Locomotives of the Great Western Railway

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Great Western Railway
Coat of arms of the Great Western Railway.png
Coat-of-arms of the Great Western Railway, incorporating the shields of the cities of London (left) and Bristol (right)
History
1835 Act of Incorporation
1838 First train ran
1869–92 7 ft 14 in (2,140 mm) Brunel gauge
changed to
4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
1903 Start of road motor services
1904 City of Truro sets speed record
1948 Nationalised
Constituent companies
See full list of constituents of the GWR
1854 Shrewsbury and Birmingham Ry
Shrewsbury and Chester Railway
1862 South Wales Railway
1863 West Midland Railway
1876 Bristol and Exeter Railway
South Devon Railway
1889 Cornwall Railway
1922 Rhymney Railway
Taff Vale Railway
Cambrian Railways
1923 Midland & S W Junction Railway
Successor organisation
1948 Western Region
of British Railways
Key locations
Headquarters Paddington station, London
Workshops Swindon
Wolverhampton
Major stations Bristol Temple Meads
Cardiff General
London Paddington
Reading General
Route mileage
Mileage shown as at end of year stated.[1][2][3]
1841 171 miles (275 km)
1863 1,106 miles (1,780 km)
1876 2,023 miles (3,256 km)
1899 2,504 miles (4,030 km)
1921 2,900 miles (4,700 km)
1924 3,797 miles (6,111 km)

The first Locomotives of the Great Western Railway (GWR) were specified by Isambard Kingdom Brunel but Daniel Gooch was soon appointed as the railway's Locomotive Superintendent. He designed several different 7 ft 14 in (2,140 mm) broad gauge types for the growing railway, such as the Firefly and later Iron Duke Class 2-2-2s. In 1864 Gooch was succeeded by Joseph Armstrong who brought his standard gauge experience to the workshops at Swindon. To replace some of the earlier locomotives, he put broad gauge wheels on his standard gauge locomotives and from this time on all locomotives were given numbers, including the broad gauge ones that had previously carried just names.

Joseph Armstrong's early death in 1877 meant that the next phase of motive power design was the responsibility of William Dean, his assistant and successor. Dean went on to develop express 4-4-0 types, but the familiar 4-6-0s of later years were initially introduced by the next engineer, George Jackson Churchward. He was also responsible for the introduction of self-propelled Steam Rail Motors for suburban and light branch line passenger trains. Next came Charles Collett in 1921; he standardised the many types of locomotives then in service, producing the iconic Castle and Kings. He also introduced diesel power in the form of streamlined rail cars in 1934. The final engineer was Frederick Hawksworth who took control in 1941 and produced GWR-design locomotives until after nationalisation in 1948.

The GWR expanded rapidly from 1854 by amalgamating with other railways. In 1876 most of the remaining broad gauge companies became a part of the GWR. The Railways Act 1921 finally brought most of the remaining independent companies in the area under its control. Many early locomotives were replaced by standard GWR designs, but many others were rebuilt using standardised components.

Contents

Livery[edit]

For most of the period of its existence, the GWR painted its locomotives a middle chrome or "Brunswick" Green. They initially had Indian red frames but this was later changed to black. Name and numberplates were generally of polished brass with a black background, and chimneys often had copper rims or "caps".[4]

Great Western Railway locomotives[edit]

Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1835 - 1837)[edit]

The GWR's first locomotives were specified by Isambard Kingdom Brunel but did not prove too successful. In order to meet his demands some novel ideas were tried such as the Haigh Foundry's geared locomotives and TE Harrison's Hurricane and Thunderer which had the engine and boiler on separate chassis.[5]

Daniel Gooch (1837 - 1864)[edit]

More conventional locomotives were soon ordered by Daniel Gooch when he was appointed as the railway's Locomotive Superintendent.[6] Following on from the Star Class that he ordered from Robert Stephenson and Company, he designed a series of standardised and successful locomotive types starting with the Firefly and Sun classes of passenger locomotives, and the Leo and Hercules classes for goods trains. By 1846 Swindon Works had been established and was able to build its own locomotives. The most familiar from this period are the Iron Duke Class 2-2-2s with their 8-foot (2.44 m) driving wheels, a type that operated express trains right up to the end of the broad gauge in 1892.[7] Gooch further developed the broad gauge locomotive fleet, producing the first bogie tank design for the steep and curving South Devon lines in 1849, and condensing locomotives for the Metropolitan Railway in 1862. He produced over 100 Ariadne class goods locomotives to a standardised design at a time when most classes ran to only ten or twenty locomotives, and components he designed were often interchangeable between different classes.[5][6]

With the acquisition of the northern standard gauge lines in 1854 came 56 locomotives, a second workshop at Wolverhampton, and Joseph Armstrong. Wolverhampton was responsible for maintaining standard gauge locomotives for many years, although Daniel Gooch did design some new locomotives that were built at Swindon and carried to Wolverhampton on special trucks. The first, the 57 class were 0-6-0 goods locomotives built in 1855. At the same time some 69 class passenger locomotives were built by Beyer, Peacock and Company in Manchester so were able to be transported on their own wheels. By the time that Armstrong replaced Gooch at Swindon in 1864 many more locomotives had been acquired with the Birkenhead and West Midland Railways.[8]

GWR Ariadne class loco "Nemesis", at Trowbridge, not later than 1872
GWR Iron Duke class locos, awaiting scrapping at the end of their life

Broad gauge

Standard gauge

Joseph Armstrong (Wolverhampton 1854 - 1864, Swindon 1864 - 1877)[edit]

In 1864 Gooch was succeeded by Joseph Armstrong who brought his standard gauge experience gained in the Northern Division to bear on the larger broad gauge locomotives. He designed the Hawthorn class of 2-4-0 and, in 1870, started the renewal of the Iron Dukes with more powerful boilers. The conversion of many broad gauge lines to standard gauge meant that this was a period of consolidation but in 1876 the amalgamation of the Bristol and Exeter and South Devon Railway locomotives saw 180 locomotives added to the GWR's fleet. To replace some of these earlier locomotives, Armstrong put broad gauge wheels on his standard gauge 1076 Class and from this time on GWR locomotives were given numbers rather than the names that had been carried by broad gauge locomotives up till then.[5][7]

