Locomotives of the London and North Western Railway

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Locomotives of the London and North Western Railway. The London and North Western Railway (LNWR) Locomotive Department was headquartered at Crewe from 1862. The Crewe Works had been built in 1840-43 by the Grand Junction Railway.

Locomotives inherited from constituent companies[edit]

Bury 2-2-0 passenger engine for the London and Birmingham Railway
Bury 0-4-0 goods engine for the London and Birmingham Railway

The LNWR was formed in 1846 with the merger of the Grand Junction Railway, the London and Birmingham Railway and the Manchester and Birmingham Railway.

The GJR and the Liverpool & Manchester Railway initially had their workshops at Edge Hill. The London & Birmingham workshops were at Wolverton. The Grand Junction built a new works at Crewe which opened in 1843, while the Manchester and Birmingham's works was at Longsight.

While the GJR and M&BR locos were mainly by Robert Stephenson and Sharp Bros, the L&B's were mostly "Bury" types – indeed Edward Bury was its locomotive superintendent. On the GJR, breakages of the inside-cylinder engines' crank axles led to the redesign of several with outside cylinders under locomotive superintendent Francis Trevithick. These later became known as the "Old Crewe" types.

After the creation of the LNWR in 1846, Crewe and Wolverton became headquarters of the Northern and Southern Divisions respectively, with Longsight as the headquarters of the North Eastern Division.


In 1922 the LNWR merged with the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway and the North London Railway to form a larger company still called the LNWR.

See:

Locomotives under the LNWR[edit]

The first Northern Division Locomotive Superintendent (at Crewe works) was Francis Trevithick, son of Richard Trevithick, who continued to build the basic 2-2-2 and 2-4-0 designs. Alexander Allan was Works Manager at Crewe from 1843 to 1853.

In 1857 the North Eastern Division locomotive department, with headquarters at Longsight, was absorbed into that of the Northern Division. Trevithick was dismissed and returned to Cornwall with an honorarium, and was replaced at Crewe by John Ramsbottom as Northern Division Superintendent. Ramsbottom began to standardise and modernise the locomotive stock, initially replacing the 2-4-0 goods engines with his "DX" 0-6-0, of which over 900 were built at Crewe from 1858 to 1872.

The first Southern Division Locomotive Superintendent was Edward Bury who had been in charge of the London and Birmingham Railway locomotive department at Wolverton since before that railway opened. He resigned in 1847 and later became General Manager of the Great Northern Railway. His successor at Wolverton was James McConnell who had previously worked for the Birmingham and Gloucester Railway at their Bromsgrove works. Among the classes built under his superintendence were the very successful 2-2-2 "Bloomers", developed from a Bury design, and the Wolverton Express Goods 0-6-0 class, built from 1854 to 1863. The Southern Division's trains were longer and heavier, and 0-6-0 locos had been introduced as early as 1845.

There were distinct differences between the Southern and Northern Division locomotive policies. Wolverton had been set up in 1838 for repair work only, the locomotives being purchased from outside firms, whereas Crewe, from its foundation in 1843, was a locomotive-building works. Only a dozen locomotives were built at Wolverton from 1845 to the end of 1854, but in the following year construction started in earnest, and another 154 were completed in 1855–1863. The Southern Division engines were bigger, heavier and more expensive than those of the Northern Division, and after a disagreement with the cost-conscious Chairman, Richard Moon, in 1862 McConnell was obliged to resign. The Southern and Northern locomotive departments were amalgamated, and John Ramsbottom became Locomotive Superintendent of the entire LNWR, his headquarters remaining at Crewe. Locomotive building and repairing were gradually run down at Wolverton, which became the LNWR's carriage works in 1865.

All LNWR locomotives were painted black from 1873; for many years the goods engines were plain black, but passenger engines were given red, white and blue-grey lining, and most goods engines were similarly lined from the 1890s. Before 1873 locomotives had been green with black lines, and this seems to have been the normal livery from London & Birmingham and Grand Junction times.

In the 1850s on the Southern Division, McConnell had some of his express engines painted green with more elaborate patterns of lining in various colours, and in 1861–62 a few Southern Division engines were painted a very dark plum-red. The widespread belief that McConnell's engines were painted vermilion is incorrect, despite its constant repetition.

