). Steam in India. Truro, Cornwall: D. Bradford Barton Ltd. ISBN 0851532586. 
  • Hughes, Hugh (1979). Steam locomotives in India, Part 3 – Broad Gauge. Harrow, Middlesex: The Continental Railway Circle. ISBN 0-9503469-4-2. 
  • Hughes, Hugh (1990). Indian Locomotives: Part 1 – Broad Gauge 1851–1940. Harrow, Middlesex: The Continental Railway Circle. ISBN 0-9503469-8-5. 
  • Hughes, Hugh (1992). Indian Locomotives: Part 2 – Metre Gauge 1872–1940. Harrow, Middlesex: The Continental Railway Circle. ISBN 0-9503469-9-3. 
  • Hughes, Hugh (1994). Indian Locomotives: Part 3 – Narrow Gauge 1863–1940. Harrow, Middlesex: The Continental Railway Circle. ISBN 0-9521655-0-3. 
  • Hughes, Hugh (1996). Indian Locomotives: Part 4 – 1941–1990. Harrow, Middlesex: The Continental Railway Circle. ISBN 0-9521655-1-1. 
  • Marshall, Lawrence G (2001). Indian Narrow Gauge Steam Remembered. East Harling, Norfolk: Plateway Press. ISBN 1871980488. 
  • Marshall, Lawrence G (2005). Indian Metre Gauge Steam Remembered. East Harling, Norfolk: Plateway Press. ISBN 1871980542. 
  • Marshall, Lawrence G (2009). Indian Broad Gauge Steam Remembered. East Harling, Norfolk: Taverner Publications. ISBN 9781901470154. 

External links[edit]