Armstrong developed the 2-2-2 as his preferred express locomotive, producing 30 of the Sir Daniel class from 1866 and 21 of the Queen class from 1873. Smaller 2-4-0s, such as the 439 class of 1868, worked slower passenger trains while 0-6-0s, such as the 388 class, continued to operate freight trains. Tank locomotives were constructed to operate lighter trains and branch lines, the most familiar of which were the 1076 "Buffalo" class 0-6-0STs (later 0-6-0PT), and the 455 "Metro" class 2-4-0Ts.[9]

Broad gauge

Standard gauge

George Armstrong (Wolverhampton 1864 - 1897)[edit]

After his brother was promoted to Swindon, George Armstrong took his place at Wolverhampton and for the next 33 years continued to repair, rebuild and build standard-gauge locomotives in a spirit of independence from Swindon, just as Joseph had done during his own ten years at Wolverhampton. Most of the new locomotives built there were tank engines, some of them very long-lived; a few even survived the Second World War.

William Dean (1877 - 1902)[edit]

Joseph Armstrong's early death in 1877 meant that the final phase of broad gauge motive power was the responsibility of William Dean. He continued the Iron Duke renewal programme and added more convertibles, including some of Armstrong's 388 class goods locomotives. He also developed some elegant express locomotives such as the 3031 Class singles.[7] Following the abandonment of the broad gauge on 20 May 1892 the majority of the remaining 195 broad gauge locomotives were taken to "the dump" at Swindon. Most of the convertible locomotives were altered to run on the standard gauge over the following 18 months while the remainder were cut up.[5][6]

Dean had worked under Armstrong on and off for 22 years before becoming his successor and he perpetuated his locomotive policy for some time. He later produced standardised 0-6-0 and 2-6-0 goods locomotives (the 2301 and 2600 "Aberdare" classes), and 0-6-0STs of various sizes (the 2021 and 2721 classes). For express trains he initially developed the 2-2-2 type, culminating with the elegant 3031 class. He later moved on to the 4-4-0 type, producing the Badminton and Atbara classes with 80-inch (2.03 m) wheels, and the Duke and Bulldog classes with 68-inch (1.73 m) wheels. For branch line and suburban trains he built 31 3600 class 2-4-2T locomotives.[9][10]

Broad gauge

Standard gauge The majority of saddle tanks were rebuilt with pannier tanks from 1902 onwards.

George Jackson Churchward (1902-1922)[edit]

A Star class locomotive

George Jackson Churchward started his railway career in the South Devon Railway locomotive workshops at Newton Abbot. After that company became a part of the GWR in 1876 he was sent to Swindon and worked under Armstrong and Dean.[11] After his appointment as Locomotive Superintendent in 1902 he developed a series of standard locomotive types with flat-topped Belpaire fireboxes, tapered boilers, long smokeboxes, boiler top feeds, long-lap long-travel valve gear, and many standardised parts such as wheels, cylinders and connecting rods.[12]

For express passenger trains he quickly turned out the City class of 4-4-0s, the first taking to the rails in 1903. The following year one of these, 3717 City of Truro, was reputedly the first locomotive in the world to exceed 100 mph.[13] A larger 4-4-0 was produced in 1904 in the form of the County class, but further increases in size demanded more wheels.[12]

Experiments had already been made for a 4-6-0 design while Dean was still in charge, and these continued under Churchward; the first 4-6-0, number 100, appeared in 1902 as the initial prototype of what became the Saint class. One locomotive was converted to a 4-4-2 for direct trials against French designs that he tried on the GWR in 1903. These experiments moved the GWR towards using four cylinders and they even tried a 4-6-2, 111 The Great Bear which was the first locomotive of this type in the United Kingdom. Production 4-6-0s appeared in 1905 as the two-cylinder Saint class, and were followed in 1906 by the four-cylinder Star class. A freight version of the Saint, the 2-8-0 2800 class was introduced in 1903. For lighter trains a series of 2-6-0s were turned out in 1911, the 4300 class, which were to become the most numerous GWR tender locomotives. In 1919 this design was enlarged to become the 4700 class 2-8-0s.[12]

Churchward's standardisation aims meant that a number of tank locomotives were produced that were based on these tender locomotives. The 2221 class of 1905 were a 4-4-2 tank version of the County class, indeed they were known as the "County Tanks". These were then developed into a 2-6-2T design, being produced as the 3100 class in 1903 and the 3150 class three years later. Smaller 2-6-2Ts, the 4400 class were introduced in 1904 and were succeeded by the slightly larger 4500 class in 1906. Two very different freight tank locomotive types appeared in 1910. The 4200 class was a tank version of the 2800 class, but a demand for small locomotives for working on dock and branch lines was met by the 1361 class, a new design based on the old Cornwall Minerals Railway 0-6-0ST design but using as many of Churchward's standard parts as possible.[14]

Other innovations during Churchward's office included the introduction of self-propelled Steam Rail Motors for suburban and light branch line passenger trains.[15] From 1915 his post was renamed that of the 'Chief Mechanical Engineer'.[16] He also remodelled Swindon Works, building the 1.4 acres (0.57 ha) boiler-erecting shops and the first static locomotive-testing plant in the United Kingdom.

GWR 1361 Class 1363 at Didcot Railway Centre, 2005

Charles Collett (1922-1941)[edit]

Charles Collett became the Chief Mechanical Engineer in 1921. Almost straight away he had to take on all the locomotives of myriad types from the railways absorbed in 1922 and 1923. Many of these were 'Swindonised', that is they were rebuilt using standard GWR parts. He also set about designing many new types to replace the older examples. Many of the most familiar GWR tank locomotive classes were designed during this period: the 1400 class for small branch lines and auto trains; the 4575 class (a development of the 4500 class with larger tanks) and the large 6100 class 2-6-2Ts; the massive 7200 class of rebuilt 4200 class 2-8-2Ts; and the iconic pannier tanks of the 5700 class, the first of which appeared in 1929.

Collett further developed the 4-6-0 type as the ideal GWR express locomotive, extending the Stars into Castles in 1923, and then producing the largest of them all, the four-cylinder King class, in 1927. He also produced slightly smaller types for mixed traffic (either passenger and goods) duties, the Hall class in 1928, the Grange class in 1934, and the Manor class in 1934. All these continued to carry appropriate names. For lighter goods services he produced his own standard 0-6-0, the 2251 class.

