London Borough of Tower Hamlets

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"Tower Hamlets" redirects here. For other uses, see Tower Hamlets (disambiguation).
London Borough of Tower Hamlets
London borough
Coat of arms of London Borough of Tower Hamlets
Coat of arms
Official logo of London Borough of Tower Hamlets
Council logo
Tower Hamlets shown within Greater London
Tower Hamlets shown within Greater London
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Region London
Ceremonial county Greater London
Status London borough
Admin HQ Clove Crescent, Blackwall
Incorporated 1 April 1965
Government
 • Type London borough council
 • Body Tower Hamlets London Borough Council
 • Leadership Mayor & Cabinet (Executive Mayor: Tower Hamlets First)
 • Executive mayor Lutfur Rahman
 • MPs Rushanara Ali
Jim Fitzpatrick
 • London Assembly John Biggs AM for City and East
 • EU Parliament London
Area
 • Total 7.63 sq mi (19.77 km2)
Area rank 320th (of 326)
Population (2011 est.)
 • Total 256,000
 • Rank 52nd (of 326)
 • Density 34,000/sq mi (13,000/km2)
 • Ethnicity[1]

31.2% White British
1.5% White Irish
0.1% White Gypsy or Irish Traveller
12.4% Other White
1.1% White & Black Caribbean
0.6% White & Black African
1.2% White & Asian
1.2% Other Mixed
2.7% Indian
1% Pakistani
32% Bangladeshi
3.2% Chinese
2.3% Other Asian
3.7% Black African
2.1% Black Caribbean
1.5% Other Black
1% Arab

1.3% Other
Time zone GMT (UTC0)
 • Summer (DST) BST (UTC+1)
Postcodes E, EC
Police force Metropolitan Police
Website www.towerhamlets.gov.uk

The London Borough of Tower Hamlets (About this sound pronunciation ) is a London borough to the east of the City of London and north of the River Thames. It is in the eastern part of London and covers much of the traditional East End. It also includes much of the redeveloped Docklands region of London, including West India Docks and Canary Wharf. Many of the tallest buildings in London are located on the Isle of Dogs in the south of the borough. A part of the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park is in Tower Hamlets. The borough has a population of 272,890,[2] which includes one of the highest ethnic minority populations in the capital, consisting mainly of Bangladeshis.[3] The local authority is Tower Hamlets London Borough Council.

Politics[edit]

Parliament[edit]

For the 2010 general election, the borough was split into two constituencies:

The borough is a part of the London constituency for election to the European Parliament. Labour has dominated national and local elections in Tower Hamlets, although other left-wing parties have won seats including Communists and more recently the Respect Unity coalition. The British National Party won its first and only council seat in 1993, when Derek Beackon was elected as a Millwall councillor.[4]

London Assembly[edit]

The borough lies within the City and East constituency, one of fourteen constituencies which make up the London Assembly, and is represented by John Biggs of the Labour Party.

London Borough Council[edit]

In May 2010 a referendum led to the creation of a directly elected executive Mayor for the Borough. At the ensuing election in October 2010, Lutfur Rahman was elected Mayor as an independent candidate, becoming the UK's first Muslim executive mayor.[5] Rahman had been selected as the Labour candidate for Mayor, and was a former Leader of the Council. However allegations of electoral malpractice were made against him and his supporters, and he was suspended from the Labour Party before nominations closed.[6] He was re-elected as Mayor in May 2014.[7]

At the May 2010 election, the composition of the Council was 41 Labour, 8 Conservative, 1 Respect and 1 Liberal Democrat councillor. Since then Respect gained a seat from Labour at a by-election, and in three separate groups a total of 8 Labour Councillors and one Conservative defected to Lutfur Rahman's independent group.

This shifting of political allegiances is normal for Tower Hamlets. Between the 2006 and 2010 elections five Respect councillors defected to Labour; one Respect and one Labour councillor defected to the Conservatives; one Liberal Democrat defected to Labour; and one Labour councillor was gained through a by-election at the expense of the Liberal Democrats.[8]

In July 2013, the Tower Hamlets (Electoral Changes) Order 2013 was passed,[9] reducing the size of the London Borough and creating new electoral wards made of single, two- and 3-member divisions.

