London Calling

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the album. For other uses, see London Calling (disambiguation).
London Calling
Studio album by The Clash
Released 14 December 1979 (1979-12-14)
Recorded August–September and November 1979, Wessex Sound Studios, London
Genre Post-punk
Length 65:07
Label CBS, Epic, Legacy
Producer Guy Stevens, Mick Jones
The Clash chronology
Give 'Em Enough Rope
(1978)
London Calling
(1979)
Sandinista!
(1980)
Singles from London Calling
  1. "London Calling"
    Released: 7 December 1979 (1979-12-07)
  2. "Clampdown"
    Released: 1980 (1980) (AUS only)
  3. "Train in Vain"
    Released: 12 February 1980 (1980-02-12)

London Calling is the third studio album by English punk rock band The Clash. It was released in the United Kingdom on 14 December 1979 by CBS Records, and in the United States in January 1980 by Epic Records.[1] London Calling is a post-punk album that incorporates a range of styles, including punk, reggae, rockabilly, ska, New Orleans R&B, pop, lounge jazz, and hard rock.

The album's subject matter included social displacement, unemployment, racial conflict, drug use, and the responsibilities of adulthood.[2] The album received unanimous acclaim and was ranked at number eight on Rolling Stone's list of The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time in 2003.[3] London Calling was a top ten album in the UK, and its lead single "London Calling" was a top 20 single.[4] It has sold over five million copies worldwide,[3] and was certified platinum in the United States.[5]

Recording and production[edit]

After recording their second studio album Give 'Em Enough Rope (1978), the band separated from their manager Bernard Rhodes.[6] This separation meant that the group had to leave their rehearsal studio in Camden Town and find another location to compose their music. Drawing inspiration from rockabilly, ska, reggae and jazz,[2] the band began work on the album during the summer of 1979. Tour manager Johnny Green had found the group a new place to rehearse called Vanilla Studios, which was located in the back of a garage in Pimlico.[7][8] The Clash quickly wrote and recorded demos, with Mick Jones composing and arranging much of the music and Joe Strummer writing the lyrics.[2]

As early as their second album, The Clash had started to depart from the punk rock sound.[9] While touring in the United States twice in 1979, they chose supporting acts such as rhythm and blues artists Bo Diddley, Sam & Dave, Lee Dorsey, and Screamin' Jay Hawkins, as well as neotraditional country artist Joe Ely and punk rockabilly band the Cramps. This developed fascination with rock and roll inspired their approach for London Calling.[10]

In August 1979, the band entered Wessex Studios to begin recording London Calling. The Clash asked Guy Stevens to produce the album, much to the dismay of CBS Records.[11] Stevens had alcohol and drug problems and his production methods were unconventional.[2] During a recording session he swung a ladder and upturned chairs – apparently to create a rock & roll atmosphere.[2] The Clash got along well with Stevens, especially bassist Paul Simonon, who found his work to be very helpful and productive to his playing and their recording as a band. While recording, the band would play football to pass the time. This was a way for them to bond together as well as take their mind off of the music, and the games got very serious. Doing this helped bring the band together, unifying them, making the recording process easier and more productive.[12] The album was recorded during a five- to six-week period involving 18-hour days,[13] with many songs recorded in one or two takes.[2]

Music and lyrics[edit]


The song was the first composed solely by Paul Simonon and discusses an individual's paranoid outlook on life.

Problems playing these files? See media help.

According to the music critic Mark Kidel, London Calling is the first post-punk double album and exhibits a broader range of musical styles than The Clash's previous albums.[14] Stephen Thomas Erlewine said that the album appropriates the "punk aesthetic into rock & roll mythology and roots music", and incorporates a wider range of styles such as punk, reggae, rockabilly, ska, New Orleans R&B, pop, lounge jazz, and hard rock.[15] According to Greg Kot, the band's embrace of specific musical traditions deviated from punk's "blow-up-the-past attitude".[16] Writer Jack Sargeant remarked that "whether The Clash completely abandoned their punk roots or pushed punk's musical eclecticism and diversity into new terrain [on the album] remains a controversial issue."[9]

