Lörrach

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Lörrach
Aerial view at Lörrach from North
Aerial view at Lörrach from North
Coat of arms of Lörrach
Coat of arms
Lörrach  is located in Germany
Lörrach
Lörrach
Coordinates: 47°37′N 7°40′E / 47.617°N 7.667°E / 47.617; 7.667Coordinates: 47°37′N 7°40′E / 47.617°N 7.667°E / 47.617; 7.667
Country Germany
State Baden-Württemberg
Admin. region Freiburg
District Lörrach
Government
 • Mayor Gudrun Heute-Bluhm (CDU)
Area
 • Total 39.43 km2 (15.22 sq mi)
Population (2012-12-31)[1]
 • Total 48,160
 • Density 1,200/km2 (3,200/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes 79501-79541
Dialling codes (+49) 07621
Vehicle registration

Lörrach is a city in southwest Germany, in the valley of the Wiese, close to the French and the Swiss borders. It is the capital of the district of Lörrach in Baden-Württemberg. The largest industry is the Milka chocolate factory. The city had a population of 10,794 in 1905 and of 47,707 in 2007.

Nearby is the castle of Rötteln on the Wiesental, whose lords became the counts of Hachberg and a residence of the Margraves of Baden; this was destroyed by the troops of Louis XIV in 1678 but was rebuilt in 1867. Lörrach received market rights in 1403, but it did not obtain the privileges of a city until 1682.

After the Napoleonic epoch, the town was included in the Grand Duchy of Baden. On September 21, 1848, Gustav Struve made an attempt to start a revolutionary uprising in Lörrach as part of the Revolutions of 1848-49. It failed, and Struve was caught and imprisoned. Still, Lörrach was officially the capital of Germany for a day.

Lörrach is the hometown of Ottmar Hitzfeld, one of the most successful and most popular football managers in Germany.

Geography[edit]

Lörrach is located in the southernmost part of the Rhine rift valley. The depression is created by tectonic movements, and the area has a high earthquake risk. Several times a year Lörrach is afflicted by slight and medial earthquakes.

The city is located in a valley of the Quaternary period. Lörrach is surrounded by slopes on two sides. The slopes create the southern part of the Wiesental, that is the valley where the Wiese river flows.

Geographical locations of the subdistrict Lörrach:

  • Elevation of the deepest place: 272 m (In the valley Wiesental at the border with Switzerland)
  • Elevation of the highest place: 570 m (In the forest of Rötteln)

The extent of the urban area from south to north is 6.0 km and from east to west 4.6 km. Lörrach is also the capital city of Markgräflerland and a part of the trinational agglomeration area of Basel. Stuttgart is 220 km away from Lörrach, and it takes one hour to drive to Bern or Zürich. The city has several forested hills along the valley Wiesental: Schädelberg, Homburg, Röttler Wald, and Tüllinger Berg.

Lörrach is bounded by many municipalities and the city of Basel. In addition it is located in the foothills of the Black Forest and on the border of Switzerland.

Binzen Rümmingen Steinen
Weil am Rhein Windrose.png Rheinfelden
Basel Riehen Inzlingen
Grenzach-Wyhlen


Climate[edit]

Lörrach's climate is mild, and in the summer it is often hot[clarification needed]. The region of Markgräflerland is the warmest in Germany because of the Mediterranean air current from the valley of the Rhône. Because of its numerous sunny days, the region is dubbed the German Tuscany (German: Die Toskana Deutschlands).

Boroughs and districts[edit]

Lörrach is subdivided into 3 boroughs and 3 districts. In sum the three boroughs have an area of 18.6 km².

Year of
incorporation
Boroughs and districts Area (km²)
1935 Borough Tumringen
1935 Borough Tüllingen 18,6
1908 Borough Stetten
1974 District Haagen 3.6
1975 District Brombach 9.8
1975 District Hauingen 7.4

The three districts have their own administrations with a chief magistrate (Ortsvorsteher). Every five years the citizens of Lörrach elect the council of the districts. The satellite city Salzert was developed in 1963. Inzlingen, close to Lörrach, is an independent municipality, but Lörrach oversees its administration.