It was under Collett's control that diesel power first appeared on the GWR. He introduced the first streamlined rail cars in 1934 and by 1942 38 had been built, although the latter ones had more angular styling. Some were configured for long distance express services with buffet counters, others for branch line or parcels work, and some were designed as two-car sets.

Preserved Castle Class Locomotives 5043 and 7029 at Tyseley.


Frederick Hawksworth (1941-1949)[edit]

Frederick Hawksworth only became the Chief Mechanical Engineer in 1941 and the Second World War meant that his new designs were few. He updated Collett's Hall class to produce the GWR 6959 Class, known as "Modified Halls", and produced the last GWR 2-cylinder 4-6-0s, the County class 4-6-0, which ended a tradition that had begun with the Saint class 42 years before. Their boilers were based on those of the LMS Stanier Class 8F 2-8-0, a number of which had been built at Swindon during the War. Other designs included three designs of 0-6-0PT: the taper boilered 9400 class; the 1500 class with outside Walschaerts valve gear and no running plate designed for pilot work around large stations; and the very light 1600 Class.

Preserved Hawksworth 1500 Class Pannier Tank 1501 at Bewdley.

Locomotives of amalgamated companies (1854 - 1920)[edit]

Bristol and Exeter Railway[edit]

Bristol and Exeter Railway locomotives were absorbed on 1 January 1876. The broad gauge locomotives were numbered in the series 2001 to 2095;[5] the standard gauge locomotives were numbered in the series 1353 - 1382.

Bristol Port Railway & Pier[edit]

Jointly vested with the Midland Railway from 1 September 1890. Opened on 6 March 1865, the line was worked by the contractor Waring Bros until 1869 when the company was left to make its own arrangements. Two locomotives were owned by the company but never taken into stock of either the Great Western Railway or the Midland Railway. They were 0-4-2Ts which appear to have been rebuilt from ex-London and North Western Railway tender engines.

Carmarthen and Cardigan Railway[edit]

Carmarthen & Cardigan Railway was amalgamated with the Great Western Railway on 1 July 1881. Three locomotives (+ 1)

  • 1 645 Class 0-6-0ST/0-6-0PT, WPN No 196, GWR No (1881) 902, bought November 1872
  • 2 645 Class 0-6-0ST/0-6-0PT, WPN No 194, GWR No (1881) 903, bought October 1872
  • 3 645 Class 0-6-0ST/0-6-0PT, WPN No 189, GWR No (1881) 904, bought May 1876
  • Victor Fossick & Hackworth, Wks No 176, built 1864 ex Llanelly Railway, 0-6-0, bought December 1872

Cornwall Minerals Railway[edit]

Nine locomotives were transferred from the Cornwall Mineral Railway on 1 July 1877, and one further one on 1 July 1896.

Festiniog & Blaenau Railway[edit]

This railway was of 1' 11½" gauge and was taken over on 13 April 1883. It was later converted to standard gauge as the extension of the new Bala & Festiniog Railway after purchase by the Great Western Railway. Two locomotives were taken over, both being built by Manning Wardle.

Hook Norton Ironstone Partnership[edit]

This concern was in liquidation when the Great Western Railway purchased an engine in July 1904.

Liskeard and Caradon Railway[edit]

Three locomotives were acquired on 1 January 1909, they were used on both the Caradon and the Liskeard and Looe Railways. GWR experimental 4-4-0ST number 13 was also regularly used on the line, at first hired to the Liskeard and Caradon, but it continued to be used after the Great Western Railway took over operations.

Llanelly Railway[edit]

The 21 locomotives acquired in 1873 were renumbered into the 894 - 914 series.

Llynvi and Ogmore Railway[edit]

12 locomotives were acquired in 1873, including four which had originated on the West Cornwall Railway. They were renumbered in the 915 - 926 series.

Manchester and Milford Railway[edit]

Seven locomotives were acquired by the Great Western Railway

Monmouthshire Railway[edit]

53 (+1) locomotives were taken over in 1875. They were renumbered into the 1301 - 1352 series. Worked from 1 August 1875, amalgamated 1 August 1880.

North Pembrokeshire & Fishguard Railway[edit]

Taken over July 1898. 3 locomotives (all 0-6-0STs).

Pembroke and Tenby Railway[edit]

8 locomotives acquired on 1 July 1896.

(NB ?? Re number 1361 - An extant photo exists in the SLS Stanford Jacobs Collection showing 1361 to be Pembroke.)

  • Llandinam, a Manning Wardle 0-6-0ST was owned by David Davies and used in the construction of the line. It was removed by him before the directors took over in 1870.

Severn & Wye and Severn Bridge Railway[edit]

The railway was vested jointly between the Great Western Railway and the Midland Railway on 1 July 1894 . Seven locomotives were taken over on 1 October 1895.

South Devon Railway[edit]

The 85 broad gauge locomotives added to the Great Western Railway fleet on 1 February 1876 included not just the South Devon Railway locomotives but also the 19 owned by the Cornwall Railway and 8 from the West Cornwall Railway, which had all operated in a common pool since 1866. They were numbered in the 2096 - 2180 series but, generally, also retained their names.[5]

Torbay and Brixham Railway[edit]

Vested with the Great Western Railway 1 January 1883. Two broad gauge engines: Queen and Raven. The former was withdrawn from stock on the same day, the latter was an ex-South Devon Railway locomotive and was taken back into GWR stock.

Vale of Neath Railway[edit]

The 19 broad gauge locomotives acquired in 1866 retained their original numbers; the six standard gauge locomotives were renumbered into the 413 - 418 series.

Watlington & Princes Risborough Railway[edit]

Opened on 15 August 1872 and is believed to have been worked with a locomotive on hire from the Great Western Railway. The line was vested into the Great Western Railway on 1 July 1883. Two locomotives were taken over.

Whitland & Cardigan Railway[edit]

There were three locomotives all standard gauge and were numbered 1385-1387, being taken over 1 September 1886.

