Locomotives of New Zealand

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Locomotives of New Zealand currently in operation owned by KiwiRail consist of 172 diesel-electric locomotives, 22 electric locomotives, 3 railcars, and 103 shunting locomotives. There are also 19 diesel multiple units in Auckland, owned by Auckland Transport, 71 electric multiple units owned by the Greater Wellington Regional Council, 57 electric multiple units under construction for Auckland Transport, and diesel-electric and steam locomotives and railcars in working order owned by private companies or preservation societies.

All New Zealand's main-line locomotives are 1067 mm (3 foot 6 inch) gauge.

Classification details[edit]

The locomotives of KiwiRail and its predecessors are divided into classes. Each class was designed to perform specific duties. A class can be as small as one individual locomotive, and the largest class to run on New Zealand rails was the DA class, which comprised 146 locomotives.

20 new DL class Chinese-built diesel electric locomotives arrived in mid-2012.

Steam locomotives (which were retired from regular service by the end of October 1971) were originally categorised with just a single letter, such as the "F class". When a new class was built as an enhancement of an old class, the old class's letter was re-used, followed by a superscript upper-case letter. For example, the 1906 A class was followed by the AA and AB classes.

Diesel-electric and electric locomotive classifications originally consisted of an upper-case D or E respectively followed by a second and sometimes a third (sub-class) letter. The second and third letters are sometimes represented as smaller-sized upper case (for example, as seen on many locomotive cab-side number plates).

Diesel and diesel-electric classes appear to have originally been classified, after the first class letter ('D' as alluded to above), by the second letter being allocated to indicate the country of manufacture (for example DA for the American EMD designs, which were also, later, built in Canada and Australia; DE for England or 'English Electric'; DJ for the Mitsubishi units from Japan). Whilst this was a reasonable starting point, such issues as the introduction of 'sister models' and sub-classing caused by rebuild and refurbishment resulted in the pragmatic, contiguous use of other class letters. For example the eight-cylinder version of the DA class became the DB class, and was later rebuilt as the DBR. When the DA class rebuilding began, the rebuilt locomotives became the DC class. Following the DJ there was a large gap in the classification continuum as NZR took a different tack and catalogued their new GE power as the DX class and then (because the original DFs had since been withdrawn) new Canadian-built EMD units took over the DF classification.

There are exceptions, and new classes were not always given the classification that alphabetically followed that of the previous class that had most recently been acquired. If an entire class had been withdrawn from service and the classification no longer in use, it was sometimes re-used; for example, two A classes exist, one from 1873 and one from 1906.

Traffic Monitoring System[edit]

Following the introduction of the computer-based Traffic Monitoring System (TMS) and consequent renumbering, classes were identified by the two upper-case letters with the first letter remaining D or E respectively and sub-classes being indicated by a third upper-case letter, such as DAA (DA modified for hump shunting), DAR (DA with rebuilt superstructure), DFT (DF with turbo-conversion), DXR (rebuilt DX), DQ (EMD units imported from Queensland), QR (EMD units imported from Queensland and placed into service unrebuilt - this non-standard classification originally intended to be temporary as these units were intended to eventually undergo rebuild). Most diesel-electric shunting locomotives have a three-letter classification with DS as the first two letters, following on from the original diesel-electric shunting class that was known simply as the DS class.

For electric locomotives the second letter often referred to where the locomotive was based, such as EC in Christchurch, EO in Otira and EW in Wellington. The ED and EF classes were an exception. The EM class in Wellington possibly stands for Electric Motor. ET is Electric Trailer. The DM class units were an exception to this.

Almost all railcars were classified RM (Rail Motor), and individual classes were known by alternate names such as the Vulcan railcars of the South Island and the Wairarapa railcars that ran over the Rimutaka Incline to the Wairarapa.

Liveries[edit]

New Zealand's locomotives have appeared in several different liveries over the ages. Steam locomotives were mainly black. When the railcars and first-generation diesels came in, they were painted in "carnation red" with a white or yellow stripe.