Geography[edit]

Physical geography[edit]

Tower Hamlets is located to east of the City of London and north of the River Thames in east London. The London Borough of Hackney lies to the north of the borough while the River Lea forms the boundary with the London Borough of Newham in the east. On the other side of the Thames is The London Borough of Southwark to the southwest, The London Borough of Lewisham to the South, and The Royal Borough of Greenwich to the southeast. The River Lea also forms the boundary between those parts of London historically in Middlesex, with those formerly in Essex.

The Isle of Dogs is formed from the lock entrances to the former West India Docks and the largest current meander of the River Thames and the southern part of the borough forms a part of the historic flood plain of the River Thames;[10] and but for the Thames Barrier and other flood prevention works would be vulnerable to flooding.

The Regent's Canal enters the borough from Hackney to meet the River Thames at Limehouse Basin. A stretch of the Hertford Union Canal leads from the Regent's canal, at a basin in the north of Mile End to join the River Lea at Old Ford. A further canal, Limehouse Cut, London's oldest, leads from locks at Bromley-by-Bow to Limehouse Basin. Most of the canal tow-paths are open to both pedestrians and cyclists.

Victoria Park was formed by Act of Parliament, and administered by the LCC and its successor authority the GLC. Since the latter authority's abolition, the park has been administered by Tower Hamlets.

Part of the borough is within the boundary of the Thames Gateway development area.

Areas within the borough[edit]

Areas included in the borough:

History[edit]

Main article: East End of London
Tower Hamlets forms the main area of the East End of London. More detailed local histories may be available for each of the districts (above) within Tower Hamlets.

The London Borough of Tower Hamlets forms the core of the East End. It lies east of the ancient walled City of London and north of the River Thames. Use of the term "East End" in a pejorative sense began in the late 19th century,[11] as the expansion of the population of London led to extreme overcrowding throughout the area and a concentration of poor people and immigrants in the districts that made it up.[12] These problems were exacerbated with the construction of St Katharine Docks (1827)[13] and the central London railway termini (1840–1875) that caused the clearance of former slums and rookeries, with many of the displaced people moving into the area. Over the course of a century, the East End became synonymous with poverty, overcrowding, disease and criminality.[14]

The East End developed rapidly during the 19th century. Originally it was an area characterised by villages clustered around the City walls or along the main roads, surrounded by farmland, with marshes and small communities by the River, serving the needs of shipping and the Royal Navy. Until the arrival of formal docks, shipping was required to land goods in the Pool of London, but industries related to construction, repair, and victualling of ships flourished in the area from Tudor times. The area attracted large numbers of rural people looking for employment. Successive waves of foreign immigration began with Huguenot refugees creating a new extramural suburb in Spitalfields in the 17th century.[15] They were followed by Irish weavers,[16] Ashkenazi Jews[17] and, in the 20th century, Bangladeshis.[18] Many of these immigrants worked in the clothing industry. The abundance of semi- and unskilled labour led to low wages and poor conditions throughout the East End. This brought the attentions of social reformers during the mid-18th century and led to the formation of unions and workers associations at the end of the century. The radicalism of the East End contributed to the formation of the Labour Party and demands for the enfranchisement of women.

Official attempts to address the overcrowded housing began at the beginning of the 20th century under the London County Council. World War II devastated much of the East End, with its docks, railways and industry forming a continual target, leading to dispersal of the population to new suburbs, and new housing being built in the 1950s.[14] During the war, in the Boroughs making up Tower Hamlets a total of 2,221 civilians were killed and 7,472 were injured, with 46,482 houses destroyed and 47,574 damaged.[19] The closure of the last of the East End docks in the Port of London in 1980 created further challenges and led to attempts at regeneration and the formation of the London Docklands Development Corporation. The Canary Wharf development, improved infrastructure, and the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park[20] mean that the East End is undergoing further change, but some of its districts continue to contain some of the worst poverty in Britain.[21]

Local landmarks[edit]

Canary Wharf, seen from a high-level walkway on Tower Bridge

Historical landmarks[edit]

Modern landmarks[edit]

The Canary Wharf complex within Docklands on the Isle of Dogs forms a group of some of the tallest buildings in Europe. One Canada Square was the first to be constructed and is the second tallest in London. Nearby are the HSBC Tower, Citigroup Centres and One Churchill Place, headquarters of Barclays Bank. Within the same complex are the Heron Quays offices.