John Ramsbottom (1857–1871)[edit]

Image Class Type Quantity Manufacturer Date LMS
Class
LMS
Numbers
Notes
271 0-6-0 7 Sharp, Stewart & Co. 1857 [1]
LNWR DX Goods Locomotive 578.png DX 0-6-0 943 (including 86 for the L&YR) Crewe Works 1858–72 [2] 500 later rebuilt as 'Special DX'
D 0-6-0 1 Longsight Works 1859 [3]
Ostrich 0-6-0 2 Beyer, Peacock & Co. 1859 [3]
LNWR Lady of the Lake class 804 Stoult at Rugby.jpg Problem 2-2-2 60 Crewe Works 1859–65 [4] Also called Lady of the Lake class
Crewe Works Tramway 0-4-0T 7 Crewe Works 1862–1875 [5][6] 18-inch gauge. Named Tiny, Pet, Nipper, Topsy, Midge, Dickie, and Billie.
Wolverton Express Goods 0-6-0 10 Wolverton Works 1863 [7] McConnell design, last to be built at Wolverton
4ft Shunter 0-4-0ST 36 Crewe Works 1863–70 7206-7210 [8] 835
Samson 2-4-0 90 Crewe Works 1863–79 [9]
Newton 2-4-0 96 Crewe Works 1866–73 [10] All 'renewed' as "Renewed Precedent" class
Wolverton Carriage Works 1F 'Special Tank' 0-6-0 saddle-tank geograph-2823601-by-Ben-Brooksbank.jpg Special Tank 0-6-0ST 260 Crewe Works 1870–80 1F 7220–7457 [11]
Metropolitan Tank 4-4-0T 16 Beyer, Peacock & Co. 1871–72 [12] Built by Beyer-Peacock. Same design as used by Metropolitan. 10 rebuilt as 4-4-2T and one as compound (see below)

Francis Webb (1871–1903)[edit]

