Long-distance trails in the Republic of Ireland

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The traditional "walking man" waymarker used to designate National Waymarked Trails in Ireland

There are 43 long-distance trails in Ireland designated as National Waymarked Trails by the National Trails Office of the Irish Sports Council.[1] These trails are inspected annually by the National Trails Office and are maintained by local management committees, Local Authorities, Local Development Companies and other State Agencies.[2] All routes follow woodland paths, grassy boreens, fields, riverbanks and quiet country roads in the lowlands and forestry tracks and mountain paths in the uplands.[2] Each trail is waymarked with square black posts containing an image, in yellow, of a walking man and a directional arrow, a symbol reserved for use only by National Waymarked Trails.[3]

The oldest trail is the Wicklow Way, the first section of which opened in 1980.[4] It was followed by the South Leinster and East Munster Ways in 1984; the Kerry Way and the Táin Way in 1985; and the Dingle and Slieve Bloom Ways in 1987.[4] National Waymarked Trails continue to be developed and there are now over 4,000 kilometres (2,500 miles) of routes in Ireland.[5] The highest concentration of routes is in the Munster region.[2] The most frequented trails are the Wicklow, Sheep's Head, Kerry, Dingle, Beara, Burren and Western Ways.[6]

In addition to the National Waymarked Trails, the Heritage Council has developed a series of walking routes based on medieval pilgrimage paths. Two greenway rail trails have also been developed. Many of the National Waymarked Trails form part of larger long-distance and transnational trails such as European walking route E8, the Beara Breifne Way and the International Appalachian Trail.

History[edit]

The impetus for the development of the National Waymarked Trails came about in response to the establishment of the Ulster Way in Northern Ireland.[7] This prompted the appointment in 1978, by John Bruton, T.D., of the Cospóir Long Distance Walking Routes Committee (now the National Trails Advisory Committee of the Irish Sport Council) to establish a national network of long-distance paths in Ireland.[8] The committee consisted of representatives of various sectional interests, including An Taisce whose nominee, J. B. Malone, was appointed Field Officer of the committee.[8] Malone had done much to popularise walking through a regular column in the Evening Herald newspaper, contributions to television programmes as well as two books on the subject.[9] The first trail to be developed – the Wicklow Way – was based on a series of articles he had written for the Evening Herald in 1966.[10]

Each of the trails to have been developed makes use existing paths, tracks, forest roads, boreens and by-roads but, in the absence of any compulsory powers to include any of these, provision of and access to any such routes is achieved by agreement with local authorities and landowners.[11] Agreement with private landowners has not always been forthcoming.[12] Most of the routes, therefore, are highly dependent on access provided by the state: Coillte, the state-owned forestry company, is the largest single manager of any of the trails with more than 30 National Waymarked Trails making use of its property.[13] Coillte provides and maintains 52% of all off-road walking trails and 24% of the total amount of developed walking trails in Ireland.[14] Access issues mean that many trails have substantial sections on public roads.[12] Writing in The Irish Times, John G. O'Dwyer summed up the situation as follows: "Trails often tiptoed timidly through the countryside, offering extended stretches of boringly unsafe road topped with boot burning bitumen. These were frequently interspersed with gloomy trails through invading armies of monoculture, including stands of Sitka spruce that were generally as memorable as a motorway median".[12] Trail erosion has also been an issue with some of the more popular routes.[15]

The National Trails Strategy, published by the Irish Sports Council in 2006 to set out a vision for the development of recreational trails in Ireland, acknowledged many of these shortcomings and found that "the quality and standard of recreational trail development, for the most part, falls well below international standards.[16] The strategy identified access as "the single most important and defining issues [sic] that will impact on the success or otherwise of this strategy and the creation of a sustainable recreational trail development in Ireland".[17] Following on from the publication of the National Trails Strategy, a 2010 review of the National Waymarked Trails by the Irish Sports Council restated many of these issues and made recommendations to address them. One of these recommendations was a proposed new standard of trail, called a National Long Distance Trail, intended to meet international standards for outstanding trails.[18] This standard would require sections on unsuitable roads to comprise less than 10% of the total trail and for appropriate support services – accommodation, meals, transport, luggage transfer etc. to be available.[19] Five trails – the Beara, Dingle, Kerry, Sheep's Head and Wicklow Ways – have been recommended to be prioritised for upgrade to National Long Distance Trails.[20]

The National Waymarked Trails[edit]