Climate[edit]

This data was taken between 1971 and 2000 at the weather station in Greenwich, around 1 mile (1.6 km) south of the town hall, at Mulberry Place:


Climate data for London (Greenwich)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.0
(57.2)
19.7
(67.5)
21.0
(69.8)
26.9
(80.4)
31.0
(87.8)
35.0
(95)
35.5
(95.9)
37.5
(99.5)
30.0
(86)
28.8
(83.8)
19.9
(67.8)
15.0
(59)
37.5
(99.5)
Average high °C (°F) 8.3
(46.9)
8.5
(47.3)
11.4
(52.5)
14.2
(57.6)
17.7
(63.9)
20.7
(69.3)
23.2
(73.8)
22.9
(73.2)
20.1
(68.2)
15.6
(60.1)
11.4
(52.5)
8.6
(47.5)
15.2
(59.4)
Average low °C (°F) 2.6
(36.7)
2.4
(36.3)
4.1
(39.4)
5.4
(41.7)
8.4
(47.1)
11.5
(52.7)
13.9
(57)
13.7
(56.7)
11.2
(52.2)
8.3
(46.9)
5.1
(41.2)
2.8
(37)
7.5
(45.5)
Record low °C (°F) −10.0
(14)
−9.0
(15.8)
−8.0
(17.6)
−2.0
(28.4)
−1.0
(30.2)
5.0
(41)
7.0
(44.6)
6.0
(42.8)
3.0
(37.4)
−4.0
(24.8)
−5.0
(23)
−7.0
(19.4)
−10.0
(14)
Precipitation mm (inches) 51.6
(2.031)
38.2
(1.504)
40.5
(1.594)
45.0
(1.772)
46.5
(1.831)
47.3
(1.862)
41.1
(1.618)
51.6
(2.031)
50.4
(1.984)
68.8
(2.709)
58.0
(2.283)
53.0
(2.087)
591.8
(23.299)
Avg. rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 10.8 8.5 9.6 9.4 9.0 8.3 8.0 7.6 8.5 10.7 10.1 9.9 110.4
Avg. snowy days 4 4 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 16
 % humidity 81.0 76.0 69.0 64.0 62.0 60.0 60.0 62.0 67.0 73.0 78.0 82.0 69.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 49.9 71.4 107.1 159.8 181.2 181.0 192.1 195.1 138.9 108.1 58.5 37.4 1,480.5
Source #1: Record highs and lows from BBC Weather,[22] except August and February maximum from Met Office[23][24]
Source #2: All other data from Met Office,[25] except for humidity and snow data which are from NOAA[26]


Demographics[edit]

By 1891, Tower Hamlets – roughly the civil parish of Stepney – was already one of the most populated areas in London. Throughout the 19th century, the local population increased by an average of 20% every ten years. The building of the docks intensified land use and caused the last marshy areas in the south of the parish to be drained for housing and industry. In the north of the borough employment was principally in weaving, small household industries like boot and furniture making and new industrial enterprises like Bryant and May. The availability of cheap labour drew in employers. To the south of the parish, employment was in the docks and related industries – such as chandlery and rope making.

By the middle of the century, the district of Tower Hamlets was characterised by overcrowding and poverty. The construction of the railways caused many more displaced people to settle in Tower Hamlets, and a massive influx of Eastern European Jews at the end of the 19th century added to the population. This influx peaked at the end of the century and population growth entered a long decline through to the 1960s, as they moved away eastwards to newer suburbs of London in Essex.

