A logarithmic spiral, equiangular spiral or growth spiral is a self-similar spiral curve which often appears in nature. The logarithmic spiral was first described by Descartes and later extensively investigated by Jacob Bernoulli, who called it Spira mirabilis, "the marvelous spiral".
In parametric form, the curve is
with real numbers and .
The derivative of is proportional to the parameter . In other words, it controls how "tightly" and in which direction the spiral spirals. In the extreme case that () the spiral becomes a circle of radius . Conversely, in the limit that approaches infinity (φ → 0) the spiral tends toward a straight half-line. The complement of φ is called the pitch.
Spira mirabilis and Jacob Bernoulli
Spira mirabilis, Latin for "miraculous spiral", is another name for the logarithmic spiral. Although this curve had already been named by other mathematicians, the specific name ("miraculous" or "marvelous" spiral) was given to this curve by Jacob Bernoulli, because he was fascinated by one of its unique mathematical properties: the size of the spiral increases but its shape is unaltered with each successive curve, a property known as self-similarity. Possibly as a result of this unique property, the spira mirabilis has evolved in nature, appearing in certain growing forms such as nautilus shells and sunflower heads. Jacob Bernoulli wanted such a spiral engraved on his headstone along with the phrase "Eadem mutata resurgo" ("Although changed, I shall arise the same."), but, by error, an Archimedean spiral was placed there instead.
The logarithmic spiral can be distinguished from the Archimedean spiral by the fact that the distances between the turnings of a logarithmic spiral increase in geometric progression, while in an Archimedean spiral these distances are constant.
Logarithmic spirals are self-similar in that the result of applying any similarity transformation to the spiral is congruent to the original untransformed spiral. Scaling by a factor , for an integer b, with the center of scaling at the origin, gives the same curve as the original; other scale factors give a curve that is rotated from the original position of the spiral. Logarithmic spirals are also congruent to their own involutes, evolutes, and the pedal curves based on their centers.
Starting at a point and moving inward along the spiral, one can circle the origin an unbounded number of times without reaching it; yet, the total distance covered on this path is finite; that is, the limit as goes toward is finite. This property was first realized by Evangelista Torricelli even before calculus had been invented. The total distance covered is , where is the straight-line distance from to the origin.
The exponential function exactly maps all lines not parallel with the real or imaginary axis in the complex plane, to all logarithmic spirals in the complex plane with centre at 0. (Up to adding integer multiples of to the lines, the mapping of all lines to all logarithmic spirals is onto.) The pitch angle of the logarithmic spiral is the angle between the line and the imaginary axis.
The golden spiral is a logarithmic spiral that grows outward by a factor of the golden ratio for every 90 degrees of rotation (pitch about 17.03239 degrees). It can be approximated by a "Fibonacci spiral", made of a sequence of quarter circles with radii proportional to Fibonacci numbers.
Logarithmic spirals in nature
In several natural phenomena one may find curves that are close to being logarithmic spirals. Here follows some examples and reasons:
- The approach of a hawk to its prey. Their sharpest view is at an angle to their direction of flight; this angle is the same as the spiral's pitch.
- The approach of an insect to a light source. They are used to having the light source at a constant angle to their flight path. Usually the sun (or moon for nocturnal species) is the only light source and flying that way will result in a practically straight line.
- The arms of spiral galaxies. Our own galaxy, the Milky Way, has several spiral arms, each of which is roughly a logarithmic spiral with pitch of about 12 degrees.
- The nerves of the cornea (this is, corneal nerves of the subepithelial layer terminate near superficial epithelial layer of the cornea in a logarithmic spiral pattern).
- Many biological structures including the shells of mollusks. In these cases, the reason may be construction from expanding similar shapes, as shown for polygonal figures in the accompanying graphic.
- Logarithmic spiral beaches can form as the result of wave refraction and diffraction by the coast. Half Moon Bay (California) is an example of such a type of beach.
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- Jim Wilson, Equiangular Spiral (or Logarithmic Spiral) and Its Related Curves, University of Georgia (1999)
- Alexander Bogomolny, Spira Mirabilis - Wonderful Spiral, at cut-the-knot
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Logarithmic spiral.|
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- SpiralZoom.com, an educational website about the science of pattern formation, spirals in nature, and spirals in the mythic imagination.