Image Class Type Quantity Manufacturer Date LMS
Class
LMS
Numbers
Notes
1201 0-4-0ST 10 Crewe Works 1872 7211–7212 [13]
LNWR Webb 17in coal engine 3209.jpg 17in Coal Engine 0-6-0 500 Crewe Works 1873–92 2F 8088-8314 [14] 45 rebuilt as pannier-tanks (see below)
Precursor 2-4-0 40 Crewe Works 1874–79 [15]
Precedent 2-4-0 70 Crewe Works 1875–82 [16] 62 'renewed' and 8 rebuilt as "Renewed Precedent" class
Red Wharf Bay and Benllech railway station 1909.jpg 2234 2-4-0T 50 Crewe Works 1876–80 1P 6420–6434 [17] nicknamed “Chopper Tanks”
LNWR 4ft 6in 2-4-2 Tank 2288.jpg 4′ 6″ Tank 2-4-2T 220 Crewe Works 1879–98 1P 6515–6600 [18]
Workington Locomotive Depot geograph-2806049-by-Ben-Brooksbank.jpg 18in Goods 0-6-0 310 Crewe Works 1880–1902 2F 8315–8624 [19] Nicknamed “Cauliflowers”
2360 0-4-0WT 10 Crewe Works 1880–82 7200–7205 [20] Double-ended, oil-fired dock shunters; 4 engines used as service stock
Birmingham New Street 8 geograph-2211797.jpg Coal Tank 0-6-2T 300 Crewe Works 1881–97 1F 7550–7841 [21]
Special DX 0-6-0 500 Crewe Works 1881–98  ? 8000–8087 [2] Rebuilds of DX
LNWR 2-2-2-0 66 Experiment Webb.jpg Experiment 2-2-2-0 30 Crewe Works 1882–84 [22] 3-cylinder Compound
No.2062 4-2-2-0 1 Crewe Works 1884 [23] 3-cylinder Compound rebuild of Metropolitan tank
Dreadnought 2-2-2-0 40 Crewe Works 1884–88 [24] 3-cylinder Compound
No.687 2-2-2-2T 1 Crewe Works 1885 [25] 3-cylinder Compound "Fore-and-Aft"
No.600 2-2-2-2T 1 Crewe Works 1887 [25] 3-cylinder Compound
No.777 2-2-4-0T 1 Crewe Works 1887 [25] 3-cylinder Compound
2-4-0 L&NWR 1532 Hampden.jpg Renewed Precedent 2-4-0 166 Crewe Works 1887–1901 1P 5000–5079 [26] Nominal renewals of 96 Newtons & 80 Precedents
LNWR Webb 3-cylinder compound locomotive 1301 Teutonic (Howden, Boys' Book of Locomotives, 1907).jpg Teutonic 2-2-2-0 10 Crewe Works 1889–90 [27] 3-cylinder Compound
Waterloo 2-4-0 90 Crewe Works 1889–96 1P 5080–5109 [28] Also known as Whitworth Class
LNWR 5ft 6in 2-4-2 Tank.jpg 5′ 6″ Tank 2-4-2T 160 Crewe Works 1890–97 1P 6601–6757 [29]
1201 0-4-0ST 10 Crewe Works 1892 7213–7216 [13] 3 rebuilt as 0-4-2T Crane Tanks
Metropolitan Tank 4-4-2T 10 Crewe Works 1892 [12] Rebuilds of Metropolitan 4-4-0T above
No.2524 0-8-0 1 Crewe Works 1892 [30] Basis of "C" class, later rebuilt as D, then G1.
LNWR Webb 3-cylinder compound locomotive 2053 Greater Britain (Howden, Boys' Book of Locomotives, 1907).jpg Greater Britain 2-2-2-2 10 Crewe Works 1892–94 [27] 3-cylinder Compound
A 0-8-0 111 Crewe Works 1893–1900 [31][32] 3-cylinder Compound, all rebuilt as C (15), C1 (34) or D (62)
835 0-4-2WT 5 Crewe Works 1894 [33] Crane Tank
John Hick 2-2-2-2 10 Crewe Works 1894–98 [34] 3-cylinder Compound
LNWR 0-4-2T saddle tank locomotive 317 (Howden, Boys' Book of Locomotives, 1907).jpg 317 0-4-2ST 20 Crewe Works 1896–1901 1P 6400-6419 [35][36] also known as “Dock Tank” or “Bissel Tank”
Iron Duke 4-4-0 1 Crewe Works 1897 [37] Initially 4-cylinder simple, converted to Compound, then to "Renown"
Black Prince 4-4-0 1 Crewe Works 1897 [37] 4-cylinder Compound, rebuilt as "Renown"
Leighton Buzzard Station geograph-2211751.jpg 18in Tank 0-6-2T 80 Crewe Works 1898–1902 1P 6860-6936 [38]
Jubilee 4-4-0 38 Crewe Works 1899–1900 2P 5110-5117 [39] 4-cylinder Compound, all but 3 rebuilt as "Renown"s
LNWR Webb 4-cylinder compound locomotive 1942 (Howden, Boys' Book of Locomotives, 1907).jpg Alfred the Great 4-4-0 40 Crewe Works 1901–03 2P 5118-5130 [40] 4-cylinder Compound, 33 rebuilt as 'Renown'
LNWR No1881.JPG B 0-8-0 170 Crewe Works 1901–04 3F 8900-8952 [41][42] 4-cylinder Compound, most rebuilt as E (26), F (10), G (32) or G1 (91)
1400 4-6-0 30 Crewe Works 1903–05 [43] 4-cylinder Compound, nicknamed “Bill Baileys”, all scrapped before grouping

George Whale (1903–1909)[edit]