The metropolitan boroughs suffered very badly during World War II, during which considerable numbers of houses were destroyed or damaged beyond use due to heavy aerial bombing. This coincided with a decline in work in the docks, and the closure of many traditional industries. The Abercrombie Plan for London (1944) began an exodus from London towards the new towns.[28]

This decline began to reverse with the establishment of the London Docklands Development Corporation bringing new industries and housing to the brownfield sites along the river. Also contributing was new immigration from Asia beginning in the 1970s. According to the 2001 census the population of the borough is approximately 196,106. According to the ONS estimate, the population is 237,900, as of 2010.[29]

Population since 1801 - Source: A Vision of Britain through Time[30]
Year 1801 1851 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011
Population Tower Hamlets 130,871 330,548 578,143 571,438 529,114 489,956 337,774 232,860 195,833 164,699 139,989 167,985 196,121 254,096

Crime in the borough increased by 3.5 percent from 2009 to 2010, according to figures from the Metropolitan Police,[31] having decreased by 24 percent between 2003/2004 and 2007/2008.[32]

Ethnicity[edit]

Tower Hamlets is one of the most ethnically diverse boroughs in London

Tower Hamlets has one of the smallest indigenous populations of the boroughs of Britain. No ethnic group forms a majority of the population; a plurality of residents are of White ethnicity, while a large Asian community, Bangladeshis (32%) are the largest ethnic minority in the borough.[33] Somalis represent the second largest minority ethnic group.[34] There are also a number of Chinese, Vietnamese, Indian, Pakistani, and Black African/Caribbean residents.[34][35]

Tower Hamlets: Ethnicity: Office for National Statistics 2011 Census[36]
Tower Hamlets % London % England %
White 45.2 59.8 85.4
Mixed 4.1 5.0 2.3
Asian or Asian British 41.1 18.5 7.8
Black or Black British 7.3 13.3 3.5
Other Ethnic Group 2.3 3.4 1.0

Religion[edit]

East London Mosque, Whitechapel

The main religions practised in the borough are Islam and Christianity.[37] There are 21 active churches in Tower Hamlets affiliated with the Church of England, which include Christ Church of Spitalfields, St Paul's Church of Shadwell and St Dunstan's of Stepney[38] and also churches of many other Christian denominations. There are around 40 mosques, including Islamic centres. The largest are the East London Mosque, the Brick Lane Mosque and the Markazi Masjid.[39] Other notable religious buildings include the Fieldgate Street Great Synagogue, the Congregation of Jacob Synagogue, the London Buddhist Centre, the Hindu Pragati Sangha Temple, and the Gurdwara Sikh Sangat.

Religion Tower Hamlets
%
National
%
Islam 34.5 5.0
Christianity 27.1 59.4
Hinduism 1.7 1.5
Buddhism 1.1 0.5
Judaism 0.5 0.5
Sikhism 0.3 0.8
Other 0.3 0.4
No religion 19.2 24.7
Religion not stated 15.4 7.2

Economic profile[edit]

Canary Wharf, world or European headquarters of numerous major banks, professional services firms.
The market area in Whitechapel

The borough hosts the European or world headquarters of many global financial businesses employing, some of the highest paid workers in London, but also has the highest level of child poverty in England, very high rates of long term illness and premature death and the 2nd highest unemployment rate in London.

Canary Wharf is home to the world or European headquarters of numerous major banks and professional services firms including Barclays, Citigroup, Clifford Chance, Credit Suisse, Infosys, Fitch Ratings, HSBC, J.P. Morgan, KPMG, MetLife, Morgan Stanley, RBC, Skadden, State Street and Thomson Reuters.[40] Savills, a top-end estate agency recommends that 'extreme luxury' and ultra-modern residential properties are to be found at Canary Riverside, West India Quay, Pan Peninsula and Neo Bankside.