The album's songs are generally about London and feature both fictional and life-based characters, such as an underworld criminal named Jimmy Jazz and a gun-toting Jimmy Cliff aspirer living in Brixton. Some have more widely contextualized narratives, including references to the "evil presidentes" working for the "clampdown", the lingering effects of the Spanish Civil War, and how constant consumerism leads to unavoidable political apathy on "Lost in the Supermarket".[17] Sal Ciolfi of PopMatters felt that the songs encompass an arrangement of urban narratives and characters, and touch on themes such as sex, depression, and identity crisis.[18] Music critic Tom Carson viewed that, while the album draws on the entirety of rock and roll's past for its sound, the concepts and lyrical themes are drawn from the history, politics, and myths associated with the genre.[19]

"London Calling", the album's title track, was partially influenced by the March 1979 accident at a nuclear reactor at Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania. Strummer's lyrics also discuss the problems of rising unemployment, racial conflict and drug use in Britain.[20] The second track, "Brand New Cadillac", was written and originally recorded by Vince Taylor and was the first track recorded for London Calling. The band cite the song as "one of the first British rock'n'roll records" and had initially used it as a warm up song before recording.[21][22] "Rudie Can't Fail", the album's fifth song, features a horn section and mixes elements of pop, soul, and reggae music together. Its lyrics chronicle the life of a fun-loving young man who is criticised for his inability to act like a responsible adult.[23] Strummer wrote "Lost in the Supermarket" after imagining Jones' childhood growing up in a basement with his mother and grandmother.[24] "Clampdown" began as an instrumental track called "Working and Waiting".[25] Its lyrics comment on people who forsake the idealism of youth and urge young people to fight the status quo.[26]

"The Guns of Brixton" was the first of Paul Simonon's compositions the band recorded, and the first to have him sing lead. Simonon was originally doubtful about its lyrics, which discuss an individual's paranoid outlook on life, but was encouraged by Strummer to continue working on it.[25] On "Death or Glory", Strummer examines his life in retrospect and acknowledges the complications and responsibilities of adulthood.[27] While working on "The Card Cheat", the band recorded each part twice to create a "sound as big as possible".[28] "Lover's Rock" advocates safe sex and planning.[29] The reggae song "Revolution Rock" was criticized by NME, who said that Strummer and Jones are unable to compose credible love songs.[30] The final track, "Train in Vain", was originally excluded from the back cover's track listing.[31] It was intended to be given away through a promotion with NME, but was added to the album at the last minute after the deal fell through.[32]

Artwork[edit]

The album's front cover features a photograph of bassist Paul Simonon smashing his Fender Precision Bass (on display at the Cleveland Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as of May 2009)[33] against the stage at The Palladium in New York City on 21 September 1979 during the Clash Take the Fifth US tour.[34][35] Pennie Smith, who photographed the band for the album, originally did not want the photograph to be used. She thought that it was too out of focus, but Strummer and graphic designer Ray Lowry thought it would make a good album cover.[35][36] In 2002, Smith's photograph was named the best rock and roll photograph of all time by Q magazine, commenting that "it captures the ultimate rock'n'roll moment – total loss of control".[37]

The cover artwork was designed by Lowry and was a homage to the design of Elvis Presley's self-titled debut album.[38][39] The cover was named the ninth best album cover of all time by Q magazine in 2001.[40] In 1995, Big Audio Dynamite (a band fronted by former Clash member Mick Jones) used the same scheme for their F-Punk album. The album cover for London Calling was among the ten chosen by the Royal Mail for a set of "Classic Album Cover" postage stamps issued in January 2010.[41][42]

Release[edit]

The album was released in the United Kingdom on vinyl in 1979, and in the United States on vinyl and 8-track tape in 1980. A gatefold cover design of the LP was only released in Japan. Though London Calling was released as a double album it was only sold for about the price of a single album. The Clash's record label, CBS, at first denied the band's request for the album to be released as a double. In return CBS gave permission for the band to include a free 12-inch single that played at 33⅓ rpm. Ultimately, the planned 12-inch record became a second nine-track LP.[8]