Image Class Type Quantity Manufacturer Date LMS
Class
LMS
Numbers
Notes
LNWR goods train leaving Crewe (Howden, Boys' Book of Locomotives, 1907).jpg C 0-8-0 15 Crewe Works 1904–06 4F 8953–8967 [44] Simple rebuilds of Class A, 5 rebuilt as G1
E 2-8-0 26 Crewe Works 1904–07 3F 9600–9609 [45] Rebuilds of Class B, small boiler, 2 rebuilt as F, 18 as G1.
LNWR Class F 2-8-0 locomotive, 1273 (Howden, Boys' Book of Locomotives, 1907).jpg F 2-8-0 12 Crewe Works 1904–07 3F 9610–9615 [46] Rebuilds of Class B (10) and E (2), large boiler. 10 later rebuilt as G1
LNWR Precursor class locomotive 513 Precursor (Howden, Boys' Book of Locomotives, 1907).jpg Precursor 4-4-0 130 Crewe Works 1904–07 2P/3P 5187–5319 [47] Many later equipped with superheaters
Crewe works 6 geograph-2219130.jpg 0-6-0PT 45 Crewe Works 1905–07 1F 7458–7502 Rebuilds of Coal (tender) engines
LNWR 4-6-0 locomotive 66 Experiment (Howden, Boys' Book of Locomotives, 1907).jpg Experiment 4-6-0 105 Crewe Works 1905–10 3P 5450–5554 [48]
D 0-8-0 63 Crewe Works 1906–09 4F 9002–9064 [49] Simple rebuilds of Class A and no.2524. All later rebuilt as G1
LNWR Precursor class tank locomotive 528 (Howden, Boys' Book of Locomotives, 1907).jpg Precursor Tank 4-4-2T 50 Crewe Works 1906–09 2P 6780–6829 [50]
19in Goods 4-6-0 170 Crewe Works 1906–09 4F 8700–8869 [51]
Renown 4-4-0 70 Crewe Works 1908–24 2P 5131–5186 Simple rebuilds of 'Jubilee' & 'Alfred the Great' classes
C1 0-8-0 34 Crewe Works 1909 3F 8968–9001 [52] Simple rebuilds of Class A

Charles John Bowen Cooke (1909–1920)[edit]

With a reasonably comprehensive fleet, Bowen Cooke arranged exchanges with other railways in 1909 and 1910 to assess the scope for improvements, among which was superheating.

Image Class Type Quantity Manufacturer Date LMS
Class
LMS
Numbers
Notes
George the Fifth 4-4-0 90 Crewe Works 1910–15 3P 5320–5409 [53] Superheated, 80 original, 10 conversions of 'Queen Mary's
Queen Mary 4-4-0 10 Crewe Works 1910 [54] All later converted to George the Fifth class
G 0-8-0 92 Crewe Works 1910 4F 9065–9153 [55] 60 new, 32 rebuilds of B. All rebuilt as G1
2665 4-6-2T 47 Crewe Works 1910–16 3P 6950–6996 [56] 12 built saturated, later had superheaters added, remainder began superheated. Nicknamed ‘Prince of Wales Tank’
Prince of Wales 4-6-0 246 Crewe Works (135)
North British Loco (20)
Wm Beardmore & Co. (91)
1911–24 3P 5600–5845 [57] Superheated
Crewe 5 works geograph-2210708.jpg 1185 0-8-2T 30 Crewe Works 1911–17 4F 7870–7899 [58]
Bescot Walsall - Wednesbury freight geograph-2784752-by-Ben-Brooksbank.jpg G1 0-8-0 449 Crewe Works 1912–18 6F 9154–9394 [59] Superheated, boiler 160psi. 170 new, rest rebuilds of B (91), C (5), D (63), E (18), F (10), G (92)
LMS Enlarged Claughton class, 5986 (CJ Allen, Steel Highway, 1928).jpg Claughton 4-6-0 130 Crewe Works 1913–21 5P 5900–6029 [60] Superheated, 42 later 'renewed' as Patriots by LMS
MM 2-8-0 30 R. Stephenson & Co. (2)
North British Loco (28)
1919 7F 9616–9645 [61] Robinson ROD type. Bought from the government. Another 151 on hire, but returned.

H. P. M. Beames (1920–1922)[edit]

Image Class Type Quantity Manufacturer Date LMS
Class
LMS
Numbers
Notes
Rugby Locomotive Depot ex-LNW 0-8-0 geograph-2785114-by-Ben-Brooksbank.jpg G2 0-8-0 60 Crewe Works 1921–22 7F 9395–9454 [62] Superheated, boiler 175 psi. All new engines
Swansea Paxton Street 1 Locomotive Depot geograph-2210749.jpg 380 0-8-4T 30 Crewe Works 1923–24 5F 7930–7959 [63] Superheated

George Hughes (1922)[edit]

In 1922 the LNWR merged with the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway (L&YR) to form a larger company still called the LNWR. George Hughes, formerly CME of the L&YR became CME of the LNWR. A year later the large company was grouped into the LMS and Hughes became CME of the LMS.