The borough however also has the highest rate of child poverty in England at 57 percent according to one report, being 11% higher than London Borough of Islington in second place according to the End Child Poverty coalition.[41] Save the Children gave a figure of 27 percent, joint highest with Manchester in a study covering the whole of the UK.[42] The borough also has the 2nd highest unemployment rate in London and very high rates of long term illness and premature death.[43] Campaigners and local MPs reacted 'with dismay' to a proposed new development of 700 luxury apartments in a borough with 23,000 on housing waiting lists.[44]

Education[edit]

The London Borough of Tower Hamlets is the local education authority for state schools within the borough.[45] As of January 2008 there are 19,890 primary-school pupils and 15,262 secondary-school pupils attending state schools in Tower Hamlets.[46] Independent-school pupils account for 2.4 percent of schoolchildren in the borough.[47] In 2010 51.8 percent of pupils achieved 5 A*–C GCSEs including Mathematics and English—the highest results in the borough's history—compared to the national average of 53.4 percent.[48] Seventy-four percent achieved 5 A*–C GCSEs for all subjects (the same as the English average);[49] the figure in 1997 was 26 percent.[50] The percentage of pupils on free school meals in the borough is the highest in England and Wales.[51] In 2007 the council rejected proposals to build a Goldman Sachs-sponsored academy.[52]

Schools in the borough have high levels of racial segregation. The Times reported in 2006 that 47 percent of secondary schools were exclusively non-white, and that 33 percent had a white majority.[53] About 60 percent of pupils entering primary and secondary school are Bangladeshi.[54] The percentage of primary-school pupils who speak English as a second language is 78.[55]

The council runs several Idea Stores in the borough, which combine traditional library services with other resources, and are designed to attract more diverse members. The flagship Whitechapel store was designed by David Adjaye[56] and cost £16 million to build.[57]

Further education colleges[edit]

Universities[edit]

Volunteering[edit]

  • Volunteer Centre Tower Hamlets helps residents find volunteering work and provides support to organisations involving volunteers.[58]

Sports and leisure[edit]

Mile End Stadium within Mile End Park hosts an athletics stadium and facilities for football and basketball. Two football clubs, Bethnal Green United F.C. and Sporting Bengal United F.C., are based there. The borough also has its own football club named Tower Hamlets FC, formed in 2009.[59]

A leisure centre including a swimming pool at Mile End Stadium was completed in 2006. Other pools are located at St Georges, Limehouse and York Hall, in Bethnal Green. York Hall is also a regular venue for boxing tournaments, and in May 2007 a public spa was opened in the building's renovated Turkish baths.[60]

The unusual Green Bridge, opened in 2000, links sections of Mile End Park that would otherwise be divided by Mile End Road. The bridge contains gardens, water features and trees around the path.[61]

Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park[edit]

Tower Hamlets was one of five host boroughs for the 2012 Summer Olympics;[62] the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park was constructed in the Lea Valley. A small part of the Olympic Park is in Bow, a district of the borough, this makes the borough a host borough. The energy centre (King's Yard Energy Centre) of the Olympic Park is in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, it gives energy to all the venues but no venues reside in Tower Hamlets. The world square and the London 2012 mega-store is also in the borough. The world square is for spectators, who can buy food or drink; the world's biggest McDonalds is in the world square in Tower Hamlets. The London 2012 mega-store provides official gifts and souvenirs. High street 2012, which is the main road to the Olympic park from west and central London, combines Whitechapel Road, Mile End Road and Bow Road. A large number of Tower Hamlets' residents have had the opportunity to become Olympic volunteers, coming second after neighbouring borough Newham. Victoria Park, in Tower Hamlets, is an important part of the Olympics because spectators without tickets can watch the games on big screens (London live 2012); another advantage is that the park is less than a mile away from the Olympic park. The main spectator cycle park is located in Victoria park. One of the entrances to the Olympic park is in Tower Hamlets, it is called the Victoria gate. A few schools in Tower Hamlets have taken part in the opening and closing ceremonies of the Olympic and Paralympic games as well as all the other host boroughs. Danny Boyle, the artistic director of the London 2012 opening ceremony lives in Mile End. The section of the Olympic Park in Tower Hamlets will be named "Sweetwater", one of the 5 new neighbourhoods after the games. Sweetwater will cover Tower Hamlets' part of the Olympic Park near Old Ford. The Olympic marathon was planned to run through the borough but later ran through the City and Westminster. However, the "u" turn was located in the borough near The Tower of London.