In the 1970s the first different livery appeared. Eleven members of the DJ class were painted "Southerner Blue" (mainly dark blue) to haul the Southerner express in the South Island. The Silver Fern railcars appeared in stainless steel, and the DX class, appearing in 1972, were painted "clockwork orange" (orange and yellow). In 1978, the rebuilt DC class appeared in "fruit salad" (red, yellow, grey and black), and many locomotives followed suit. Following the split of New Zealand Rail Limited from the New Zealand Railways Corporation in 1991, a modified livery of blue, yellow, grey and black appeared. For the first time, locomotives wore the name of their operator - New Zealand Rail - in prominent view. This livery was continued after 1993 when New Zealand Rail Limited was privatised, and was slightly modified when the company was renamed Tranz Rail in 1995 by replacing the New Zealand Rail logo with the new Tranz Rail logo and using a different tone of blue, known after Wellington-based creators, Cato Partners, who also designed brands for the divisions of Tranz Rail.[1]

In 2001 a new livery to promote level crossing safety was trialed on DC 4323. This colour scheme was nicknamed "bumble bee" because of its black and yellow colours. Following the takeover of Tranz Rail by Australia's Toll Holdings in 2004, Toll Rail's livery appeared, nicknamed "corn cob", consisting of green and yellow. That same year, DC class (and now DFT/DFB class) locomotives being used on Auckland commuter services began wearing the MAXX livery, which was dark blue and yellow with a MAXX logo on the side. When the New Zealand Government bought Toll NZ's rail and sea operations in 2008, it rebranded them as KiwiRail and introduced its own livery, consisting of grey and red (a second version later followed). Most of today's locomotives are painted in "fruit salad", blue, "bumble bee", "corn cob" or KiwiRail.

List of locomotive classes[edit]

This is a list of all classes of locomotives that operate or have operated on New Zealand's national railway network. It does not include locomotives used on private industrial lines or bush tramways. It is believed to be complete, and is sorted in alphabetical order rather than within type. Articles on specific individual classes can be accessed from this page.

Diesel-electric locomotives[edit]

(This list includes shunting classes. Some shunting classes worked on revenue services as well as performing yard shunting duties, most notably the DE class when it hauled Queen Elizabeth II's royal train in the early 1950s.)

Image Class Numbers Number in class Year(s) introduced Year(s) withdrawn Power output Notes
TMS (1980) pre-1980 TMS (1980) pre-1980
DA1400.jpg DA DA 86 - 996 1400 - 1545 146 1955 - 1967 1974 - 1989 1,060 kW (1,420 hp) 85 rebuilt as DC class, 5 as DAA, 1 as DAR
DAA DAA 11 - 63 1400 - 1404, 1406 5 1971 1989 1,060 kW (1,420 hp) DA class refitted for low speed running
Tollnz DAR.jpg DAR 517 1 1989 2009 1,060 kW (1,420 hp) Modified DA designed for heavy duty shunting
DB DB 1001 - 1180 1000 - 1016 17 1965 - 1966 1980 - 1989 705 kW (945 hp) 10 rebuilt as DBR
DBR 1199 at Westfield.jpg DBR 1199 - 1295 10 1980 - 1982 2002 - present 705 kW (945 hp) Rebuilt DB
MAXX Train DC4254.jpg DC DC 4006 - 4951 1551 - 1599 85 1978 - 1983 1992 - present 1,100 kW (1,500 hp) 1,230 kW (1,650 hp) Rebuilt DA, two types, one with 12-645C engines, and one with 12-645E engines.
DCP4818 Wairarapa.jpg DCP 4277 - 4945 14 still in use 1,230 kW (1,650 hp) DC designated for passenger services
NZR Class DE 504.JPG DE DE 1308 - 1458 501 - 515 15 1952 1984 - 1989 490 kW (660 hp)
DF1501.jpg DF (1954) 1500 - 1510 (1954)
1300 - 1309 (1960)
10 1954 1972 - 1975 1,120 kW (1,500 hp) New Zealand's first mainline diesel locomotive
Flyingtomato.jpg DF DF (1979) 6006 - 6317 1651 - 1670 30 1979 - 1981 1992 - 1997 1,230 kW (1,650 hp) All rebuilt as DFT
DFB 7010 - 7348 10 2006 still in use 1,800 kW (2,400 hp) Upgraded DFT
DFM 7036 - 7226 3 All reclassified as DFT internally 1,800 kW (2,400 hp) Upgraded DFT
DFT7145 Ahuriri 8Jun2003 JChristianson.jpg DFT 7008 - 7348 30 1992 - 1997 2013 - present 1,800 kW (2,400 hp) Rebuilt DF
Pair of reds.JPG DG DG 2007 - 2468 750 - 791 42 1955 - 1956 1983 560 kW (750 hp) 11 were rebuilt from 1956 DH class
DH (1956) 766, 772, 777 - 783 11 1956 1968 560 kW (750 hp) Variant of DG class; all rebuilt as DG
DH DH 2816 - 2868 900 - 905 6 1978 still in use 672 kW (901 hp)
DI DI 1808 - 1843 1100 - 1104 5 1966 1988 - 1989 755 kW (1,012 hp)
DJ class TGR.jpg DJ DJ 3009 - 3689 1200 - 1263 64 1968 - 1969 1986 - 1991 672 kW (901 hp)
DL 9020 on MP4.jpg DL 9008 - 9204 20 2010 - present 40 in service; 8 on order 2,700 kW (3,600 hp)
TranzRail DQ.jpg DQ 6007 -6036, 6324 - 6416 15 1996 - 1998 1998 - 2013 1,120 kW (1,500 hp) Rebuilt QR; originally from Queensland.
NZR Class DSC 2693.JPG DSC DSC 2000 - 2759 400 - 469 70 1959 - 1967 1989 - present 315 kW (422 hp)
DSG3264 Awatoto 1July2006 JChristianson.jpg DSG 3005 - 3304 24 1981 - 1983 still in use 700 kW (940 hp)
DSJ4017 Ahuriri 25November2003 JChristianson.jpg DSJ 4004 - 4060 5 1984 - 1985 still in use 350 kW (470 hp)
DX 5310 over Taylor Bridge.jpg DX DX 5016 - 5520 2600 - 2648 49 1972 - 1975 All Rebuilt as DXC & DXB 2,050 kW (2,750 hp) 2 rebuilt as DXR
DXB5143 at Platform 9 wgtn 1stJuly2008.jpg DXB 5016 - 5166 & 5448 12 still in use 2,050 kW (2,750 hp) Upgraded DX
NZR DX class coal.JPG DXC 5172 - 5520 5039 28 still in use 2,050 kW (2,750 hp) DX class upgraded especially for Midland Line coal trains (C = coal)
DXH 0 All rebuilt as DXB and DXC 2,050 and 2,400 kW (2,750 and 3,220 hp) Upgraded DX
DXR 8007, 8022 2 1993, 2006 still in use 2,420 kW (3,250 hp) Rebuilt DX
EB EB 1809 - 1821 25 - 29 5 1925, 1929 1976 - 1980 23 kW (31 hp) Originally battery-electric
QR 2027 - 2102, 3032 25 1997 1999 1,120 kW (1,500 hp) Originally from Queensland; 15 rebuilt as DQ