West Cornwall Railway[edit]

The eight West Cornwall Railway broad gauge locomotives were operated in a common pool with the South Devon Railway locomotives[5] and are detailed in that section, above. At the same time, 1 February 1876, another eight standard gauge locomotives were also acquired. These were renumbered 1384 - 1391.

Locomotives of amalgamated companies (1920 - 1924)[edit]

Eighteen companies were merged between 1 January 1922 and 1 January 1924 under the provisions of the Railways Act 1921, bringing 925 locomotives.[17]

Alexandra (Newport and South Wales) Docks and Railway[edit]

39 locomotives acquired on 1 January 1922.

Manufacturer Type Quantity A(N&SW)D&R Nos. GWR Nos. Notes
Andrew Barclay Sons & Co. 0-6-2ST 3 29–31 190–193
Hawthorn Leslie 0-6-2T 1 26 663
R and W Hawthorn 0-6-0ST 2 12–13 664–665
Kerr, Stuart & Co. 0-6-0T 2 34–35 666–667
Robert Stephenson and Company 0-6-0ST 3 15, 20–21 668–670 Double-framed
Hawthorn Leslie 0-6-0ST 2 16–17 671–672
Robert Stephenson and Company 0-6-0ST 5 1–5 674–678
Peckett and Sons 0-6-0ST 2 18–19 679–680
GWR 0-6-0ST 1 33 993 ex-GWR 850 Class
Kitson & Co. 2-6-2T 1 25 1199 ex-Mersey Railway class III
Beyer, Peacock & Co. 2-6-2T 6 6–11 1207–1209, 1211, 1201, 1204 ex-Mersey Railway class II
Hawthorn Leslie 2-6-2T 2 36–37 1205–1206
Avonside Engine Company 0-4-0ST 1 Trojan 1340
0-4-0ST 1 Alexandra 1341
Beyer, Peacock & Co. 0-6-4T 3 22–24 1344–1346 ex-Mersey Railway class I
Fletcher, Jennings & Co. 0-6-0T 1 32 1356 ex-Severn and Wye Railway
GWR Wolverhampton Works 0-4-2T 1 14 1426 ex-GWR 517 Class
GWR 0-6-0ST 2 27–28 1679, 1683 ex-GWR 1661 Class

Barry Railway[edit]

148 Barry Railway locomotives acquired on 1 January 1922 and given random numbers in several series.

Class Type Quantity Barry Nos. GWR Nos. Notes
A 0-6-0T 5 1–5 699–700, 702–703, 706 One was sold to the Warwickshire Coal Company in 1933 for use at the Coventry Colliery, where it worked until 1962
B 0-6-2T 25 6–20, 23–32 198–201, 203–204, 206–214, 223–232
B1 0-6-2T 42 38–46, 54–63, 73–78, 105–116, 122–126 233–235, 238, 240–277
C 2-4-2T 2 21–22 1322–1323
D 0-8-0 4 35–36, 92–93 1387–1390
E 0-6-0T 5 33–34, 50–51, 53 781–785
F 0-6-0ST 28 37, 47–49, 52, 64–65, 70–72, 99–104, 127–138 708, 710–726, 807, 729, 742, 747, 74, 776–780
G 0-4-4T 4 66–69 2–4, 9
H 0-8-2T 7 79–85 1380–1386
J 2-6-2T 11 86–91, 94–98 1311–1321
K 0-6-2T 6 117–121 193–197
L 0-6-4T 10 139–148 1347–1355, 1357

Brecon and Merthyr Railway[edit]

47 locomotives acquired on 1 July 1922.

Manufacturer   Type   Quantity B&MR Nos. GWR Nos. Notes
Robert Stephenson & Co. 0-6-2T 14 36–43, 45–50 11, 21, 332, 504, 698, 888, 1084, 1113, 1372–1375, 1668, 1670 36/45 Class, similar to Rhymney Railway R class and P class respectively
Beyer, Peacock & Co. 4-4-2T 1 44 1391 ex-LSWR 46 class No. 0376
Robert Stephenson & Co. 2-4-0T 5 9–12, 25 1402, 1412, 1460, 1452, 1458
Vulcan Foundry 0-6-2T 4 19–20, 23, 26 1674, 1677, 1692, 1833
GWR 0-6-0ST 3 32–34 1685, 1693, 1694 ex-GWR 1661 Class
Kerr, Stuart & Co. 0-6-0T 1 35 2161
Kitson & Co. 0-6-0ST 2 22, 24 2169–2170
Nasmyth, Wilson & Co. 0-6-0ST 3 27–29 2171–2173
John Fowler & Co. 0-6-0ST 6 1–4, 13–14 2177–2180, 2185–2186
Robert Stephenson & Co. 0-6-0ST 6 5–8, 15–16 2181–2184, 2186–2188
Sharp, Stewart & Co. 0-6-0ST 2 17–18 2190–2191

Burry Port and Gwendraeth Valley Railway[edit]

15 locomotives acquired on 1 July 1922.

Manufacturer Type Quantity BP&GV Nos. GWR Nos. Notes
Hudswell Clarke 0-6-0T 7 2, 9, 11–15 2162–2168
Avonside Engine Company 0-6-0ST 2 4–5 2194–2195 Named Kidwelly, Cwm Mawr,
Avonside Engine Company 0-6-0ST 2 6–7 2196, 2176 Named Gwendraeth, and Pembury
Chapman and Furneaux 0-6-0ST 1 1 2192 Named Ashburnham
Chapman and Furneaux 0-6-0ST 1 3 2193 Named Burry Port
Hudswell Clarke 0-6-0T 2 8, 10 2197, 2198 No. 8 named Pioneer

Cambrian Railways[edit]

94 standard gauge locomotives acquired on 1 January 1922 given random numbers in various series..