Locomotives of the North London Railway[edit]

In the early days, locomotives were bought from outside builders but, from 1863, they were built in the North London Railway's workshops at Bow, London.

William Adams (1854-1873)[edit]

  • 4-4-0T (16" inside cylinders) built 1863-1865
  • 4-4-0T (17" inside cylinders) built 1865-1869
  • 4-4-0T (17" outside cylinders) built 1868-1876
  • 4-4-0T (17½" outside cylinders) built 1876-?

John C. Park (1873-1893)[edit]

Henry J. Pryce (1893-1908)[edit]

Influence on LMS policy[edit]

Crewe's influence on the locomotives of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway was less than that of its great rival the Midland Railway. However, the LMS did produce an unsuccessful "Midlandised" version of the G class 0-8-0s, see LMS Class 7F 0-8-0.

Preservation[edit]

Preserved L&NWR locomotives are:

Image LNWR
No.
LNWR
class
Type Manufacturer Serial
No.
Date Notes
Bury Coppernob Lion at Rainhill.jpg 116 0-4-2 Todd, Kitson and Laird 1838 ex Liverpool and Manchester Railway 57 Lion; static display, Museum of Liverpool
London Science Museum04.jpg 1868 2-2-2 Crewe Works 1845 ex Grand Junction Railway 49 Columbine; static exhibit (no tender); National Collection, Science Museum, London
LNWR locomotive, "Cornwall".jpg 3020
Cornwall
2-2-2 Crewe Works 1847 Static exhibit; National Collection, Shildon
Hugh llewelyn Pet (6684190279).jpg Pet Crewe
Works
Tramway
0-4-0ST Crewe Works 1865 18-inch gauge; static exhibit; National Collection, York
1439 835 0-4-0ST Crewe Works 842 1865 Renumbered 1985 in 1885 and 3042 in 1891, sold to industry. To Staffordshire County Museum
Webb Coal Tank No.58926.JPG 1054 Coal
Tank
0-6-2T Crewe Works 2979 1888 LMS 7799, BR 57926;
790 Hardwicke at NRM York - DSC07757.JPG 790
Hardwicke
Renewed
Precedent
2-4-0 Crewe Works 3286 1892 LNS 5031; static exhibit; National Collection, York
49395 Super D at Heywood.JPG 485 G2 0-8-0 Crewe Works 5662 1921 LMS 9395

A full-size working replica of an LNWR Bloomer Class locomotive was begun at Tyseley in 1986, was 90% completed by 1990, but has never been finished (2014).

Another full-size replica of the same type (but non-working) was built in Milton Keynes, and was exhibited outside the station there from 1991; it is now (2014) stored in Wolverton railway works.