History[edit]

Year Event
1102 Lörrach first mentioned as settlement Lorracho.
1403 Rupert of Germany declares Lörrach a market town.
1678 The castle of Rötteln destroyed by the French.
1682 Lörrach granted German civic law by Frederick VII, Margrave of Baden-Durlach.
1702 Battle of Käferholz against the French.
1756 The town receives a new civic law and its first town hall.
1783 Johann Peter Hebel becomes a teacher at the boarding school.
1803 Stetten becomes a part of Baden, having previously belonged to Austria.
1808 In Lörrach, numerous buildings in the classical style are built (synagogue, Stadtkirche and Fridolinskirche)
1835 The state Baden joins the Zollverein.
1848 In September Gustav Struve declares the new German Republic from the town hall of Lörrach after the failed revolution. Some days later he is arrested.
1862 The Wiesentalbahn between Basel, Lörrach, and Schopfheim is opened. A railway connection to Weil and Säckingen is extended to Lörrach in the year 1890. Also was born Carl Christian Renaux in 11 March.
1863 Lörrach becomes a district town.
1871 The first elementary school is opened.
1880 Philippe Suchard creates a chocolate factory in Lörrach.
1908 Incorporation of Stetten; later, Tüllingen und Tumringen (1935), Haagen (voluntary 1974), Brombach und Hauingen (1975), are incorporated.
1945 Air raid on Brombach and Lörrach. On April 24 French troops occupy the city.
1963 Start of construction of the district of Salzert.
1983 The fourth Landesgartenschau of Baden-Wuerttemberg (a national horticultural show) is held in the new park area in the Grütt.
1984 The finished motorway section between High Rhine and Upper Rhine relieves the heavy traffic of the city.
1991 Inauguration of the new pedestrian precinct and the transformation of the city centre.
2010 Two are killed and one injured in a shooting incident at the Saint Elizabeth Hospital.[2]

Population development[edit]

year population year population
1870 9,103 1975 44,179
1890 11,475 1981 40,064
1914 16,293 1990 42,500
1938 20,041 1992 43,976
1950 22,698 1996 44,756
1960 30,546 2000 45,679
1965 31,324 2001 46,272
1973 33,885 2002 46,741
1974 36,231 2004 46,754
Population development

source: Statistisches Landesamt Stuttgart, Statistischer Jahresbericht der Stadt Lörrach.[3]

Coat of arms[edit]

Castle ruin of Rötteln in Lörrach
St. Ottilien, church in Tüllingen

Lörrach received its city rights in 1682 when it became the capital of the Oberamt Rötteln-Sausenberg. At the same time its arms were granted. The arms show a canting lark (Lerche). In 1756 both the city rights and the arms were re-granted by Count Karl Friedrich of Baden. The colours are also the colours of Baden. Even though the arms have not changed since, the shape and size of the lark have changed considerably. The present arms are used since the early 1960s and show a very modern variation of the lark. After municipal reforms, the coat of arms was reconfirmed on November 11, 1975.

Religion[edit]

Christianity:

Lörrach initially belonged to the diocese of Konstanz and was under the archdiocese of Breisgau. In 1529, after the Reformation had been introduced there, the parsonage of Lörrach was occupied from Basel. The reformation in the city was introduced in 1556. After that, Lörrach was for many centuries a predominantly Protestant city. In Rötteln an archdiocese had existed since the beginning of the 15th century which, at the end of the 17th century, shifted to Lörrach. The Protestant pastor of Lörrach was from 1682 an intendant, too. The Stadtkirche is the main church of Lörrach (first mentioned in the 12th century). In addition, Lörrach has a few parishes: Johannespfarrei (founded in 20th century), Pauluspfarrei for the northern city (founded in 1906), Matthäuspfarrei for the eastern city, Inzlingen (founded in 1949), Markuspfarrei (founded in 1956), Salzertgemeinde (founded in 1969), and Friedensgemeinde for the district of Homburg (founded in 1974).

The borough of Stetten was controlled by Austria until 1803. Therefore Stetten has a Catholic tradition, although the reformation had been introduced years before. Because of a contract with Austria, Stetten again became Catholic. At first the parish of Stetten also served the resident Catholics of Lörrach. They held their church services in the new church, the Fridolinskirche (1822). The original church of Stettens was founded in the 13th century. Between 1864 and 1867 in Lörrach its own parish church (St. Bonifatius) was built, at which a curacy was created that was raised to the status of a parsonage in 1882. A second Catholic church (St. Peter) was built in 1964. In Brombach they had already built in 1900 a church (St. Josephskirche), which has been since 1911 a parsonage. All Catholic parishes of Lörrach today form together with the neighbouring parishes of St. Peter and Paul in Inzlingen a group pastoral ministry within the deanery of Wiesental belonging to the archbishopric Freiburg.