Name County Format Start End Length
Ballyhoura Way[a] Cork; Limerick; Tipperary Linear St John's Bridge Limerick Junction 700189000000000000089 km (55 mi)
Barrow Way Carlow; Kildare; Laois Linear Robertstown St Mullin's 7002100000000000000100 km (62 mi)
Bealach na Gaeltachta – Slí an Earagail Donegal Circular Dunlewey Dunlewey 700177000000000000077 km (48 mi)
Bealach na Gaeltachta – Slí Cholmcille[b] Donegal Circular Ardara Ardara 700165000000000000065 km (40 mi)
Bealach na Gaeltachta – Slí Chonamara Galway Closed
Bealach na Gaeltachta – Slí na Finne Donegal Circular Fintown Fintown 700151000000000000051 km (32 mi)
Bealach na Gaeltachta – Slí na Rosann Donegal Circular Dungloe Dungloe 700165000000000000065 km (40 mi)
Beara Way[a][c] Cork; Kerry Circular Glengarriff Glengarriff 7002206000000000000206 km (128 mi)
Blackwater Way (Avondhu)[c] Cork; Tipperary Linear Clogheen Bweeng 700194000000000000094 km (58 mi)
Blackwater Way (Duhallow)[c] Cork; Kerry Linear Bweeng Shrone 700167000000000000067 km (42 mi)
Bluestack Way[b] Donegal Linear Donegal Ardara 700165000000000000065 km (40 mi)
Burren Way Clare Linear Lahinch Corofin 7002114000000000000114 km (71 mi)
Cavan Way[a] Cavan Linear Dowra Blacklion 700122000000000000022 km (14 mi)
Croagh Patrick Heritage Trail Mayo Linear Balla Murrisk 700161000000000000061 km (38 mi)
Dingle Way Kerry Circular Tralee Tralee 7002162000000000000162 km (101 mi)
Dublin Mountains Way Dublin Linear Shankill Tallaght 700155000000000000055 km (34 mi)
East Clare Way Clare Circular Killaloe Killaloe 7002180000000000000180 km (110 mi)
East Munster Way[c] Waterford; Tipperary Linear Carrick-on-Suir Clogheen 700175000000000000075 km (47 mi)
Grand Canal Way Dublin; Kildare; Offaly Linear Lucan Bridge Shannon Harbour 7002117000000000000117 km (73 mi)
Hymany Way[a] Galway Linear Portumna Aughrim 700155000000000000055 km (34 mi)
Kerry Way[c] Kerry Circular Killarney Killarney 7002214000000000000214 km (133 mi)
Leitrim Way[a] Leitrim Closed
Lough Derg Way Limerick; Clare; Tipperary Linear Limerick Dromineer 700165000000000000065 km (40 mi)
Mid Clare Way Clare Circular Newmarket-on-Fergus Newmarket-on-Fergus 7002148000000000000148 km (92 mi)
Miners Way and Historical Trail[a] Sligo; Roscommon; Leitrim Circular Arigna Arigna 7002118000000000000118 km (73 mi)
Monaghan Way Monaghan Linear Monaghan Inishkeen 700165000000000000065 km (40 mi)
Multeen Way[a] Tipperary Linear Milestone Tipperary Town 700123000000000000023 km (14 mi)
Nore Valley Way Kilkenny Linear Kilkenny Inistioge 700134000000000000034 km (21 mi)
North Kerry Way Kerry Linear Tralee Ballyheigue 700145000000000000045 km (28 mi)
Offaly Way Offaly Linear Cadamstown Lemanaghan 700137000000000000037 km (23 mi)
Royal Canal Way Dublin; Kildare; Meath;
Longford; Westmeath
Linear Ashtown Abbeyshrule 700179000000000000079 km (49 mi)
Sheep's Head Way Cork Circular Bantry Bantry 700190000000000000090 km (56 mi)
Slieve Bloom Way Laois; Offaly Circular Glenbarrow Glenbarrow 700184000000000000084 km (52 mi)
Slieve Felim Way Limerick; Tipperary Linear Murroe Silvermines 700143000000000000043 km (27 mi)
Sligo Way Sligo Linear Larrigan Dromahair 700178000000000000078 km (48 mi)
South Leinster Way[c] Carlow; Kilkenny; Tipperary Linear Kildavin Carrick-on-Suir 7002104000000000000104 km (65 mi)
Suck Valley Way[a] Roscommon; Galway Circular Castlerea Castlerea 7002105000000000000105 km (65 mi)
Táin Way Louth Circular Carlingford Carlingford 700140000000000000040 km (25 mi)
Tipperary Heritage Way Tipperary Linear Vee Gap Cashel 700156000000000000056 km (35 mi)
Western Way (Galway) Galway Linear Oughterard Leenaun 700155000000000000055 km (34 mi)
Western Way (Mayo) Mayo Linear Leenaun Ballycastle 7002124000000000000124 km (77 mi)
Westmeath Way Westmeath Linear Kilbeggan Mullingar 700133000000000000033 km (21 mi)
Wicklow Way[c] Wicklow; Dublin; Carlow Linear Marlay Park Clonegal 7002129000000000000129 km (80 mi)

