||This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: <this article is filled with sections with misleading titles that contain irrelevant information. The page is about the house of parliament, not just its electoral history.. (December 2013)|
House of the People
|15th Lok Sabha|
|Type||Lower house of the Parliament of India|
|Speaker||Meira Kumar, (INC)
Since 3 June 2009
|Deputy Speaker||Kariya Munda, (BJP)
Since 8 June 2009
|Leader of the House||Sushilkumar Shinde, (INC)
Since 2 Aug 2012
|Leader of Opposition (Lok Sabha)||Sushma Swaraj, (BJP)
Since 21 December 2009
|Seats||545 (543 elected + 2 appointed)|
|Voting system||First past the post|
|Last election||April–May 2009|
|धर्मचक्रपरिवर्तनाय॥ – To transform the cycle of dharma.|
|Lok Sabha Chambers, Sansad Bhavan, Sansad Marg, New Delhi|
The Lok Sabha (Hindi: लोक सभा) or House of the People is the lower house of the Parliament of India. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by direct election under a system of universal adult franchise. As of 2009, there have been fifteen Lok Sabhas elected by the people of India. The Constitution limits the Lok Sabha to a maximum of 552 members, including not more than 20 members representing people from the Union Territories, and two appointed non-partisan members to represent the Anglo-Indian community (if the President feels that the community is not adequately represented).
Each Lok Sabha is formed for a 5-year-term, after which it is automatically dissolved, unless extended by a proclamation of emergency. In such cases, the term may be extended by one-year increments. The 15th Lok Sabha was formed in May 2009 and is the latest to date.
An exercise to redraw Lok Sabha constituencies' boundaries has been carried out by the Delimitation Commission based on the Indian census of 2001. This exercise, which was supposed to be carried out after every census, was suspended in 1976 following a constitutional amendment to avoid adverse effects of the family planning program which was being implemented.
- 1 History
- 2 Qualifications
- 3 Election
- 4 Powers
- 5 Sessions and working hours
- 6 Officers
- 7 Salary, Allowances and Pension
- 8 Composition by states and territories
- 9 Previous Lok Sabha general elections
- 10 Number of members by party in Lok Sabha
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
1st Lok Sabha
In India's first General Elections, a voter turnout of 44.87 per cent was reported. The Indian Congress (INC) secured 45 per cent of the total votes polled, and won 364 seats. Jawaharlal Nehru became the first elected Prime Minister of the country; his party won 74.4% of the votes cast. The first Lok Sabha, which was constituted on 17 April 1952, lasted its full term until 4 April 1957.
In most of the elections, the Indian National Congress won a majority of Lok Sabha seats, but in the following elections, the party had lost its majority. The non-Congress governments consisted of coalition of parties.
6th Lok Sabha
The Janata Party came into power riding the public anger against the Congress and the Emergency but its position was weak. The party held 270 seats in the Lok Sabha and it never quite had a firm grip on power. The Janata Party consisted of Congress, Bharatiya Jana Sangh, Bharatiya Lok Dal as well as defectors from the Congress (R). However, it had only a tenure of three-year.
9th Lok Sabha
The National Front came into power .The Bofors scandal, rising terrorism in Punjab, the civil war between LTTE and Sri Lankan government lost the credibility of Congress government led by Rajiv Gandhi. The National Front consisted of Jan Morcha, Janata Party, Lok Dal and Congress (S), to bring together all the parties opposed to the Rajiv Gandhi government. Soon, many regional parties rallied around the Janata Dal including the DMK, TDP, and AGP and formed the National Front. The five-party National Front jumped into the electoral fray in 1989 after joining hands with the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the two communist parties – the Communist Party of India-Marxist (CPI-M) and the Communist Party of India (CPI). However, the government was dissolved 14 months after its formation.
12th and 13th Lok Sabha
The Bharatiya Janata Party came to power. However, the government was short-lived as AIADMK party withdrew support and the government lost no-confidence motion by a single vote, the closest defeat in a no-confidence motion in the history of Lok Sabha.
But in the 13th Lok Sabha, the same government came to power and formed stable majority. It is the first non-Congress government to have completed its full tenure of five years in its history.
There are minimum 2 sessions of parliament every year.
As per Article 84 of Indian Constitution, the qualification for being a member of Lok Sabha is that he/she should be a citizen of India and has taken an oath given under Third Schedule of the Constitution. Also he/she must be at least 25 years of Age.
However, a member can be disqualified of being a member of parliament:-
- if he/she holds office of profit;
- if he/she is an undischarged insolvent;
- if he/she is of unsound mind;
- if he/she gives up as a citizenship of India or under allegiance or adherence to a foreign State;
- if he/she is violating party discipline (as per Tenth schedule of the constitution);
- disqualified under Representation of People Act.
The members of the Lok Sabha are directly elected by their constituencies through direct election by plurality system, bar one exception: up to two Anglo-Indians can be nominated to the Lok Sabha, if the President of India feels the Anglo-Indian community is not adequately represented. However, these appointees are not entitled to vote in presidential elections as per Article 55 of the Indian Constitution.
Lok Sabha has certain powers that make it more powerful than the Rajya Sabha.
- Motions of no confidence against the government can only be introduced and passed in the Lok Sabha. If passed by a majority vote, the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers resigns collectively. The Rajya Sabha has no power over such a motion, and hence no real power over the executive. However, the Prime Minister may threaten the dissolution by the Lok Sabha and recommend this to the President, forcing an untimely general election. The President normally accepts this recommendation unless otherwise convinced that the Lok Sabha might recommend a new Prime Minister by a majority vote. Thus, both the executive and the legislature in India have checks and balances over each other.