Upon its release, London Calling sold approximately two million copies.[3] The album peaked at number nine in the United Kingdom[4] and was certified gold in December 1979.[43] The album performed strongly outside the United Kingdom. It reached number two in Sweden[44] and number four in Norway.[45] In the United States, London Calling peaked at number 27 on the Billboard Pop Albums chart[46] and was certified platinum in February 1996.[5] The album produced two of the band's most successful singles. "London Calling" preceded the album with a 7 December 1979 release. It peaked at number 11 on the UK Singles Chart.[4] The song's music video, directed by Letts, featured the band performing the song on a boat in the pouring rain with the River Thames behind them.[47] In the United States, "Train in Vain", backed with "London Calling", was released as a single in February 1980. It peaked at number 23 on the Billboard Hot 100 singles chart and "London Calling"/"Train in Vain" peaked at number 30 on the Billboard Disco Top 100 chart.[48]

A UK only cassette was released in 1986. A CD was released in the US in 1987, with a remastered version in the UK in 1999 followed by the US in 2000, along with the rest of the band's catalogue. In 2004, a 25th anniversary Legacy Edition was published with a bonus CD and DVD in digipack. The bonus CD features The Vanilla Tapes, missing recordings made by the band in mid-1979.[49] The DVD includes The Last Testament – The Making of London Calling, a film by Don Letts, as well as previously unseen video footage and music videos. A limited edition picture disc LP was released in 2010.

Reception and legacy[edit]

Professional ratings
Retrospective reviews
Aggregate scores
Source Rating
Metacritic 100/100[50]
Review scores
Source Rating
Allmusic 5/5 stars[15]
Chicago Sun-Times 4/4 stars[51]
Robert Christgau A+[52]
The Guardian 5/5 stars[53]
Mojo 5/5 stars[54]
Pitchfork Media 10/10[55]
Q 5/5 stars[56]
Rolling Stone 5/5 stars[57]
The Rolling Stone Album Guide 5/5 stars[58]
Uncut 5/5 stars[59]

London Calling received universal acclaim from music critics upon its release.[60] In a contemporary review for The New York Times, John Rockwell said that the album finally validates the acclaim received by the Clash up to that point because of how their serious political themes and vital playing are retained in music with innovative features and broad appeal: "This is an album that captures all the Clash's primal energy, combines it with a brilliant production job by Guy Stevens and reveals depths of invention and creativity barely suggested by the band's previous work."[61] Rolling Stone magazine's Tom Carson wrote that the music celebrates "the romance of rock & roll rebellion" and is vast, engaging, and enduring enough to leave listeners "not just exhilarated but exalted and triumphantly alive".[19]

London Calling topped The Village Voice's annual Pazz & Jop critics poll.[62] Robert Christgau, the poll's creator and supervisor, also named it the best album of 1980 in an accompanying piece for the poll and remarked that "it generated an urgency and vitality and ambition (that Elvis P. cover!) which overwhelmed the pessimism of its leftist world-view."[63] In a retrospective review, he called it the best double album since the Rolling Stones' Exile on Main St. (1972) and said that it expands upon rather than compromises the Clash's driving guitar sound in a "warm, angry, and thoughtful, confident, melodic, and hard-rocking" showcase of their musical abilities.[52]

According to the English music writer Dave Thompson, London Calling established The Clash as more than "a simple punk band" and was a "potent" record of neurotic post-punk, despite its amalgam of disparate and occasionally disjointed musical influences.[64] Don McLeese of the Chicago Sun-Times hailed it as their best album and "punk's finest hour", as it found the band broadening their artistry without compromising their original vigor and immediacy.[51] Sal Ciolfi of PopMatters called it a "big, loud, beautiful collection of hurt, anger, restless thought, and above all hope" that still sounds "relevant and vibrant".[18] In a review of its reissue, Uncut wrote that the songs and characters in the lyrics cross-reference each other because of the album's exceptional sequencing and remarked that "The Vanilla Tapes" bonus disc enhances what is already a "masterpiece".[59]

Accolades[edit]