Manufacturer   Type   Quantity CAM Nos. GWR Nos. Notes
Nasmyth, Wilson & Co. 0-4-4T 6 3, 5, 7–9, 23 10, 11, 15, 19–21 Aston
Hunslet Engine Company 0-6-0T 1 24 819 ex-Lambourn Valley Railway, withdrawn 1946
Chapman and Furneaux 0-6-0T 2 26, 35 820–821 ex-Lambourn Valley Railway, withdrawn 1930/32
Manning Wardle 0-6-0ST 1 30 824 ex-Mawddwy Railway
Robert Stephenson & Co. 0-6-0 5 89–93 887–892 Jones, built 1903
Beyer, Peacock & Co. 0-6-0 5 38, 99–102 864, 892–896 Jones, built 1908
Beyer, Peacock & Co. 0-6-0 5 15, 29, 41, 42, 54 844, 849, 855, 873, 887 Jones, built 1918–19
Neilson & Co. 0-6-0 5 73–77 875–876, 878–880 Aston, built 1894
Vulcan Foundry 0-6-0 3 78–80 881–883 Aston, built 1895
Neilson, Reid & Co. 0-6-0 2 87–88 884–885 Aston, built 1899
Sharp, Stewart & Co. 0-6-0 9 4, 14, 40, 45–46, 48–49, 51–52 897–901, 908–911 22 built
Robert Stephenson & Co. 4-4-0 4 94, 96–98 1014, 1029, 1035, 1043 5 built
CAM, Oswestry Works 4-4-0 2 11, 19 1068, 1082
Sharp, Stewart & Co. 4-4-0 17 81, 32, 47, 61–72, 83–84 1084–1086, 1088, 1090–1091, 1093, 1096–1097, 1100–1107 1106 renumbered 1110 in 1926
Robert Stephenson & Co. 4-4-0 2 85–86 1108–1109 1106 renumbered 1110 in 1926
Sharp, Stewart & Co. 4-4-0 6 50, 60, 16–17, 20–21 1110, 1112, 1115–1118
Beyer, Peacock & Co. 4-4-0T 6 34, 36, 2, 12, 33, 37 1113–1114, 1129–1132 ex-Metropolitan Railway A Class; 34 & 36 had been rebuilt as 4-4-0 in 1915–16
Sharp, Stewart & Co. 2-4-0T 5 44, 56–59 1190–1192, 1196–1197
2-4-0 2 10, 1 1328–1329 ex-GWR 2-4-0
Sharp, Stewart & Co. 2-4-0 4 41, 43, 53, 55 1330–1333
4-4-0 2 82, 95 3521, 3546 ex-GWR 3521 Class

Vale of Rheidol Railway[edit]

Three 1 ft 11 12 in (597 mm) gauge locomotives acquired with the Cambrian Railways on 1 January 1922, also two new locomotives, similar to the earlier 2-6-2Ts, built in 1923.

Manufacturer Type Quantity CAM Nos. GWR Nos. Notes
Davies & Metcalfe 2-6-2T 2 VoR 1 & 2 1212–1213 1213 "renewed" in 1924
W. G. Bagnall 2-4-0T 1 VoR 3 1198
GWR Swindon Works 2-6-2T 2 7–8 built 1923; named Owain Glyndŵr and Llywelyn
GWR Swindon Works 2-6-2T 1 1213 built 1924; renumbered 9 in 1949; named Prince of Wales

Welshpool and Llanfair Light Railway[edit]

Two 2 ft 6 in (762 mm) gauge 0-6-0T locomotives acquired with the Cambrian Railways on 1 January 1922.

Manufacturer Type Quantity CAM Nos. GWR Nos. Notes
Beyer, Peacock & Co. 0-6-0T 2 WLLR 1 & 2 822–823 Named The Earl and Countess

Cardiff Railway[edit]

36 locomotives acquired on 1 January 1922.

Manufacturer Type Quantity CR Nos. GWR Nos. Notes
Kitson & Co. 0-6-2ST 13 20, 22, 33–35, 1, 9–10, 28, 11, 21, 27, 26 151–163
Hudswell Clarke 0-6-0ST 4 14, 16, 17, 32 681–684
Kitson & Co. 0-6-0T 8 7, 3, 4, 8, 13, 30, 29 685–688, 690–692
Kitson & Co. 0-6-0PT 1 2 693
Parfitt and Jenkins 0-6-0ST 4 12, 15, 18, 19 694–697
Cardiff Docks 0-6-0ST 1 24 698
LNWR Crewe Works 2-4-2T 1 36 1327 ex-London and North Western Railway
Kitson & Co. 0-4-0ST 2 5, 6 1338, 1339
0-6-0ST 3 31, 23, 25 1667, 1676, 1689 ex-GWR 1661 Class

Cleobury Mortimer and Ditton Priors Light Railway[edit]

Two locomotives were acquired on 1 January 1922

Manufacturer Type Quantity CMDP Name GWR No. Notes
Manning Wardle 0-6-0ST 2 Cleobury and Burwarton 28 and 29 rebuilt as 0-6-0PT

Gwendraeth Valleys Railway[edit]

2 0-6-0ST locomotives were acquired on 1 January 1923. One was given a GWR number, but the second (Margaret) was sold without being allocated a GWR number.

Manufacturer Type Quantity GVR No. GWR No. Notes
Hudswell Clarke 0-6-0ST 1 1 Velindre 26
Fox, Walker & Co. 0-6-0ST 1 2 Margaret Sold to Kidwelly Timplate Company in 1923

Llanelly and Mynydd Mawr Railway[edit]

8 locomotives acquired on 1 January 1923.

Manufacturer Type Quantity LMMR Name GWR No. Notes
Andrew Barclay Sons & Co. 0-6-0T 1 George Waddell 312 Sold in 1934
Hudswell Clarke 0-6-0T 2 Tarndune 339
Hudswell Clarke 0-6-0ST 1 Hilda 359
Manning Wardle 0-6-0T 1 Victory 704
Hudswell Clarke 0-6-0T 1 Ravelston 803
Hudswell Clarke 0-6-0T 1 Merkland 937
Avonside Engine Company 0-6-0T 1 Great Mountain 944 Sold in 1928
Fox, Walker & Co. 0-6-0ST 1 Seymour Clarke 969

Midland and South Western Junction Railway[edit]

The M&SWJR's Locomotive Superintendent from 1903 to 1923 was James Tyrell.

29 locomotives acquired on 1 January 1923.