Parks in Tower Hamlets[edit]

There are over one hundred parks and open spaces in Tower Hamlets ranging from the large Victoria Park, to numerous small gardens and squares. The second largest, Mile End Park, separated from Victoria Park by a canal, includes The Green Bridge that carries the park across the busy Mile End Road. One of the smallest at 1.19 ha is the decorative Grove Hall Park off Fairfield Road, Bow, which was once the site of a lunatic asylum.[63]

Museums[edit]

The Women's Library in Aldgate is the UK's main library and museum resource on women and the women's movement, especially concentrating on Britain in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Transport[edit]

Transport radiates across the borough from the City of London, with the A13 starting at Aldgate and heading east passing the entrance to the Blackwall Tunnel towards Newham, and south-east Essex. The A12 also starts at Aldgate, crosses the Lea at Bow, towards Colchester and Great Yarmouth. Roads are busy at all times, particular during the rush hours; and much of the borough is a controlled parking zone, to prevent commuter parking. Two tunnels allow cars to travel in both directions under the Thames, the Rotherhithe Tunnel from Limehouse to Rotherhithe in the London Borough of Southwark, and the Blackwall tunnel, from Blackwall to the Royal Borough of Greenwich .

The principal rail services commence in the City at Fenchurch Street, with one stop at Limehouse; and Liverpool Street, with stops at Bethnal Green and Cambridge Heath. The East London Line passes from north to south through Tower Hamlets with stations at Whitechapel, Shadwell and Wapping. One entrance to Shoreditch High Street station is inside the Borough. Two Crossrail stations are currently under construction and are expected to start services in late 2018.

The Docklands Light Railway was built to serve the docklands areas of the borough, with a principal terminus at Bank and Tower Gateway. An interchange at Poplar allows trains to proceed north to Stratford, south via Canary Wharf towards Lewisham, and east either via the London City Airport to Woolwich Arsenal or via ExCeL London to Beckton.

Three London Underground services cross the district: the District and Hammersmith and City lines share track between Aldgate East and Barking. The Central line has stations at Bethnal Green and Mile End - where there is an interchange to the District line. The Jubilee line has one stop at Canary Wharf.

London Buses Routes 8, 15, 25, 26, 35, 40, 42, 47, 48, 55, 78, 100, 106, 108, 115, 135, 205, 254, 276, 277, 309, 323, 339, 388, 425, 488, D3, D6, D7, D8, RV1 and Night Routes N8, N15, N26, N35, N55, N550 and N551.