London Calling has been considered by many critics to be one of the greatest rock albums of all time,[65] including Allmusic's Stephen Thomas Erlewine, who said that it sounded more purposeful than "most albums, let alone double albums".[15] In 1987, Robert Hilburn of the Los Angeles Times named it the fourth best album of the previous 10 years and said that, while The Clash's debut was a punk masterpiece, London Calling marked the genre's "coming of age", as the band led the way into "fertile post-punk territory."[66] In 1989, Rolling Stone ranked it as the best album of the 1980s.[67] In 1999, Q magazine named London Calling the fourth greatest British album of all time,[68] and wrote that it is "the best Clash album and therefore among the very best albums ever recorded".[56] In 2002, Q included it on its list of the 100 Best Punk Albums,[69] and in 2003, Mojo ranked it twenty second on their list of the Top 50 Punk Albums,[70] while British writer Colin Larkin named it the second greatest punk album of all time.[71]

London Calling was ranked as the sixth greatest album of the 1970s by NME,[72] and the second best by Pitchfork Media,[73] whose reviewer Amanda Petrusich said that it was The Clash's "creative apex" as a "rock band" rather than as a punk band.[55] In 2003, London Calling was ranked number eight on Rolling Stone's list of The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time.[3] Entertainment Weekly's Tom Sinclair declared it the "Best Album of All Time" in his headline for a 2004 article on the album.[74] In 2007, London Calling was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame, a collection of recordings of lasting qualitative or historical significance.[75] The album was included in the BBC Radio 1 2009 Masterpieces Series, marking it as one of the most influential albums of all time, some thirty years after its original release.[76]

Film[edit]

In December 2010, the BBC reported that a film about the recording of London Calling was in the early stages of production. Mick Jones and Paul Simonon are working as executive producers for the film. The script was written by Jez Butterworth and shooting would begin in 2011. Alison Owen and Paul Trijbits had been chosen as the producers.[77][78]

Track listing[edit]

All songs written and composed by Joe Strummer and Mick Jones, except where noted. 

Side one
No. Title Lead vocals Length
1. "London Calling"   Strummer 3:19
2. "Brand New Cadillac" (written and originally performed by Vince Taylor) Strummer 2:09
3. "Jimmy Jazz"   Strummer 3:52
4. "Hateful"   Strummer 2:45
5. "Rudie Can't Fail"   Strummer, Jones 3:26
Side two
No. Title Lead vocals Length
6. "Spanish Bombs"   Strummer, Jones 3:19
7. "The Right Profile"   Strummer 3:56
8. "Lost in the Supermarket"   Jones 3:47
9. "Clampdown"   Strummer, Jones 3:49
10. "The Guns of Brixton" (written by Paul Simonon) Simonon 3:07
Side three
No. Title Lead vocals Length
11. "Wrong 'Em Boyo" (written by Clive Alphonso; originally performed by the Rulers; including Stagger Lee) Strummer 3:10
12. "Death or Glory"   Strummer 3:55
13. "Koka Kola"   Strummer 1:46
14. "The Card Cheat"   Jones 3:51
Side four
No. Title Lead vocals Length
15. "Lover's Rock"   Strummer 4:01
16. "Four Horsemen"   Strummer 2:56
17. "I'm Not Down"   Jones 3:00
18. "Revolution Rock" (written by Jackie Edwards, Danny Ray; originally performed by Danny Ray and the Revolutionaries) Strummer 5:37
19. "Train in Vain"   Jones 3:09
  • On the original version of the album, "Train in Vain" was not listed on the sleeve, nor the label on the record itself, but an extraneous sticker indicating the track was affixed to the outer cellophane wrapper. It was also scratched into the vinyl in the run-off area on the fourth side of the album. Later editions included the song in the track listing.

Personnel[edit]

The Clash
Additional performers
Production

Charts[edit]

Year Chart Peak
position
1979 Swedish Albums Chart[44] 2
UK Albums Chart[4] 9
1980 Austrian Albums Chart[79] 17
Canadian RPM Albums Chart[80] 12
New Zealand Albums Chart[81] 12
Norwegian Albums Chart[45] 4
US Billboard 200[46] 27
2003 Irish Albums Chart[82] 23
2004 Norwegian Albums Chart[45][n 1] 17
Swedish Albums Chart[44][n 1] 45
Swiss Albums Chart[83][n 1] 72
UK Albums Chart[4][n 1] 26
2009 Spanish Albums Chart[84] 52
2011 Top Pop Catalog Albums[85] 38
2012 Polish Albums Chart[86] 38
Notes
  1. ^ a b c d London Calling 25th anniversary edition