Manufacturer Type Quantity M&SWJ Nos. GWR Nos. Notes
Beyer, Peacock & Co. 0-4-4T 1 15 23
Beyer, Peacock & Co. 2-6-0 1 16 24
Sharp, Stewart & Co. 4-4-4T 2 17–18 25, 27
Dübs & Co. 0-6-0T 2 13–14 825, 843
Beyer, Peacock & Co. 0-6-0 10 19–28 1003–1011, 1013
North British Locomotive Co. 4-4-0 9 1–8, 31 1119–1126, 1128
Dübs & Co. 4-4-0 1 9 1127
Dübs & Co. 2-4-0 3 10–12 1334–1336

The three Dübs 2-4-0s were the only M&SWJR locomotives to survive into British Railways ownership in 1948. At least one of them was used on the Lambourn Valley Railway, probably because of its light axle load.

Neath and Brecon Railway[edit]

15 locomotives acquired on 1 July 1922.

Manufacturer Type Quantity N&BR Nos. GWR Nos. Notes
Robert Stephenson & Co. 0-6-2T 3 11–13 1114, 1117, 1277 similar to Rhymney M class
Robert Stephenson & Co. 0-6-2T 2 9, 10 1327, 1371 ex-Port Talbot Railway 5 and 6
Yorkshire Engine Company 4-4-0T 1 5 1392
Sharp, Stewart & Co. 2-4-0T 1 6 1400
0-6-0ST 2 14–15 1563, 1591 ex-GWR 1076 Class
0-6-0ST 2 16, 3 1715, 1882 ex-GWR 1701 Class
Nasmyth, Wilson & Co. 0-6-0ST 2 7–8 2174–2175
Avonside Engine Company 0-6-0ST 2 1–2 2189, 2199

Port Talbot Railway and Docks Company[edit]

22 locomotives acquired on 1 January 1922.

Manufacturer Type Quantity PTRD Nos. GWR Nos. Notes
Robert Stephenson & Co. 0-6-2T 7 8–14 183–187
Hudswell Clarke 0-6-0ST 6 22–27 808–809, 811–814
Robert Stephenson & Co. 0-6-0ST 2 3, 15 815, 816
Sharp, Stewart & Co. 2-4-0T 1 37 1189
Sharp, Stewart & Co. 2-4-2T 1 36 1326 rebuilt from 2-4-0T in 1898
Sharp, Stewart & Co. 0-8-2T 3 17–19 1358–1360
Cooke Locomotive & Machine Works 0-8-2T 2 20–21 1378–1379

Powlesland and Mason[edit]

Powlesland and Mason were contractors at Swansea Docks, and their 9 locomotives were acquired on 1 January 1924.

Manufacturer Type Quantity P&M Nos. GWR Nos. Notes
Peckett and Sons 0-4-0ST 3 3, 4, 12 696, 779, 935 Renumbered 1150–1152 between 1949 and 1951
Brush Electrical 0-4-0ST 2 5 and 6 795, 921
Avonside Engine Co. 0-4-0ST 1 7 925 ex-GWR 1330, South Devon Railway Raven class
Peckett and Sons 0-4-0ST 1 11 927 Renumbered 1153 in 1949
Andrew Barclay Sons & Co. 0-4-0ST 1 14 928
Hawthorn Leslie 0-4-0ST 1 Dorothy 942

Rhondda and Swansea Bay Railway[edit]

37 locomotives acquired on 1 January 1922.

Manufacturer Type Quantity R&SB No. GWR No. Notes
Kitson & Co. 0-6-2T 4 25–28 164–167
Kitson & Co. 0-6-2T 12 8–16, 20–22 168–179
Robert Stephenson & Co. 0-6-2T 2 23, 24 180, 182 ex-Port Talbot Railway
Kitson & Co. 0-6-2T 1 4 181
GWR 0-6-0ST 4 32, 34, 31, 2 728, 1167, 1652, 1660 ex-GWR 1076 Class
Beyer, Peacock & Co. 0-6-0T 5 1, 3, 5–7 789, 801, 802, 805, 806
Kitson & Co. 2-4-2T 3 17–19 1307, 1309, 1310
GWR 0-6-0ST 2 36, 35 1710, 1756 ex-GWR 1701 Class
GWR Swindon Works 0-6-0ST 2 37, 30 1825, 1834 ex-GWR 1813 Class
GWR Swindon Works 0-6-0ST 1 33 2756 ex-GWR 2721 Class

Rhymney Railway[edit]

123 locomotives acquired on 1 January 1922 given numbers in random series.

Class    Type    Quantity RR Nos. GWR Nos. Notes
A 0-6-2T 16 10–15, 18–22, 115–119 52–62, 71–75
A1 0-6-2T 8 23–30 63–70
AP 0-6-2T 4 35–38 78–81
B 0-6-0WT 2 120–121 661–662
I & J 0-6-0ST 11 48–53, 033, 036 612, 614, 618–619, 622, 625, 629, 631, 657, 659–660
K 0-6-2T 46 7–9, 57–61, 67–96, 98–105 84–91, 97–101, 105–110, 112–115, 117–119, 122, 127, 129–131, 133–146, 148
L 2-4-2T 2 65–66 1324–1325
L1 0-6-2T 2 63–64 159–150
M 0-6-2T 6 16, 106–110 33, 47–51
P 0-6-2T 2 4, 6 82–83
P1 0-6-2T 2 5, 31 76–77
R 0-6-2T 5 1–3, 17, 97 30–32, 34, 46
R1 0-6-2T 10 39–47, 62 35–44
S 0-6-0T 4 111–114 608–611 renumbered 93–96 between 1947 and 1949
S1 0-6-0T 3 32–34 604–606 renumbered 90–92 between 1947 and 1948

South Wales Mineral Railway[edit]

5 locomotives acquired on 1 January 1923.

Manufacturer Type Quantity SWMR No. GWR No. Notes
Avonside Engine Company 0-6-0ST 2 6, 7 817, 818 ex-GWR 1317 and 1324 – South Devon Railway Buffalo class
GWR 0-6-0ST 3 5, 3, 1 1546, 1806, 1811 ex-GWR 645 Class

Swansea Harbour Trust[edit]

14 locomotives acquired on 1 July 1923.

