Long Hot Summer of 1967
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The "long hot summer" refers to the summer of 1967, which began a year in which 159 race riots erupted across the United States.
In July there were riots in Birmingham, Chicago, New York, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, New Britain, Conn., Rochester, N.Y., and a riot in Plainfield, New Jersey. The most serious riots of the summer took place in July, with the riot in Newark, New Jersey and the Twelfth Street Riot, in Detroit, Michigan.
As a result of the rioting in the Summer of 1967, and the preceding two years, President Johnson established the Kerner Commission to investigate the rioting.
- Encyclopedia.com: Riots, Urban, of 1967
- Michael Omi and Howard Winant, Racial formation in the United States: from the 1960s to the 1990s (1994)
- Walter C. Rucker and James N. Upton, eds. Encyclopedia of American race riots (2007) 930 pages -