The Pilgrim Paths[edit]

The "walking pligrim" waymarker used to designate Pilgrim Paths in Ireland

Influenced by the work done by the Council of Europe on the Camino de Santiago de Compostela in the 1980s and 1990s,[21] the Pilgrim Paths project was set up by the Heritage Council as its Millennium Project.[22] Its purpose was to develop and support a network of walking routes along Irish medieval pilgrimage paths to raise awareness of natural and built heritage along these routes and to contribute to tourism and community development.[23] Seven pilgrim paths were chosen for the project and, to date, three routes have been completed and are open for walking:

Name County Format Start End Length
Cosán na Naomh[24] Kerry Linear Ventry Mount Brandon 700118000000000000018 km (11 mi)
Lough Derg[25] Donegal Circular Station Island Visitor Centre Saint's Island 700112000000000000012 km (7.5 mi)
Saint Kevin's Way[26] Wicklow Linear Hollywood or Valleymount Glendalough 700130000000000000030 km (19 mi)

Each of these routes has been developed according to the guidelines for the development of National Waymarked Trails.[27] They are waymarked with black marker posts with a yellow pilgrim symbol: this image is based on a stone from a pilgrimage site in County Cork which depicts a pilgrim with a Celtic tonsure, wearing a tunic and carrying a staff.[28] Beneath the symbol is a directional arrow inset with a cross of arcs, one of the main symbols of pilgrimage in Ireland.[28]

Of the remaining routes chosen, it was decided that two – Turas, in Glencolmcille, County Donegal, and Tóchar Phádraig, between Ballintubber, County Mayo and Croagh Patrick – were unsuitable for development as permanent walking trails, although funding was provided by the Heritage Council for conservation works.[27] The Pilgrim's Road (or Slí Mhór) between Ballycumber, County Offaly and Clonmacnoise has been developed as a cycle way since so much of the route follows roads.[23] Work has begun on the remaining route, Saint Declan's Way between Ardmore and Lismore in County Waterford. Voluntary groups on both sides of the Knockmealdown Mountains began work on the route in 2013, waymarking is expected shortly. The first organised walk of the route takes place on 24 to 28 July 2013.[29][23]

Greenways[edit]

There are also two greenway rail trails in Ireland:

Name County Format Start End Length
Great Southern Trail[30] Limerick; Kerry Linear Rathkeale Abbeyfeale 700135000000000000035 km (22 mi)
Great Western Greenway[31] Mayo Linear Westport Achill 700142000000000000042 km (26 mi)

A project has been initiated to create an 80-kilometre (50-mile) Connemara Greenway along the route of the former Galway to Clifden Midland Great Western Railway.[32] The Dublin-Galway Greenway has also been initiated.[33] The 280km route is planned to be completed by 2020.[34][35] Sections of the route follow the Royal Canal from Dublin, as well as the disused Mullingar-Athlone rail line.[36][34] Funding has been made available for the development of a greenway on the former Tralee to Fenit railway line in County Kerry and the development of further greenways is under active consideration in other parts of the country.[37] There is also a campaign to create a greenway on the Claremorris, County Mayo to Collooney, County Sligo section of the Western Rail Corridor.[38]

Interconnecting trails[edit]

European walking route E8 is an international walking trail that extends from Dursey Island, County Cork to Istanbul in Turkey. In Ireland the E8 follows the Wicklow, South Leinster, East Munster and Blackwater Ways and parts of the Kerry and Beara Ways.[39]

The Beara-Breifne Way is a walking and cycling route under development, intended to run from the Beara Peninsula, County Cork to Breifne, County Leitrim following the line of Donal Cam O'Sullivan Beare's march in the aftermath of the Battle of Kinsale in 1602.[40] The intended route will make use of the Beara Way; Ballyhoura Way; Suck Valley Way; Miner's Way and Historical Trail; Leitrim Way; and Cavan Way.[41]

