|Celebrations||Bonfire, song and dance( bhangra & gidda )|
Lohri (Punjabi: ਲੋਹੜੀ (Gurmukhi), लोहड़ी (Devanagari), لوہڑی (Shahmukhi)) is an extremely popular festival celebrated by the Punjabi people. This agricultural winter festival is celebrated in Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, Uttrakhand and Jammu.
The origins of Lohri are many and link the festival to Punjab. Many people believe the festival was originally celebrated on winter solstice day, being the shortest day and the longest night of the year. With time, the festival spread to the states adjoining Punjab - Sindh, Jammu, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi.
Lohri and winter solstice
There are many origins of Lohri: all forming part of folklore. However, the main theme of Lohri is the belief that Lohri is the cultural celebration of the winter solstice. Lohri is meant to be celebrated on the shortest day of the year. A key feature of Lohri is the bonfire. Lighting of the fire has been common in winter solstice festivals throughout time: it signifies the return of longer days. For some the bonfire has a religious meaning, a remnant of pagan origins, perhaps? For others, the bonfire is no more than a tradition.
Going forward, instead of celebrating Lohri on the day winter solstice occurs, Punjabis celebrate it on the last day of the month during which winter solstice takes place. This is due to linking Lohri to the Bikrami calendar and the twinning of the festival with Makar Sankranti.
According to folk lore, in ancient times Lohri was celebrated on winter solstice day. It is for this reason that people believe the Lohri night is meant to be the longest night of the year and on the day after Lohri, day light is meant to increase. The day after Lohri is celebrated as Makar Sankranti when the days are meant to start getting longer.
However, scientifically, the shortest day of the year is around December 21–22 after which the days begin to get longer. Accordingly, winter solstice begins on December 21 or December 22 and Lohri ought to be celebrated on the day of winter solstice.
Punjabis, irrespective of their religion, continue to practice their Punjabi Folk Religion. Respect to the seasons and the natural elements of fire, wind, water and the earth is very important. Lohri is a festival dedicated to the end of the Winter season whereas Teej (known as Teeyan in Punjabi) is dedicated to the rain/Monsoon season and Basant is dedicated to the Spring season.
Lohri and harvest festival
Lohri is traditionally associated with the harvest of the rabi crops. People take peanuts, rewri, flour, butter and various food items to places of religious worship to thank God for a good harvest.'
Lohri and the financial new year
Punjabi farmers see the day after Lohri as the financial new year. It is a very important day.
Over time, people have associated Lohri to the tale of Dulla Bhatti. The central character of most Lohri songs is Dulla Bhatti,who lived in Punjab during the reign of Mughal Emperor Akbar. He was regarded as a hero in Punjab. Besides robbing the rich, he rescued girls being forcibly taken to be sold in slave market of the Middle East from the Sandal Bar region. He arranged their marriages to boys of their religion with rituals and provided them with dowries. So every other Lohri song has words to express gratitude to Dulla Bhatti.
Dulla Bhatti was a rebel whose lineage was of Bhatti Rajputs . His ancestors were the rulers of Pindi Bhattian in Sandal Bar area of present day Pakistan. He was a hero of all Punjabis and his var (life story) is available on the internet.
Other legends of the origin of Lohri
Some people believe that Lohri has derived its name from Loi, the wife of Saint Kabir.
There is a legend amongst some people that Lohri comes from the word 'loh', which means the light and the warmness of fire.
Holika, Lohri and Prahlad
According to another legend Holika and Lohri were sisters. While the former perished in the Holi fire, the latter survived with Prahlad.
Til and Reodi
Eating of til (sesame seeds) and rorhi is considered to be essential on Lohri day. Perhaps the words til and rorhi merged to become tilorhi, which eventually got shortened to Lohri.
As Lohri has been linked to the Bikrami calendar, the festival has been twinned with the astrological festival of Makar Sankranti. Other cultures observe winter solstice as per its original meaning (see winter solstice).