Certifications[edit]

Region Certification Sales/shipments
Canada (Music Canada)[87] Gold 50,000^
Italy (FIMI)[88] Gold 50,000*
United Kingdom (BPI)[89] Gold 100,000^
United States (RIAA)[90] Platinum 1,000,000^

*sales figures based on certification alone
^shipments figures based on certification alone

References[edit]

  1. ^ Frank Hoffmann (2005). "Encyclopedia of Recorded Sound". p. 397. Routledge
  2. ^ a b c d e f Sinclair, Tom. "The Best Album of All Time". Entertainment Weekly. 24 September 2004. Retrieved 20 February 2008.
  3. ^ a b c d Levy, Joe; Steven Van Zandt (2006) [2005]. "8| London Calling – The Clash". Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Albums of All Time (3rd ed.). London: Turnaround. ISBN 1-932958-61-4. OCLC 70672814. Retrieved 18 June 2005. .
  4. ^ a b c d e "UK Chart Archive". everyHit.co.uk. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
  5. ^ a b "RIAA Searchable Database". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
  6. ^ Gilbert 2005, pp. 212–213.
  7. ^ Green 2003, p. 156.
  8. ^ a b Sweeting, Adam. "Death or Glory". Uncut. October 2004. p. 58.
  9. ^ a b Barber, Chris; Sargeant, Jack (2006). No Focus. Headpress. p. 41. ISBN 1900486598. 
  10. ^ Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "The Clash". Allmusic. Retrieved 9 July 2013. 
  11. ^ Gilbert 2005, p. 235.
  12. ^ Making of 'London Calling': The Last Testament. Dir. Don Letts. Perf. Joe Strummer, Mick Jones, Paul Simonon, Topper Headon, and Kosmo Vinyl. Sony Music, 2004. DVD.
  13. ^ Chris Michie (1 November 2000). "Classic Tracks: The Clash's "London Calling"". Mix:. Retrieved 18 January 2013. 
  14. ^ Kidel, Mark (1980). "Explorations of Heartache". New Statesman 99 (London). p. 225. 
  15. ^ a b c Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. London Calling at AllMusic. Retrieved 18 August 2004.
  16. ^ Kot, Greg (13 February 2000). "Rebel Recall". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 9 July 2013. 
  17. ^ Taylor, Steve (2006). The A to X of Alternative Music. Continuum. p. 67. ISBN 0826482171. 
  18. ^ a b Ciofli, Sal (10 March 2004). "The Clash: London Calling > Album Review". PopMatters. Retrieved 22 February 2008. 
  19. ^ a b Carson, Tom (3 April 1980). "The Clash London Calling > Album Review". Rolling Stone (314). Retrieved 22 February 2008. 
  20. ^ "The RS 500 Greatest Songs of All Time: The Clash London Calling"[dead link]. Rolling Stone. 9 December 2004. Retrieved 18 February 2008.
  21. ^ Sweeting, Adam. "Death or Glory". Uncut. October 2004. p. 65.
  22. ^ Gilbert 2005, p. 237.
  23. ^ Guarisco, Donald A. "Rudie Can't Fail Review". Allmusic. Retrieved 18 February 2008.
  24. ^ London Calling: 25th Anniversary Legacy Edition. "The Last Testament – The Making of London Calling". Information about the recording of London Calling. Retrieved 18 February 2008.
  25. ^ a b Sweeting, Adam. "Death or Glory". Uncut. October 2004. p. 67.
  26. ^ Guarisco, Donald A. "Clampdown Review". Allmusic. Retrieved 18 February 2008.
  27. ^ Gilbert 2005, p. 259.
  28. ^ Sweeting, Adam. "Death or Glory". Uncut. October 2004. p. 68.
  29. ^ Spicer, Al (1999). Rock: 100 Essential CDs : The Rough Guide. Rough Guides. p. 44. ISBN 1858284902. 
  30. ^ Gilbert 2005, p. 260.
  31. ^ Green 2003, p. 218.
  32. ^ Back, Johnny. "The Greatest Songs Ever! "Train in Vain (Stand by Me)""[dead link]. Blender. April/May 2002. Retrieved 18 February 2008.
  33. ^ "Exhibit and Information Guide."[dead link] p. 5. Retrieved 17 May 2009.
  34. ^ Green 2003, pp. 195–196.
  35. ^ a b Sweeting, Adam. "Death or Glory". Uncut. October 2004. p. 70.
