London Underground S7 and S8 Stock
|S7 and S8 Stock|
S8 Stock on the Metropolitan line
|In service||31 July 2010 (formally 2 August 2010)|
|Lines served||S8 Metropolitan (since 31 July 2010)
S7 Hammersmith & City (since 6 July 2012)
S7 Circle (since 2 September 2013)
S7 District (since 2 September 2013)
|Length per car||DM 17.44 m
NDM 15.43 m
|Width||2.92 m (9 ft 7 in)|
|Maximum speed||100 km/h (62 mph)
|Train capacity||S7 268 seated, 1,071 standing
S8 306 seated, 1,226 standing
|London Transport portal|
S Stock sub-surface trains, delivered by Bombardier Transportation in Derby to the London Underground, are in the process of replacing 177 trains on the Metropolitan, District, Hammersmith & City, and Circle lines. The order consists of a standardised fleet of 191 trains (1,395 cars). The stock has two types, S7 and S8, serving different lines, with differences in the arrangement of seating and number of cars. Both types have air-conditioning and low floors to ease accessibility for disabled people, and it is possible to change cars when the train is moving, unlike older subsurface trains.
Passenger service began on the Metropolitan line in July 2010, the Hammersmith & City line in July 2012, and the Circle and District lines in September 2013. The S8 Stock completely replaced the A Stock on the Metropolitan line in 2012, and the S7 Stock is expected to completely replace the C Stock on the Hammersmith & City line in 2014 and on the Circle line and the Edgware Road branch of the District line in 2015; and the D Stock on the rest of the District line in 2016.
The S designation stands for sub-surface, following the London Underground tradition of designating surface stock with a letter associated with its intended route - A Stock on the Metropolitan line to Amersham, the C Stock on the Circle line and Hammersmith & City line, and D Stock on the District line.
Part of Bombardier's Movia family, the stock consists of 133 S7 seven-car trains for the Circle, District and Hammersmith & City lines and 58 S8 eight-car trains for the Metropolitan line. S8 Stock entered service between 2010 and 2012, operating all services by September 2012.
The stock has faster acceleration than previous stock, at 1.3 m/s2, but its top speed is 62 mph (100 km/h), 8 mph slower than A Stock but faster than C and D Stocks. During the period of dual operation with both old and new trains, the stock has its performance capped to match that of the older trains in order to comply with signalling constraints and avoid bunching of the service. S8 stock seats 306 passengers compared with 448 for A Stock, a reduction of 32%, but it can accommodate 25% more standing passengers (1,226 compared with 976) and has dedicated space for wheelchairs.
Eventually the voltage will be increased from nominal 630 volts to 750 volts. This will allow for better performance and also for the increased power demands of air-conditioned, fully-motored-axle trains, and allow the trains to return energy to the network through regenerative braking.
The stock is air-conditioned throughout: the sub-surface tunnels (unlike deep-level tube lines) allow the exhausted hot air to disperse, and two-thirds of the sub-surface network is in the open air. The stock has regenerative brakes, returning around 20% of their energy to the network and thus increasing energy efficiency.
End external displays show two lines of text: the top line for the destination, and the bottom for the line. Internally, it has larger dot matrix indicators (DMIs) than D Stock (C Stock lacks DMIs, as did A Stock). The DMIs show destination and line, and can display other messages such as safety notices. There are also DMIs on the exterior, with text alternating between destination and line, and on S8 stock the type of service, i.e. fast, semi-fast or all stations.
Another new feature is that to prevent accidental pressing of emergency alarms there are flaps over the alarm buttons where the wheelchair spaces are.
The air-conditioning system, the first on London Underground trains, is by Mitsubishi and has two circuits so that if one fails there is still 50% capacity. Through gangways from car to car are another innovation, as on the London Overground's Class 378. This allows passengers to move from crowded cars to ones with more room, provides extra room for standing and creates a sense of security. CCTV enables the driver to see into every car, while track-to-train video links give the driver a view of the train exterior before leaving a station.
There is a fold-out set of steps in each driver's cab to allow fast evacuation in an emergency.
The stock has cantilevered seating for easy cleaning and accessible storage of bags. S7 Stock has longitudinal seating throughout, S8 a mix of transverse and longitudinal seating with four wheelchair spaces per train. S7 Stock trains are 117.45 metres (385 ft 4 in) long, S8 133.68 m (438 ft 7 in).
The stock is the first on the Metropolitan line with DMIs and automated voice announcements. It uses the same announcer voice as 2009 stock on the Victoria line and C Stock on the Circle, District and Hammersmith & City lines.
All stock can operate on all sub-surface lines, with selective door operation used at stations that are shorter than the train.
S8 Stock may operate as a seven-car S8-1 formation, S7 Stock may operate as an eight-car S7+1 formation.
Entry into service
S8 Stock was initially tested overnight between Amersham and Watford via the Watford North Curve from 9 November 2009. Driver training began in early January 2010, and the first train entered revenue service on 31 July 2010, shuttling between Wembley Park and Watford.
By 27 June 2011, S8 Stock was running along the whole Metropolitan line. Deliveries were suspended by Transport for London in November 2011 due to concerns over reliability. A number of train were delivered to London Underground's Neasden depot, but were not accepted to enter service. Deliveries resumed in mid-December 2011.
By 15 September 2012, all 58 S8 trains had been delivered to Neasden Depot. The elderly A Stock trains were completely withdrawn 11 days later. In November 2012 it was reported that 37 of them would be sent back to Bombardier for urgent modification at Bombardier's cost, and that drivers were unhappy with the driver's cabs.
Hammersmith & City line
The first trains entered service on 6 July 2012, from Hammersmith to Moorgate. S7 trains are longer than those they are replacing (seven cars and 117 m long instead of six cars and 93 m long), so some station platforms are having to be lengthened before they can operate in normal service. For stations where this has proved physically impossible, such as Baker Street, the trains have a selective-door-opening capability whereby the doors at the end of the train will not open.
On 4 December 2012, an S7 train went east of Moorgate to Barking for testing. This was the first time an S7 Stock was seen in peak hours. S7 Stock began operating a full passenger service from Hammersmith to Barking on 9 December 2012, with all Hammersmith & City and Circle line trains formed of S7 Stock by 2014.
S7 Stock entered service on the Circle line on 2 September 2013.
The first S7 Stock train entered passenger service between Olympia and West Ham on 2 September 2013. Since D78 Stock was refurbished in 2005-08 and C Stock is described by London Underground as being "in an increasingly poor state", the older C Stock is to be replaced first, with all trains planned to be replaced by the end of 2016.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (September 2013)|
Cars have a five-digit number: the second digit identifies the role of car, the last three digits the set number (001 - 116, 301 - 565). A-end cars have odd numbers, D-end even numbers.
- Even-numbered 25xxx cars (substituting for even-numbered 23xxx) have de-icing equipment
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- Bruce 1983, p. 114
- Bruce 1983, p. 118
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- Connor, Piers (12 December 2011). "S Stock Deliveries Suspended". Modern Railways (London). Retrieved 10 January 2012.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to London Underground S Stock.|
- Bombardier - Technical data
- Vehicle 21100 on its way for testing at Old Dalby Test Track - part of the first set completed
- Article about the new S7 trains entering service onto the Hammersmith and City Line