A miniature one-sixth scale locomotive 'Orion' was built by G R S Darroch during his time at Crewe Works. It is based on the LNWR Alfred the Great Class and is the only surviving Crewe built Webb Compound. (Completed circa 1910-12) The locomotive is in the ownership of the Stephenson Locomotive Society and currently based at Shildon Locomotion Museum.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Baxter 1978, pp. 123–124.
  2. ^ a b Baxter 1978, pp. 124–157.
  3. ^ a b Baxter 1978, p. 124.
  4. ^ Baxter 1978, pp. 116–118.
  5. ^ Baxter 1978, pp. 177.
  6. ^ Baxter 1979, pp. 185.
  7. ^ Baxter 1978, pp. 157–158.
  8. ^ Baxter 1978, pp. 122–123.
  9. ^ Baxter 1978, pp. 118–120.
  10. ^ Baxter 1978, pp. 120–122.
  11. ^ Baxter 1978, pp. 158–177.
  12. ^ a b Baxter 1979, p. 201–202.
  13. ^ a b Baxter 1979, pp. 203–204.
  14. ^ Baxter 1979, pp. 214–232.
  15. ^ Baxter 1979, pp. 185–186.
  16. ^ Baxter 1979, pp. 186–187.
  17. ^ Baxter 1979, pp. 204–205.
  18. ^ Baxter 1979, pp. 205–210.
  19. ^ Baxter 1979, pp. 232–239.
  20. ^ Baxter 1979, p. 204.
  21. ^ Baxter 1979, pp. 240–247.
  22. ^ Baxter 1979, p. 194.
  23. ^ Baxter 1979, p. 202.
  24. ^ Baxter 1979, pp. 194–195.
  25. ^ a b c Baxter 1979, p. 210.
  26. ^ Baxter 1979, pp. 188–191.
  27. ^ a b Baxter 1979, p. 196.
  28. ^ Baxter 1979, pp. 191–193.
  29. ^ Baxter 1979, pp. 210–213.
  30. ^ Baxter 1979, p. 250.
  31. ^ Baxter 1979, pp. 250–254.
  32. ^ http://www.lnwrs.org.uk/GoodsLocos/Loco10.php
  33. ^ Baxter 1979, pp. 213–214.
  34. ^ Baxter 1979, pp. 196–197.
  35. ^ Baxter 1979, p. 214.
  36. ^ http://www.lnwrs.org.uk/GoodsLocos/Loco08.php
  37. ^ a b Baxter 1979, p. 197.
  38. ^ Baxter 1979, pp. 247–249.
  39. ^ Baxter 1979, pp. 197–199.
  40. ^ Baxter 1979, pp. 199–201.
  41. ^ Baxter 1979, pp. 254–202.
  42. ^ http://www.lnwrs.org.uk/GoodsLocos/Loco11.php
  43. ^ Baxter 1979, pp. 239–240.
  44. ^ http://www.lnwrs.org.uk/GoodsLocos/Loco12.php
  45. ^ http://www.lnwrs.org.uk/GoodsLocos/Loco14.php
  46. ^ http://www.lnwrs.org.uk/GoodsLocos/Loco15.php
  47. ^ Baxter 1979, pp. 260–264.
  48. ^ Baxter 1979, pp. 265–268.
  49. ^ http://www.lnwrs.org.uk/GoodsLocos/Loco13.php
  50. ^ Baxter 1979, pp. 264–265.
  51. ^ Baxter 1979, pp. 268–271.
  52. ^ http://www.lnwrs.org.uk/GoodsLocos/Loco12.php
  53. ^ Baxter 1979, pp. 272–275.
  54. ^ Baxter 1979, p. 275.
  55. ^ Baxter 1979, pp. 292–294.
  56. ^ Baxter 1979, pp. 290–291.
  57. ^ Baxter 1979, pp. 275–285.
  58. ^ Baxter 1979, pp. 301–302.
  59. ^ Baxter 1979, pp. 294–298.
  60. ^ Baxter 1979, pp. 285–290.
  61. ^ Baxter 1979, pp. 299–301.
  62. ^ Baxter 1979, pp. 298–299.
  63. ^ Baxter 1979, pp. 302–303.
  • Baxter, Bertram (1978). Baxter, David, ed. British Locomotive Catalogue 1825–1923, Volume 2A: London and North Western Railway and its constituent companies. Ashbourne, Derbyshire: Moorland Publishing Company. ISBN 0-903485-51-6. 
  • Baxter, Bertram (1979). Baxter, David, ed. British Locomotive Catalogue 1825–1923, Volume 2B: London and North Western Railway and its constituent companies. Ashbourne, Derbyshire: Moorland Publishing Company. ISBN 0-903485-84-2. 
  • Reed, M. C. (1996). The London & North Western Railway. Atlantic Transport Publishers. 
  • Talbot, Edward (1985). An Illustrated History of LNWR Engines. Oxford Publishing Company. 
  • Yeadon, W. B.. A Compendium of LNWR Locomotives 1912–1949, Volume 1: Passenger Tender Engines. 
  • Yeadon, W. B.. A Compendium of LNWR Locomotives 1912–1949, Volume 2: Goods Tender Engines. 
  • Jack, Harry (2001). Locomotives of the LNWR Southern Division. ISBN 0-901115-89-4. 

External links[edit]