  36. ^ Godwin, Richard (15 June 2010). "London Calling again". Evening Standard (London). Retrieved 16 June 2010. "Lowry: “Actually, I had no idea it was out of focus. Half-blind at the best of times and half-pissed at the time, that simply had to be the one.”" 
  37. ^ Judd, Terri. "One hundred timeless rock'n'roll moments, and the photographers who..."[dead link]. The Independent. 24 January 2002. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
  38. ^ Green 2003, p. 194.
  39. ^ Tryangiel, Josh. "The All-TIME 100 Albums: London Calling". Time. 13 November 2006. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
  40. ^ O'Connor, Mickey. "London's Q magazine picked these; what are yours?". Entertainment Weekly. 14 March 2001. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
  41. ^ "Classic Album Covers: Issue Date – 7 January 2010". Royal Mail. Retrieved 8 January 2010. 
  42. ^ Michaels, Sean (8 January 2010). "Coldplay album gets stamp of approval from Royal Mail". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 8 January 2010. 
  43. ^ "British gold certification for London Calling[dead link]. British Phonographic Industry. 31 December 1979. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
  44. ^ a b c "Discography The Clash". SwedishCharts.com. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
  45. ^ a b c "Discography The Clash". NorwegianCharts.com. Retrieved 26 October 2008.
  46. ^ a b "The Clash > Charts & Awards > Billboard Albums". Allmusic. Retrieved 26 October 2008.
  47. ^ Sweeting, Adam. "Death or Glory". Uncut. October 2004. p. 69.
  48. ^ "The Clash > Charts & Awards > Billboard Singles". Allmusic. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
  49. ^ Gilbert, Pat. "The 'Vanilla Tapes'". London Calling: 25th Anniversary Legacy Edition (CD liner notes). September 2004.
  50. ^ "London Calling [25th Anniversary Legacy Edition] – The Clash". Metacritic. 21 September 2004. Retrieved 30 June 2012. 
  51. ^ a b McLeese, Don (16 March 1987). "Husker Du proves its wide range". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 36. Retrieved 9 July 2013.  (subscription required)
  52. ^ a b Christgau, Robert (1990). Christgau's Record Guide: The '80s. Pantheon Books. p. 92. ISBN 067973015X. 
  53. ^ Sweeting, Adam (9 September 2004). "Pop CD: The Clash, London Calling: The 25th Anniversary Edition". The Guardian (London). Friday Review section, p. 22. Retrieved 9 July 2013. 
  54. ^ "Review: London Calling [25th Anniversary Legacy Edition]". Mojo (London): 123. October 2004. 
  55. ^ a b Petrusich, Amanda (21 September 2004). "The Clash London Calling: 25th Anniversary Legacy Edition > Review". Pitchfork Media. Retrieved 3 April 2006. 
  56. ^ a b "Review: London Calling". Q (London): 152–3. December 1999. 
  57. ^ Blashill, Pat (14 October 2004). "The Clash London Calling > Album Deluxe Reissue Review". Rolling Stone (959). Archived from the original on 20 June 2008. Retrieved 4 September 2006. 
  58. ^ Brackett, Nathan; Hoard, Christian, eds. (2004). "The Clash". The New Rolling Stone Album Guide. London: Fireside. pp. 167–168. ISBN 0-7432-0169-8. Retrieved 21 September 2011.  Portions posted at "The Clash > Album Guide". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 21 September 2011. 
  59. ^ a b "Review: London Calling [25th Anniversary Legacy Edition]". Uncut (London): 122. October 2004. 
  60. ^ Strong, Martin Charles (2006). The Essential Rock Discography. Canongate U.S. p. 206. ISBN 1841958603. 
  61. ^ Rockwell, John (4 January 1980). "The Pop Life; 'London Calling' helps the Clash live up to billing". The New York Times. p. C12. Retrieved 4 June 2014.  (subscription required)
  62. ^ "The 1980 Pazz & Jop Critics Poll". The Village Voice. 9 February 1981. Retrieved 21 March 2005. 