Today there is a slight predominance of the Lutheran denomination. In the borough of Stetten exists a relative Catholic majority.

Beside the two large churches there are also parishes which belong to free churches. For example, the Freie evangelische Gemeinde or FeG Lörrach (English: Free Evangelical community).

Politics[edit]

Political proportion[edit]

Town Hall of Lörrach (cognomen: Langer Egon)

The municipal council of Lörrach consists of 32 volunteer aldermen and alderwomen, whose chairman is the Oberbürgermeisterin (mayor). The municipal council is elected for a period of five years by the citizenry.

The last election from 13 June 2004 had a percentage of voting of 41.2% and resulted in the following allocation of seats in the city hall of Lörrach:

Party Proportion * Seats *
CDU 33.3% -5.0% 11 -7
SPD 21.0% -2.5% 7 -4
Freie Wähler 15.8% +1.7% 5 -3
GRÜNE 15.7% +4.0% 5 ±0
FDP 8.0% +5.1% 2 +1
KUL (1) 6.1% -0.5% 2 -1
total 100% 32 -14

Source:[4]
(1) Kommunale Unabhängige Liste (English: Municipal autonomous list)
* variance to the municipal council elections of 1999.

Heads of city[edit]

The chronicle of Lörrach reports of a Johann von Schallbach in the year 1366 as the first Vogt. The office designation of mayor was reserved for the local chiefs of the cities. The first mayor of Lörrach was Marx Christoph Leibfried, who took office in 1882, the year of the first German town law of the city. He was employed by the Markgraf. Since 1956 the city head is the Oberbürgermeister, who is selected directly by the citizens.

Mayors since 1804[edit]

Curatorship Name Curatorship Name
1804–1807 Johann Martin Strohmeier 1861–1863 Karl Wenner
1807–1810 Johann Jakob Grether 1863–1869 Paul Feldkirchner
1810–1814 Johann Kaspar Schöffel 1869–1871 Karl Robert Gebhardt
1814–1820 Johann Georg Grether 1872–1906 Johann Josef Grether
1820–1826 Jakob Rupp 1906–1927 Dr. Erwin Gugelmeier *
1826–1831 Friedrich Hüglin 1927–1933 Dr. Heinrich Graser
1831–1832 Ernst Schultz 1933–1945 Reinhard Boos
1832–1835 Johann Georg Grether 1945–1948 Joseph Pfeffer
1835–1841 Ernst Schultz 1948–1960 Arend Braye *
1841–1844 Friedrich Hüglin 1960–1984 Egon Hugenschmidt *
1844–1849 Karl Wenner 1984–1995 Rainer Offergeld *
1849–1861 Johann Ludwig Calame 1995 - 2014 Gudrun Heute-Bluhm *

Source:[5]
* Oberbürgermeister

Twin cities[edit]

Annually, numerous meetings and exchanges between schools and associations take place. The Hebel Gymnasium School in Lörrach takes part in an annual school exchange with The Mountbatten School in Romsey, England. With Vyshhorod in the Ukraine exists a friendly connection. In the year 2004 Lörrach International was created, an association for the advancement of the partnerships between cities and international friendships. In the year 2006 a cultural partnership was substantiated with Edirne in Turkey.

Economics and infrastructure[edit]

The town supports approximately 18,300 jobs. Retailers gained a business volume of 342.7 million euros in the year 2004. Approximately a fifth of this business volume was generated by customers from Switzerland.

Transport[edit]

Bundesautobahn 98

Bundesautobahn 98 passes Lörrach. Thereby it has a direct connection to the Bundesautobahn 5 and to the A35 autoroute in France. The A2 motorway and the A3 motorway of Switzerland are also near Lörrach. The Bundesstraße B 317, from Titisee-Neustadt across the pass of the Feldberg, is the most important arterial road of the city. The Bundesstraße 317 is interrupted by Switzerland. At present the B 317 is built through the Swiss territory as duty-free road.