Lohri falls in the month of Paush i.e. around 13 January, as per the Gregorian calendar. It is, actually, celebrated a day before Makara Sankranthi, as it marks the end of the winter season. The sun usually enters the Nirayana Makara rashi (Capricorn) on January 14 (99% of the time). However, there are times when the sun could enter the zodiac a day before or a day after January 14. Regardless, Lohri is still celebrated a day before Makar Sankranti. Makara sankranti marks beginning of the solar maagha masa, and Lohri must be celebrated on the last day of the solar Dhanur masa, which also marks the exit of the sun from Dhanu rashi (Sagittarius).
During the day, children go from door to door singing folk songs in praise of Dulha Bhatti. These children are given sweets and savories, and occasionally, money. Turning them back empty-handed is regarded inauspicious.
The collections gathered by the children are known as Lohri and consist of til, gachchak, crystal sugar, gur (jaggery), moongphali (peanuts) and phuliya or popcorn. Lohri is then distributed at night during the festival. Till, peanuts, popcorn and other food items are also thrown into the fire.
The bonfire ceremony differs depending on the location in Punjab. In some parts, a small image of the Lohri goddess is made with gobar (cattle dung) decorating it, kindling a fire beneath it and chanting its praises. In other parts, the Lohri fire consists of cow dung and wood with no reference to the Lohri goddess.
The bonfire is lit at sunset in the main village square. People toss sesame seeds, gur, sugar-candy and rewaries on the bonfire, sit around it, sing and dance till the fire dies out. Some people perform a prayer and go around the fire. This is to show respect to the natural element of fire. It is traditional to offer guests til, gachchak, gur, moongphali (peanuts) and phuliya or popcorn. Milk and water is also poured around the bonfire by Hindus. This ritual is performed for thanking the Sun God and seeking his continued protection.
Among Sindhi's the festival is popularly known as Lal loee. On the day of Lal Loee children bring wood sticks from their grand parents and aunties and light a fire burning the sticks in the night with people enjoying, dancing and playing around the fire.
Lohri is celebrated to denote the last of the coldest days of winter. Apart from Punjab, people from other northern Indian states of Haryana, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu, become busy making preparations for Lohri.
In houses that have recently had a marriage or childbirth, Lohri celebrations will reach a higher pitch of excitement. Punjabis usually have private Lohri celebrations, in their houses. Lohri rituals are performed, with the accompaniment of special Lohri songs.
Singing and dancing form an intrinsic part of the celebrations. People wear their brightest clothes and come to dance the bhangra and gidda to the beat of the dhol. Punjabi songs are sung, and everybody rejoices. Sarson da saag and makki di roti is usually served as the main course at a Lohri dinner. Lohri is a great occasion that holds great importance for farmers. However, people residing in urban areas also celebrate Lohri, as this festival provides the opportunity to interact with family and friends.
There are many Lohri songs. For example, the following song which has words to express gratitude to Dulla Bhatti (the 'ho's are in chorus):
Sunder mundriye ho!
Tera kaun vicharaa ho!
Dullah Bhatti walla ho!
Dullhe di dhee vyayae ho!
Ser shakkar payee ho!
Kudi da laal pathaka ho!
Kudi da saalu paata ho!
Salu kaun samete!
Chacha gali dese!
Chache choori kutti! zamidara lutti!
Bum Bum bhole aaye!
Ek bhola reh gaya!
Sipahee far ke lai gaya!
Sipahee ne mari itt!
Bhaanvey ro te bhaanvey pitt!
Sanoo de de Lohri, te teri jeeve jodi!
(Cry or howl!)
Who will think about you
Dulla of the Bhatti clan will
Dulla's daughter got married
He gave one ser of sugar!
The girl is wearing a red suit!
But her shawl is torn!
Who will stitch her shawl?!
The uncle made choori!
The landlords looted it!
Landlords are beaten up!
Lots of simple-headed boys came!
One simpleton got left behind!
The soldier arrested him!
The soldier hit him with a brick!
(Cry or howl)!
Give us Lohri, long live your pair (to a married couple)!
Whether you cry, or bang your head later!
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