Diesel-mechanical and diesel-hydraulic locomotives[edit]

Electric locomotives[edit]

Image Class Numbers Number in class Year(s) introduced Year(s) withdrawn Voltage Power output Notes
TMS (1980) pre-1980 TMS (1980) pre-1980
NZR-EA-Wellington.jpg EO EA 39 - 74 1 - 5 5 1968, 2008 1997, 2011 1500V DC overhead 960 kW (1,290 hp) Originally EA, reclassified EO in 1980. 3 returned to service in 2008 for Wellington suburban service. Withdrawn again in late 2011. 4 scrapped in 2013, 1 preserved.
NZR EC class locomotive 01.JPG EC 7 - 12 6 1928 - 1929 1970 1500V DC overhead 885 kW (1,187 hp)
NZR ED 103 at Ferrymead.jpg ED ED 15, 21 101 - 110 10 1938 1969 - 1981 1500V DC overhead 670 kW (900 hp)
Tranzrail bumblebee.jpg EF 30007 - 30249 22 1986 - 1988 1991 - present 25kV 50Hz AC overhead 3,000 kW (4,000 hp) Originally Class 30, reclassified EF
NZR EO 3 at Ferrymead.jpg EO 2 - 6 5 1923 1968 1500V DC overhead 510 kW (680 hp)
Electric Locomotives Near Paekakariki.jpg EW EW 107 - 171 1800 - 1806 7 1952 1988 1500V DC overhead 1,340 kW (1,800 hp)

Battery electric locomotives[edit]

  • E
  • EB (later converted to diesel-electric)

Electric multiple units[edit]

All Wellington electric multiple units operate on 1500V DC overhead. Auckland's electric multiple units run on 25kV AC overhead.