In Lörrach there is a terminal where car drivers can travel together with their cars by train. The terminal connects Lörrach with Hildesheim, Bremen, Hamburg and Berlin. The railway connections Linie S5 (Weil am Rhein - Lörrach - Steinen) and Linie S6 (Basel SBB - Lörrach - Steinen - Zell im Wiesental) - called the red line - are parts of the Regio S-Bahn Basel. In 2005 the railway station was renovated and was developed suitable for the handicapped. The modern Stadler FLIRT-Trains of the Swiss Federal Railways have been used since 2005. From 1919 to 1939 as well as from 1947 to 1967 Line 6 of the tram of Basel operated as the urban tram of Lörrach. Lörrach has some local and regional bus connections. They belong to the Regio Verkehrsverbund Lörrach. The nearest international airport, the EuroAirport Basel-Mulhouse-Freiburg, is 14 km away from Lörrach.

Administrative bodies, organisations and courts[edit]

Lörrach as a district accommodates the district administration office and a highway maintenance depot. Lörrach has several schools of all school types plus a Folk high school, a municipal library with over 65,000 books, a scientific regional library,[6] a school of music, and two other smaller libraries. The local court of Lörrach is responsible for cities and municipalities in the district. Furthermore, there is a labour court in Lörrach, which constitutes the first jurisdiction for the districts of Lörrach and Waldshut. In addition there are three Superior Courts of Justice in Radolfzell am Bodensee. Lörrach also has a tax office, a labour office, a motorway police (German: Autobahnpolizei), and a criminal investigation department. Lörrach's hospital opened on 1 October 1845, at that time as an urban infirmary. On the 1 January 1994 the three hospitals of Lörrach, Rheinfelden, and Schopfheim were pooled into a GmbH. Today the hospital of Lörrach has 351 beds.

Companies in Lörrach[edit]

The largest company and employer in Lörrach is the chocolate manufacturer Kraft Foods Deutschland GmbH, well known for the trademarks Milka and Suchard. A second important company is GABA Deutschland GmbH, a pharmaceutical company that produces the famous elmex, meridol and aronal toothpastes. Other companies:

Media[edit]

Print media: Two daily newspapers are based in Lörrach and have a local editorial office: Badische Zeitung and Die Oberbadische. Die Oberbadische (formerly Oberbadisches Volksblatt), published in the city, is Lörrach's oldest newspaper (founded 1885). In addition the Oberbadische Verlagshaus publishes the two newspapers Weiler Zeitung und Markgräfler Tagblatt. The city magazine Puls is published monthly and reports on events in and around Lörrach.

Broadcast and television: The radio programme of Südwestrundfunk has a regional office in Lörrach. There they produce parts of the radio program SWR4 Baden-Wuerttemberg.

Personalities[edit]

Born in Lörrach[edit]

Others[edit]

Music[edit]

Lörrach is the home to an annual voice festival (Stimmen) that takes place in early summer, in 2010 from the 14th of July to the 8th of August. The festival has many venues in and around Lörrach including Weil am Rhein. The motto of the festival is "Passion that sounds" (German: Leidenschaft, die klingt) (alternate translation: "Passion you can hear"). The festival exists since 1994.

See also[edit]

Sources[edit]

  1. ^ [Statistisches Bundesamt – Gemeinden in Deutschland mit Bevölkerung am 31.12.2012 (XLS-Datei; 4,0 MB) (Einwohnerzahlen auf Grundlage des Zensus 2011) "Gemeinden in Deutschland mit Bevölkerung am 31.12.2012"]. Statistisches Bundesamt (in German). 12 November 2013. 
  2. ^ "Fatal shooting at German hospital". BBC News. 19 September 2010. 
  3. ^ "Population development from Statistischen Landesamt Stuttgart". Statistik-bw.de. 2011-07-29. Retrieved 2012-01-15. 
  4. ^ "Results of the municipal council election of 2004". Statistik-bw.de. 2011-07-29. Retrieved 2012-01-15. 
  5. ^ Lörrach: Landschaft - Geschichte - Kultur, Seite 683 f
  6. ^ "The history of the Wissenschaftliche Regionalbibliothek Lörrach (WRB)". Foerderkreis-regionalbibliothek.de. Retrieved 2012-01-15. 

External links[edit]