In March 2011, the main forms of transport that residents used to travel to work were: underground, light rail, 24.0% of all residents aged 16–74; on foot, 7.5%; bus, minibus or coach, 7.5%; driving a car or van, 6.9%; bicycle, 4.1%; train, 3.8%; work mainly at or from home, 2.3%.[64]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2011 Census: Ethnic group, local authorities in England and Wales, Office for National Statistics (2012). See Classification of ethnicity in the United Kingdom for the full descriptions used in the 2011 Census.
  2. ^ 2013 Mid Year Estimates "UK Population Estimates". ONS. Retrieved 27 June 2014
  3. ^ Garbin, David. "Bangladeshi diaspora in the UK: some observations on socio-cultural dynamics, religious trends and transnational politics", Conference Human Rights and Bangladesh, School of African and Oriental Studies, June 2005, p. 1. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
  4. ^ "1993: Shock as racist wins council seat", BBC News. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
  5. ^ Hill, Dave. "Britain's first Muslim executive mayor vows to 'reach out to every community'", The Guardian, 8 November 2010. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
  6. ^ Hill, Dave. "Tower Hamlets: Lutfur Rahman removed as Labour mayoral candidate", The Guardian, 21 September 2010. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
  7. ^ "Lutfur Rahman mobbed by supporters on re-election". BBC. 24 May 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2014. 
  8. ^ LBTH ward details accessed 21 May 2010
  9. ^ Order text Legislation.gov
  10. ^ "BBC on Thames floodplain", BBC News. Retrieved 31 March 2007.
  11. ^ East End 1888 William Fishman (1998) p.1
  12. ^ From 1801 to 1821, the population of Bethnal Green more than doubled, and by 1831 had trebled (see table in population section). These incomers were principally weavers. For further details, see Andrew August Poor Women's Lives: Gender, Work, and Poverty in Late-Victorian London pp 35-6 (Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1999) ISBN 0-8386-3807-4
  13. ^ By the early 19th century, over 11,000 people were crammed into insanitary slums in an area, which took its name from the former Hospital of St Catherine that had stood on the site since the 12th century.
  14. ^ a b The East End Alan Palmer, (John Murray, London 1989) ISBN 0-7195-5666-X
  15. ^ Bethnal Green: Settlement and Building to 1836, A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 11: Stepney, Bethnal Green (1998), pp. 91–5 Date accessed: 17 April 2007
  16. ^ Irish in Britain John A. Jackson, p. 137–9, 150 (Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1964)
  17. ^ The Jews, A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 1: Physique, Archaeology, Domesday, Ecclesiastical Organization, The Jews, Religious Houses, Education of Working Classes to 1870, Private Education from Sixteenth Century (1969), pp. 149–51 Date accessed: 17 April 2007
  18. ^ The Spatial Form of Bangladeshi Community in London's East End Iza Aftab (UCL) (particularly background of Bangladeshi immigration to the East End). Date accessed: 17 April 2007
  19. ^ The East End at War Rosemary Taylor and Christopher Lloyd (Sutton Publishing, 2007) ISBN 0-7509-4913-9
  20. ^ Olympic Park: Legacy (London 2012) accessed 20 September 2007
  21. ^ Chris Hammett Unequal City: London in the Global Arena (2003) Routledge ISBN 0-415-31730-4
  22. ^ "London, Greater London: Average conditions". BBC Weather Website. BBC Weather. Archived from the original on 2011-02-28. 
  23. ^ "August 2003 — Hot spell". Met Office Website. Met Office. Archived from the original on 2011-02-28. 
  24. ^ "Monthly temperature records by country". Met Office Website. Met Office. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  25. ^ "Greenwich 1981−2010 averages". Met Office Website. Met Office. Retrieved April 10, 2013. 
  26. ^ "NOAA". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved October 20, 2013. 
  27. ^ "Heathrow Climate period: 1981−2010". Met Office Website. Met Office. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  28. ^ A Vision of Britain through time. Retrieved 20 February 2009.
  29. ^ Resident Population Estimates, All Persons - Tower Hamlets ONS.
  30. ^ "Tower Hamlets: Total Population". A Vision of Britain Through Time. Great Britain Historical GIS Project. Retrieved 6 September 2011. 
  31. ^ Kleebauer, Alistair. "Crime went up by 3.5% in Tower Hamlets last year, according to Met figures". East London Advertiser. 23 January 2011. Retrieved 21 July 2011. Archived 21 July 2011.
  32. ^ "Tower Hamlets Crime and Drugs Reduction Strategy – Year 1 2008/09". Tower Hamlets Partnership. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  33. ^ http://www.towerhamlets.gov.uk/lgsl/351-400/367_census_information/2011_census.aspx
  34. ^ a b London Borough of Tower Hamlets - Housing Major Works
  35. ^ Neighbourhood Statistics. "Tower Hamlets - Ethnic groups - 2001 Census - ONS". Neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 22 October 2010. 
  36. ^ "Ethnic groups % - 2011 census". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 6 April 2013. 
  37. ^ Neighbourhood Statistics. "Tower Hamlets - Religions - 2011 Census - ONS". Neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 6 April 2012. 
  38. ^ Church List: Tower Hamlets The Diocese of London. Retrieved on 27 March 2009.
  39. ^ Mosques in Tower Hamlets, muslimsinbritain.org. Retrieved 27 June 2011.
  40. ^ "China to invest in Canary Wharf". China Economic Review. 31 August 2009. Retrieved 11 November 2010. 
  41. ^ "Child Poverty Map of the UK: Part 1: England". End Child Poverty. March 2011. p. 9. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  42. ^ "Severe Child Poverty: Nationally and Locally". Save the Children. February 2011. pp. 2–3. Retrieved 21 July 2011. 
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Coordinates: 51°31′N 0°03′W / 51.517°N 0.050°W / 51.517; -0.050