Image Class Number in class Location In service Formation Passenger capacity Notes
NZR DM class EMU 06.JPG DM/D 49 Wellington 1938 - 2012 D - DM (two-car)
D - DM - D (three-car)
132 (two-car)
204 (three-car)
6 sets preserved in museum or private use.
Tranz Metro EMU Wellington.jpg EM/ET 44 Wellington 1982 - present EM - ET 148
NZR FP class 01.JPG FP/FT 49 Wellington 2010 - present FP - FT 147 Named Matangi, after the Māori word for "wind".
NZ AM class train at Wiri depot 2013.jpg AM 57 Auckland 2014 - present AMP - AMT - AMA 230

Railcars[edit]

All railcars, unless otherwise stated, are designated RM class. For purposes here, they are classified under their common names.

Image Class Number in class In service Power type Passenger capacity Notes
Railcar, Feilding, Manawatu, New Zealand, 1974.jpg 88-seater 35 1955 - 1978 Diesel-mechanical 88 Also known as Fiat or twinset; 14 were converted to AC class articulated carriages
RM 24 on rugby special train.jpg Silver Fern 3 1972 - present Diesel-electric 96 Used for excursions
NZR RM class Standard 01.JPG Standard 6 1938 - 1972 Diesel-mechanical 48 - 52
Branch vulcan w.jpg Vulcan 9 1940 - 1978 Diesel-mechanical 48 - 50
NZR RM class Wairarapa 01.JPG Wairarapa 7 1936 - 1956 Diesel-mechanical 25 - 49

Experimental railcars included the following:

Diesel multiple units[edit]

Image Class Number in class In service Formation Passenger capacity Notes
Adk 690.jpg ADK/ADB 9 1993 - present ADK - ADB 134 Originally from Western Australia
The tenth trailer car is stored at Westfield
Britomart01.jpg ADL/ADC 10 1993 - present ADL - ADC 128 Originally from Western Australia

Steam locomotives[edit]