  63. ^ Christgau, Robert (9 February 1981). "The Year of the Lollapalooza". The Village Voice. Retrieved 9 July 2013. 
  64. ^ Thompson, Dave (2000). Alternative Rock. Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 271. ISBN 0879306076. 
  65. ^ "Joe Strummer Of The Clash Dead At 50". MTV News. 23 December 2002. Retrieved 9 July 2013. 
  66. ^ Hilburn, Robert (17 May 1987). "10 Years Later – A Critic's List of the Best Albums of the Decade". Los Angeles Times. p. 56. Retrieved 10 July 2013.  (subscription required)
  67. ^ Azerrad, Michael; DeCurtis, Anthony (16 November 1989). "The 100 Best Albums of the Eighties: The Clash, 'London Calling'". Rolling Stone (565). p. 53. Retrieved 30 June 2008. 
  68. ^ "100 Greatest British Albums". Q magazine: 90. December 1999. 
  69. ^ "100 Best Punk Albums". Q magazine Special Edition: 136. February 2002. 
  70. ^ "Top 50 Punk Albums". Mojo: 76. March 2003. 
  71. ^ Larkin, Colin (1994). Guinness Book of Top 1000 Albums (1 ed.). Gullane Children's Books. p. 234. ISBN 978-0-85112-786-6. 
  72. ^ "The Greatest Albums of The '70s". NME: 18. 11 September 1993. 
  73. ^ "Top 100 Albums of the 1970s". Pitchfork Media. 23 June 2004. Retrieved 17 February 2008. 
  74. ^ Sinclair, Tom (24 September 2004). "The Best Album of All Time". Entertainment Weekly. 
  75. ^ "Grammy Hall of Fame Award". Grammy.com. Retrieved 18 February 2008.
  76. ^ Lowe, Zane (2 December 2009). "Masterpieces". BBC 1. Retrieved 3 December 2009. 
  77. ^ "Clash album London Calling to spawn rock biopic". Entertainment & Arts (BBC News). 1 December 2010. Retrieved 14 February 2011. 
  78. ^ "Mick Jones and Paul Simonon working on Clash 'London Calling' film". NME. 1 December 2010. Retrieved 14 February 2011. 
  79. ^ "Discographie The Clash". AustrianCharts.at. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
  80. ^ "Top Albums/CDs – Volume 33, No. 8, May 17, 1980". RPM. Retrieved 31 January 2012. 
  81. ^ "Discography The Clash". Charts.org.NZ. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
  82. ^ "Discography The Clash". Irish-Charts.com. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
  83. ^ "Discography The Clash". SwissCharts.com. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
  84. ^ "The Clash – London Calling". SpanishCharts.com. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
  85. ^ London Calling at AllMusic
  86. ^ "Oficjalna lista sprzedaży". OLiS. 24 September 2012. Retrieved 21 September 2012. 
  87. ^ "Canadian album certifications – The Clash – London Calling". Music Canada. 1 July 1980. 
  88. ^ "Italian album certifications – The Clash – London Calling" (in Italian). Federation of the Italian Music Industry. Retrieved 9 March 2014.  Select Album e Compilation in the field Scegli la sezione. Select Week -- and Year ----. Enter The Clash in the field Artista. Click Avvia la ricerca
  89. ^ "British album certifications – The Clash – London Calling". British Phonographic Industry. 31 December 1979.  Enter London Calling in the field Search. Select Title in the field Search by. Select album in the field By Format. Click Go
  90. ^ "American album certifications – The Clash – London Calling". Recording Industry Association of America. 14 February 1996.  If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH

Sources[edit]

  • Gilbert, Pat (2005) [2004]. Passion Is a Fashion: The Real Story of The Clash (4th ed.). London: Aurum Press. pp. 212–213, 235–237, 259–260. ISBN 1-84513-113-4. OCLC 61177239. 
  • Green, Johnny; Garry Barker (2003) [1997]. A Riot of Our Own: Night and Day with The Clash (3rd ed.). London: Orion. pp. 156–158, 161–162, 165, 194–196, 218–219. ISBN 0-7528-5843-2. OCLC 52990890. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]