London 1883 chess tournament
The London 1883 chess tournament was a strong chess tournament among most of the leading players of the day. It was won convincingly by Johannes Zukertort (22 points out of 26) ahead of Wilhelm Steinitz (with 19 points). Remarkably, Zukertort was already assured of victory with three rounds to go, having scored an astonishing 22/23. He then lost his last three games against relatively weak players, probably due to exhaustion. The tournament established Zukertort as rivalling Steinitz to claim to be the best player in the world, and led to the World Chess Championship 1886 match between the two (the first official World Chess Championship match). The event was a double round-robin tournament. Marmaduke Wyvill contributed to organizing the tournament.
A common story relates to an incident that occurred at the tournament banquet, when the St. George Chess Club President proposed a toast to the best chess player in the world and both Steinitz and Zukertort stood up at the same time to thank him. Research by Edward Winter suggests that this story has been embellished.
The results and standings:
|1||Johannes Zukertort (German Empire) / Poland||--||01||11||11||10||11||11||11||11||11||11||10||10||11||22|
|2||Wilhelm Steinitz (United Kingdom) / Bohemia||10||--||01||00||11||01||11||00||11||11||11||11||11||11||19|
|3||Joseph Henry Blackburne (United Kingdom) / England||00||10||--||01||00||10||11||10||½1||01||11||11||11||11||16½|
|4||Mikhail Chigorin (Russian Empire) / Russia||00||11||10||--||11||01||01||01||10||10||10||11||10||11||16|
|5||George Henry Mackenzie (United States) / Scotland||01||00||11||00||--||½½||01||01||01||01||11||½1||11||11||15½|
|6||Berthold Englisch (Austria-Hungary) / Czech Silesia||00||10||01||10||½½||--||00||½1||01||01||11||11||11||11||15½|
|7||James Mason (United States) / Ireland||00||00||00||10||10||11||--||10||10||11||½1||11||11||11||15½|
|8||Samuel Rosenthal (France) / Poland||00||11||01||10||10||½0||01||--||½1||10||01||01||11||11||15|
|9||Szymon Winawer (Russian Empire) / Poland||00||00||½0||01||10||10||01||½0||--||01||10||11||11||11||13|
|10||Henry Edward Bird (United Kingdom) / England||00||00||10||01||10||10||00||01||10||--||00||11||11||11||12|
|11||Josef Noa (Austria-Hungary) / Hungary||00||00||00||01||00||00||½0||10||01||11||--||01||11||01||9½|
|12||Alexander Sellman (United States) / United States||01||00||00||00||½0||00||00||10||00||00||10||--||11||01||6½|
|13||James Mortimer (United Kingdom) / United States||01||00||00||01||00||00||00||00||00||00||00||00||--||01||3|
|14||Arthur Skipworth (United Kingdom) / England||00||00||00||00||00||00||00||00||00||00||10||10||10||--||3|
In this tournament a game ending in a draw was replayed at least twice. The third game after two draws would count, whatever the result.
1883 London Tournament, Mark Weeks' Chess Pages