- Money bills can only be introduced in the Lok Sabha, and upon being passed, are sent to the Rajya Sabha, where it can be deliberated on for up to 14 days. If not rejected by the Rajya Sabha, or 14 days lapse from the introduction of the bill in the Rajya Sabha without any action by the House, or recommendations made by the Rajya Sabha are not accepted by the Lok Sabha, the bill is considered passed. The budget is presented in the Lok Sabha by the Finance Minister in the name of the President of India.
- In matters pertaining to non-financial (ordinary) bills, after the bill has been passed by the House where it was originally tabled (Lok Sabha or Rajya Sabha), it is sent to the other house, where it may be kept for a maximum period of 6 months. If the other House rejects the bill or a period of 6 months elapses without any action by that House, or the House that originally tabled the bill does not accept the recommendations made by the members of the other house, it results in a deadlock. This is resolved by a joint session of both Houses, presided over by the speaker of the Lok Sabha and decided by a simple majority. The will of the Lok Sabha normally prevails in these matters, as its strength is more than double that of the Rajya Sabha.
- Equal Powers with the Rajya Sabha in initiating and passing any Bill for Constitutional Amendment (by a majority of the total membership of the House and at least two-thirds majority of the members present and voting).
- Equal Powers with the Rajya Sabha in initiating and passing a motion for the impeachment of the President (by two-thirds of the membership of the House).
- Equal Powers with the Rajya Sabha in initiating and passing a motion for the impeachment of the judges of the Supreme Court and the state High Courts (by a majority of the membership of the House and at least two-thirds majority of the members present and voting).
- Equal Powers with the Rajya Sabha in initiating and passing a resolution declaring war or national emergency (by two-thirds majority) or constitutional emergency (by simple majority) in a state.
- If the Lok Sabha is dissolved before or after the declaration of a National Emergency, the Rajya Sabha becomes the sole Parliament. It cannot be dissolved. This is a limitation on the Lok Sabha. But there is a possibility that president can exceed the term to not more than 1 year under the proclamation of emergency and the same would be lowered down to six-month if the said proclamation ceases to operate.
Sessions and working hours
If conflicting legislation is enacted by the two Houses, a joint sitting is held to resolve the differences. In such a session, the members of the Lok Sabha would generally prevail, since the Lok Sabha includes more than twice as many members as the Rajya Sabha.
Three sessions of Lok Sabha take place in a year:
- Budget session: February to May.
- Monsoon session: July to September.
- Winter session: November to December.
As per Article 93 of Indian Constitution, the Lok Sabha has a Speaker and a Deputy Speaker. By convention, they are elected by a resolution passed by simple majority. The 15th Lok Sabha elected Meira Kumar as the speaker on 3 June 2009, which is its first woman speaker to date. The Lok Sabha has also a separate non-elected Secretariat staff.
Salary, Allowances and Pension
The Salary ,Allowances and Pension of Member of Parliament Act 1954, as amended in December 2010, provides the provisions for salary, allowances and pension for a member of Parliament.
Previously, the salary for a member of Parliament was Rs 16,000, but was raised to Rs 50,000 by amending the above Act in December 2010.
Allowances and pension
It is paid to every member when attending session of parliament or when performing duties as a member. They are also entitled to travel freely by Railways and to constituency allowance and amenities such as water, electricity, housing etc. The pension for person who served as member of Parliament is Rs 40000 per month.
Composition by states and territories
|Subdivision||Type||No. of constituencies|
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands||Union Territory||1|
|Dadra and Nagar Haveli||Union Territory||1|
|Daman and Diu||Union Territory||1|
|Jammu and Kashmir||State||6|
Previous Lok Sabha general elections
Lok Sabha is constituted after the general election as follows:
Number of members by party in Lok Sabha
- Rajya Sabha
- Lawmaking procedure in India
- Politics of India
- List of Indian constituencies
- Indian general elections 1951–1971
- Indian general elections 1977–1999
- Indian general elections 2004
- Indian general elections 2009
- List of members of the 15th Lok Sabha of India
- List of members of the 15th Lok Sabha (by state)
- PRS Legislative Research
- "Bioprofile of Meira Kumar". Fifteenth Lok Sabha Member's Bioprofile. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- "Bioprofile of Kariya Munda". Fifteenth Lok Sabha Member's Bioprofile. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- "Bioprofile of Pranab Mukherjee". Fifteenth Lok Sabha Member's Bioprofile. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- "Bioprofile of Sushma Swaraj". Fifteenth Lok Sabha Member's Bioprofile. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- "Lok Sabha". parliamentofindia.nic.in. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- Election Commission India
- Guha, Ramachandra (2007). India after Gandhi. MacMillan. p. 146.
- Associated Press, 4 June 2009 "India: Woman Wins Post of Speaker", The New York Times
- "Lok Sabha". Lok Sabha.
- "CURRENT AFFAIRS & ANALYSIS: 300% Pay rise for Members of Parliament in India". Currentaffairsappsc.blogspot.com. 30 August 2010.
- "Lok Sabha Introduction". National Informatics Centre, Government of India. Retrieved 22 September 2008.
- "Fifteenth Lok Sabha – Party wise". Lok Sabha.
- "Elections Results by party". Ibnlive.in.com. 1 January 1970.
- BP Reporter. "More Congress, less UPA". Business Standard. Retrieved 14 April 2012.
- "BJP leading in Gujarat bypolls for 2 Lok Sabha, 4 assembly seats". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
- "West Bengal: TMC's Prasun Banerjee wins Howrah by-poll". IBN-Live. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
- "Bihar: RJD wins Maharajganj by-poll by over 1.36 lakh votes". Retrieved 13 July 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lok Sabha.|
- All Lok Sabha Members – Current and Previous
- Description of Lok Sabha on website of Parliament of India
- Lok Sabha website