Manufacturer Type Quantity SHT Nos. GWR Nos. Notes
Hudswell Clarke 0-4-0ST 1 3 150
Andrew Barclay Sons & Co. 0-4-0ST 1 5 701 Renumbered 1140 in 1948
Peckett and Sons 0-4-0ST 4 7–10 886, 926, 930, 933
Peckett and Sons 0-4-0ST 3 11, 12, 18 929, 968, 1098 renumbered 1141, 1143, 1145 between 1948 and 1950
Peckett and Sons 0-6-0ST 3 15–17 1085, 1086, 937 1085 & 1086 renumbered 1146 & 1147 in 1949
Hudswell Clarke 0-4-0ST 1 14 943 renumbered 1142 in 1948
Hawthorn Leslie 0-4-0ST 1 13 974 renumbered 1144 in 1948

Taff Vale Railway[edit]

The Taff Vale Railway and its 275 locomotives were acquired on 1 January 1922.

Class   Type   Quantity TVR Nos. GWR Nos. Notes
A 0-6-2T 58 7, 10–12, 20, 45, 75, 80, 90–91, 122–125, 127–130, 132–136, 138–140, 144, 149, 154, 156–160, 162, 164, 165, 400–416, 3, 42, 52, 120 335, 337, 343–349, 351–352, 356–357, 360–362, 364–368, 370–391, 393–394, 397–399, 401–404, 406, 408, 438–441 401–404, 406, 408, 438–441 renumbered 303–309, 312, 316, 322 between 1947 and 1950
C 4-4-2T 6 170–175 1301–1303, 1305, 1308, 1304
D 0-6-0ST 8 250, 270 797, 798
E 0-6-0ST 2 264, 265 795, 796
H 0-6-0T 3 141–143 792–794
I 0-4-0T 3 285–287 1133, 1184, 999
K & L 0-6-0 K: 33
L: 9
219, 253, 259, 261, 281, 284, 288, 298, 337, 210, 217, 220, 235–236, 239, 242, 245, 283, 297, 301–302, 304, 313–314, 316, 320, 322, 325, 327–328, 333, 335–336, 339–340, 354, 356–360 912–933, 935–936, 938–939, 941–944, 946, —, 948, 968–970, 974, 978, 984, 1000–1002
M1 0-6-2T 41 4–5, 14–15, 51, 54, 71, 86–89, 150, 176–181, 16, 22, 24, 50, 53, 74, 145–148, 151–153, 163, 166–169, 344, 349, 362, 364–365 442–445, 462, 466, 478, 481–484, 487–493, 503, 505–508, 511, 513, 515–516, 520, 552, 560, 567, 573, 577–580, 582–586
N 0-6-2T 10 106–107, 182–189 485–486, 494–496, 498–502
O 0-6-2T 6 21, 25–26, 33–34, 190 446–448, 452–453, 581
O1 0-6-2T 14 27–29, 37, 41, 60–65, 70, 73, 78 449–451, 454–455, 471–477, 479–480
O2 0-6-2T 9 31–32, 44, 66, 81–85 412–413, 415, 419, 421, 423–426
O3 0-6-2T 2 18–19 410–411
O4 0-6-2T 41 105, 1–2, 6, 8–9, 17, 35, 38–39, 43, 46, 48–49, 56, 58–59, 67–69, 94–95, 97–98, 101–102, 104, 108–116, 118–119, 121, 13, 36 236, 278–295, 420, 296–302, 310–311, 313–315, 317–321, 324, 333, 409, 414 420, 300, 310–311, 313, 315, 317–321, 324, 333, 409, 414 renumbered 220, 200, 203–205, 207–211, 215–219 between 1946 and 1950
V 0-6-0ST 6 99–100, 275, 280, 290–291 786–791
S 0-4-0ST 1 267 1342
T 0-4-0ST 1 266 1343
U 0-6-2T 8 23, 72, 76–77, 191–194 587, 589–591, 593, 595–597
U1 0-6-2T 7 30, 40, 79, 195–197 602, 588, 592, 598–599, 603, 600

Locomotives of amalgamated companies (1925 - 1947)[edit]

Corris Railway[edit]

2 ft 3 in (686 mm) narrow gauge locomotives:

Weston, Clevedon and Portishead Railway[edit]

Two locomotives were transferred to the Great Western Railway when Weston, Clevedon and Portishead Railway closed in 1940:

Ystalyfera Tin Works[edit]

1948 and after[edit]

On 1 January 1948 all existing GWR locomotives became the property of the new British Railways (BR); unlike other companies stock, all the steam locomotives continued to carry their GWR numbers. BR continued to build GWR designs (the 1000, 1500, 1600, 4073 and 6959 classes in particular) for a while. When the first BR Standard steam locomotives started to arrive, they were often compared unfavourably to ex-GWR locos, and the Western Region decided to take forward experiments with diesel-hydraulic and gas turbine locomotives.

Withdrawal of ex-GWR locomotives took place earlier than for the other 'Big Four' companies as the Western Region took the decision to be the first to end steam traction. A handful of locomotives that had been transferred to other regions did survive for longer however. Ironically, because the Barry scrapyard received large numbers of ex-GWR locomotives, proportionately more survive today in preservation than the locomotives of the other companies.

Named locomotives[edit]

Most express passenger locomotives carried distinctive names, generally following themes such as kings (the 6000 class), cities (3700 class), counties (3800 class, later the 1000 class), castles (4073 class), and halls (4900 class). This tradition dated back to the first locomotives delivered to the railway, for all broad gauge locomotives initially were identified only by names, numbers first appearing on the standard gauge locomotives acquired with the northern companies that became part of the GWR in 1862.[10]