There is also a proposal to extend the International Appalachian Trail (IAT), an extension of the Appalachian Trail through Canada to Newfoundland, to all terrain that formed part of the Appalachian Mountains of Pangaea, including Ireland. It is proposed that the Irish leg of the IAT will make use of the Slí Colmcille and the Bluestack Way in County Donegal before joining the Ulster Way in Northern Ireland.[42]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Part of the Beara Breifne Way
  2. ^ a b Proposed to form part of the International Appalachian Trail
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Part of European walking route E8

References[edit]

  1. ^ "National Waymarked Trails". IrishTrails.ie. Irish Sports Council. Retrieved 18 June 2011. 
  2. ^ a b c National Trails Office 2010, p. 16.
  3. ^ National Trails Office 2010, p. 54.
  4. ^ a b National Trails Office 2010, p. 8.
  5. ^ "Guide to National Waymarked Ways in Ireland". IrishTrails.ie. Irish Sports Council. Retrieved 18 June 2011. 
  6. ^ National Trails Office 2010, p. 18.
  7. ^ Cullen, Paul (14 August 2006). "Wicklow Way – this route was made for walking". The Irish Times. p. 12. 
  8. ^ a b Stanley, John (30 November 1985). "Minister to open walking route". The Irish Times. p. 8. 
  9. ^ Dalby 2009, p. 10.
  10. ^ Ordnance Survey of Ireland 1981.
  11. ^ Wilson 1989, p. 50.
  12. ^ a b c O'Dwyer, John G. (25 September 2010). "Keeping ramblers in the loop". The Irish Times. Retrieved 24 April 2011. 
  13. ^ National Trails Office 2010, p. 14.
  14. ^ National Waymarked Ways Advisory Council 2006, p. 31.
  15. ^ Wilson 1989, p. 51.
  16. ^ National Waymarked Ways Advisory Council 2006, p. 11.
  17. ^ National Waymarked Ways Advisory Council 2006, p. 32.
  18. ^ National Trails Office 2010, p. 24.
  19. ^ National Trails Office 2010, p. 55.
  20. ^ National Trails Office 2010, p. 25.
  21. ^ O Caoimh 2004, p. 6.
  22. ^ O Caoimh 2004, p. 2.
  23. ^ a b c "The Pilgrim Paths". Heritage Council. Retrieved 10 August 2011. 
  24. ^ "Cosán na Naomh". Heritage Council. Retrieved 18 June 2011. 
  25. ^ "Lough Derg". Heritage Council. Retrieved 18 June 2011. 
  26. ^ "St Kevin's Way". Heritage Council. Retrieved 18 June 2011. 
  27. ^ a b O Caoimh 2004, p. 8.
  28. ^ a b O Caoimh 2004, p. 7.
  29. ^ http://www.kmdactive.com/active/walks/st-declans-way-walk-ardmore-to-cashel/
  30. ^ "Great Southern Trail". SouthernTrail.net. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  31. ^ "Great Western Greenway". Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  32. ^ Tierney, Declan (4 August 2011). "Old Clifden rail line to be turned into €6m cycle track". Connacht Tribune (Galway). Retrieved 10 August 2011. 
  33. ^ "Latest section of Dublin-Galway coast-to-coast Greenway opens - Varadkar". DTTAS.ie. 27 June 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2014. 
  34. ^ a b Melia, Paul (27 June 2014). "Wheels in motion for 280km coast-to-coast cycle route". Irish Independent (Dublin). 
  35. ^ "Galway to Dublin greenway could be finished in five years". IrishCycle.com. 27 June 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2014. 
  36. ^ "€10m More For Cycleways". HospitailityIreland.com. 15 May 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2014. 
  37. ^ "Dáil Debates: Wednesday, 6 July 2011 – Other Questions: Cycle Facilities". KildareStreet.com. Retrieved 10 August 2011. 
  38. ^ "Home". Sligo Mayo Greenway – A new opportunity for the West of Ireland. Retrieved 10 August 2011. 
  39. ^ Dalby 2009, p. 38.
  40. ^ "The Beara Breifne Way". Heritage Council. Retrieved 17 June 2011. 
  41. ^ "Walking". Beara-Breifne Greenway Project. Retrieved 17 June 2011. 
  42. ^ "International Appalachain Trail (IAT) – Ireland". IrishTrails.ie. Irish Sports Council. Retrieved 17 June 2011. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]