Image Class Numbers Number in class Year(s) introduced Year(s) withdrawn Whyte notation Notes
NZR A67 Ocean Beach Railway.jpg A of 1873 14 1873 1905 0-4-0T [1]
A of 1906 58 1906 1969 4-6-2 Includes 30 locomotives reclassified from AD
AA 10 1914 1957 4-6-2
NZR Ab Class 778 hauling the Kingston Flyer.jpg AB 141 1915 1969 4-6-2 New Zealand's most prolific class of steam locomotive; 10 rebuilt from WAB class
AD 30 1910 1916 4-6-2 Reclassified A in 1916
B of 1874 2 1874 1890 0-4-4-0T
Double Fairlie
B of 1899 10 1899 1967 4-8-0 Three rebuilt as WE class
Ba 552 at Parnell.jpg BA 10 1911 1969 4-8-0
BB 30 1915 1968 4-8-0
BC 1 1902 1927 2-8-2 Originally from Wellington & Manawatu Railway (nationalised 1908)
Silver Stream Railway - 2002-03-06.jpg C of 1873 16 1873 1920 0-4-0ST original
0-4-2ST rebuild
C of 1930 24 1930 1968 2-6-2
D Class No 140 at Ferrymead Railway.jpg D of 1874 35 1874 1927 2-4-0T
NZR E class (1872) Josephine Otago Settlers Museum.jpg E of 1872 8 1872 1906 0-4-4-0T
Double Fairlie
E of 1906 1 1906 1917 2-6-6-2T
Mallet
F 88 1872 1964 0-6-0T
FA 13 1892 1943 0-6-2T
FB 13 1897 1943 0-6-2T
G of 1874 4 1874 1918 4-4-0ST
NZR g class garratt.jpg G of 1928 3 1928 1937 4-6-2+2-6-4
Garratt
All rebuilt as G of 1937
G of 1937 6 1937 1956 4-6-2 Rebuilt from G of 1928
Fell Engine Museum - 2002-03-20.jpg H 199 - 204 6 1878 1955 0-4-2T
Fell
Includes H 199, the only remaining Fell locomotive in the world
J of 1874 32 1874 1935 2-6-0
J1211 Napier 20Oct2002 JChristianson.jpg J of 1939 1200 - 1239 40 1939 1971 4-8-2 12 were rebuilt as JB class
JA1271 Opapa 16Feb2003 JChristianson.jpg JA 1240 - 1290 51 1946 - 1956 1964 - 1971 4-8-2 Includes JA 1274 - the last NZR steam locomotive built.
JB 12 4-8-2 Oil-burning variant of 1939 J class. 12 locomotives rebuilt from J class.
K88.jpg K of 1877 8 1877 1927 2-4-2
K900.jpg K of 1932 900 - 929 30 1932 1967 4-8-4
Ka streamline.jpg KA 930 - 964 35 1939 - 1950 1964 - 1967 4-8-4 Modified version of K with roller bearings and ACFI feedwater heaters
KB 965 - 970 6 1939 1968 4-8-4 KA class fitted with trailing-wheel boosters
Locomotive NZR L 508 in Shantytown.jpg L 10 1877 1901 - 1939 2-4-0T
4-4-0T
4-4-2T
Opening of the Midland Railway, Stillwater junction, 1889.jpg LA 5 1887 - 1892 1920 - 1928 4-4-0T Originally from New Zealand Midland Railway (nationalised 1900)
M 4 1875 1919 - 1928 0-6-0T
2-4-4T
NZR N class No.9.jpg N 12 1885 1934 2-6-2 Two originally from Wellington & Manawatu Railway (nationalised 1908)
NA 2 1894 1929 2-6-2 Originally from Wellington & Manawatu Railway (nationalised 1908)
NC 2 1902 1931 2-6-2 Originally from Wellington & Manawatu Railway (nationalised 1908)
O 6 1885 1922 2-8-0
OA 1 1894 1929 2-8-0 Originally from Wellington & Manawatu Railway (nationalised 1908)
OB 2 1888 1931 2-8-0 Originally from Wellington & Manawatu Railway (nationalised 1908)
OC 1 1896 1930 2-8-0 Originally from Wellington & Manawatu Railway (nationalised 1908)
P of 1876 2 1876 1885 0-6-0ST
P of 1885 10 1885 1930 2-8-0
Q of 1878 2 1878 1898 2-4-4T
Q of 1901 13 1901 1957 4-6-2 The world's first 4-6-2 Pacific locomotive
NZR R Class, Jervois Quay, Wellington, NZ.jpg R 18 1878 1936 0-6-4T
Single Fairlie
S 7 1880 1927 0-6-4T
Single Fairlie
[2]
T 6 1879 1928 2-8-0
U 9 1894 1959 4-6-0
UA 6 1899 1937 4-6-0
UB 22 1901 1957 4-6-0
UC 10 1901 1959 4-6-0
UD 2 1904 1931 4-6-0 Originally from Wellington & Manawatu Railway (nationalised 1908)
V 13 1885 1937 2-6-2 Three originally from Wellington & Manawatu Railway (nationalised 1908)
W 192, 238 2 1889 1959 2-6-2T Includes W 192, the first NZR locomotive built in New Zealand.
WA 11 1892 1962 2-6-2T
WAB 794 train near Woodville.jpg WAB 30 1918 - 1927 1947 - 1969 4-6-4T 14 rebuilt from WS class; 10 rebuilt as AB class
WB 12 1898 1957 2-6-2T
WD 18 1901 1936 2-6-4T
WE 3 1902 1969 4-6-4T Rebuilt from B of 1899; equipped with Fell centre rail braking for use on Rimutaka and Rewanui Inclines.
WF 41 1904 1969 2-6-4T
WG 20 1910 1964 4-6-4T 14 rebuilt as WW class
WH 3 1884 1927 2-4-2T Originally from Wellington & Manawatu Railway (nationalised 1908)
WJ 1 1904 1928 2-8-4T Originally from Wellington & Manawatu Railway (nationalised 1908)
WS 14 1917 1936 4-6-4T All rebuilt as WAB class
Ww644.jpg WW 51 1913 1969 4-6-4T 14 rebuilt from WG class
X 18 1909 1957 4-8-2 The world's first 4-8-2 Mountain locomotive
Y 3 1923 1958 0-6-0T

Steam locomotive notes:

  1. ^ Two other types of locomotives built in the 1870s were included in the A class. All three had a wheel arrangement of 0-4-0T, but were technically and aesthetically quite different. The other A types are often known as the Shanks A and the Mills A, after their respective builders.
  2. ^ A completely different type of locomotive was nominally classified as being the solitary member of the S class in 1877 (the main S class was not introduced until 1880), but it was typically known as Robina.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Cato Partners - Tranz Rail". Retrieved 28 December 2011. 
  • Heath, Eric, and Stott, Bob; Classic Railcars, Electric and Diesel Locomotives Of New Zealand, Grantham House, 1993
  • Heath, Eric, and Stott, Bob; Classic Steam Locomotives Of New Zealand, Grantham House, 1993

External links[edit]