Several locomotives were honoured with the name Great Western. The first was an Iron Duke class broad gauge locomotive built in 1846, the first locomotive entirely constructed at the company’s Swindon locomotive works. This was withdrawn in 1870, but in 1888 a modernised version of the same class was built and given the same name; this was withdrawn just four years later when the broad gauge was taken out of use.[5] A standard gauge 3031 class locomotive, number 3012, was then given the Great Western name. The final GWR locomotive to carry the name was Castle class number 7007, which continued to carry while working for British Railways. The tradition of using this name has continued with British Rail and modern companies up to the present day.[18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ MacDermot, E T (1927). "Appendix 1". History of the Great Western Railway, volume I 1833-1863. London: Great Western Railway.  Reprinted 1982, Ian Allan, ISBN 0-7110-0411-0
  2. ^ MacDermot, E T (1931). "Appendix 1". History of the Great Western Railway, volume II 1863-1921. London: Great Western Railway.  Reprinted 1982, Ian Allan, ISBN 0-711004-12-9
  3. ^ "A brief review of the Company's hundred years of business". Great Western Railway Magazine (Great Western Railway) 47 (9): 495–499. 1935. 
  4. ^ Slinn, JN (1978). Great Western Way. Frome: Historical Model Railway Society. ISBN 0-902835-03-3. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Sheppard, Geof (2008). Broad Gauge Locomotives. Southampton: Noodle Books. ISBN 978-1-906419-09-7. 
  6. ^ a b c The Locomotives of the Great Western Railway, Part 2: Broad Gauge. The Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. 1953. ISBN 0-906867-90-8. 
  7. ^ a b c Waters, Laurence (1999). The Great Western Broad Gauge. Hersham: Ian Allan Publishing. ISBN 0-7110-2634-3. 
  8. ^ MacDermot 1927, p. [page needed]
  9. ^ a b Russell, J.H. (1975). A Pictorial Record of Great Western Engines, Volume 1. Oxford: Oxford Publishing Company. ISBN 0-86093-398-9. 
  10. ^ a b MacDermot 1931, p. [page needed]
  11. ^ Rogers, HCB (1975). GJ Churchward - A Locomotive Biography. London: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 0-04-385069-3. 
  12. ^ a b c Hill, Keith (2005). "A colossus of steam". The Railway Magazine (IPC Media) 151 (1256): 16–20. 
  13. ^ Andrews, David (2008). "Special Experimental Tests: more pieces of the City of Truro puzzle". Backtrack (Pendragon Publishing) 22 (2): 116–121. 
  14. ^ Coleford, IC (2007). "Swindon's saddle tanks: the GWR 1361 class 0-6-0STs". Railway Bylines (Irwell Press) 12 (6): 252–263. 
  15. ^ Lewis, John (2004). Great Western Steam Railmotors: and their services. Wild Swan Publications Ltd. ISBN 1-874103-96-8. 
  16. ^ "The Chairmen and Principal Officers of the Great Western Railway Company 1833-1935". Great Western Railway Magazine (Great Western Railway) 47 (9): 462. 1935. 
  17. ^ Casserley, H.C.; S. W. Johnson (1966). Locomotives at the Grouping 4: Great Western Railway. Shepperton, Surrey: Ian Allen. pp. 63–134. 
  18. ^ Pike, Jim (2000). Locomotive Names. Stroud: Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-2284-2. 
  • The ABC of Great Western Locomotives (Ian Allan Ltd 7th Edition) (?)1945
  • Allcock, N.J.; Davies, F.K.; le Fleming, H.M.; Maskelyne, J.N.; Reed, P.J.T.; Tabor, F.J. (June 1951). White, D.E., ed. The Locomotives of the Great Western Railway, part one: Preliminary Survey. Kenilworth: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-17-7. 
  • Reed, P.J.T. (February 1953). White, D.E., ed. The Locomotives of the Great Western Railway, part two: Broad Gauge. Kenilworth: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-32-0. 
  • Reed, P.J.T. (December 1956). White, D.E., ed. The Locomotives of the Great Western Railway, part three: Absorbed Engines, 1854-1921. Kenilworth: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-33-9. 
  • Tabor, F.J. (February 1956). White, D.E., ed. The Locomotives of the Great Western Railway, part four: Six-wheeled Tender Engines. Kenilworth: RCTS. 
  • le Fleming, H.M. (April 1958). White, D.E., ed. The Locomotives of the Great Western Railway, part five: Six-coupled Tank Engines. RCTS. 
  • Tabor, F.J. (August 1959). White, D.E., ed. The Locomotives of the Great Western Railway, part six: Four-Coupled Tank Engines. RCTS. 
  • le Fleming, H.M. (October 1954). White, D.E., ed. The Locomotives of the Great Western Railway, part seven: Dean's Larger Tender Engines. Kenilworth: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-18-5. 
  • le Fleming, H.M. (November 1960) [1953]. White, D.E., ed. The Locomotives of the Great Western Railway, part eight: Modern Passenger Classes (2nd ed.). Kenilworth: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-19-3. 
  • le Fleming, H.M. (February 1962). White, D.E., ed. The Locomotives of the Great Western Railway, part nine: Standard Two-Cylinder Classes. RCTS. 
  • Davies, F. K.; Firth, J. M.; Lucking, J. H.; Thomas, R. E.; Allcock, N. J.; Sterndale, A. C.; Barrie, D. S. M.; Reed, P. J. T.; Mountford, E. R. (April 1966). White, D. E., ed. The Locomotives of the Great Western Railway, part ten: Absorbed Engines, 1922–1947. RCTS. 
  • Davies, F.K. (May 1956) [1952]. White, D.E., ed. The Locomotives of the Great Western Railway, part eleven: The Rail Motor Vehicles and Internal Combustion Locomotives (2nd ed.). RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-38-X. 
  • Sterndale, A.C.; Parker, L.T.; Smith, C.; Reed, P.J.T.; Tabor, F.J.; Davies, F.K.; Allcock, N.J.; Lucking, J.H. (May 1974). White, D.E., ed. The Locomotives of the Great Western Railway, part twelve: A Chronological and Statistical Survey. Kenilworth: RCTS. 
  • Davies, F.K.; White, D.E. (December 1983). White, D.E., ed. The Locomotives of the Great Western Railway, part thirteen: Preservation and Supplementary Information. RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-60-6. 
  • Davies, Ken (April 1993). The Locomotives of the Great Western Railway, part fourteen: Names and their Origins - Railmotor Services - War Service - The Complete Preservation Story. Lincoln: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-75-4. 
  • Casserley, H.C.; Johnston, S.C. (1966). Locomotives at the Grouping: Great Western Railway. Shepperton: Ian Allan Publishing. ISBN 0-7110-0555-9. 
  • Russell, J.H. (1975). A Pictorial Record of Great Western Engines, Volume 1. Oxford: Oxford Publishing Company. ISBN 0-86093-398-9. 
  • Stephenson, Brian (1998). "The Pre-1923 GWR Pannier and Saddle Tank Locomotives". Locomotives Illustrated (RAS Publishing) (118). ISSN 0307-1804.