Short block. The long block is always a superset of the corresponding short block.
Cylinder head. A cylinder head assembly is installed with a head gasket and torqued to specification. Complete cylinder heads include valves, valve springs, valve guides (if applicable), valve seats (if applicable), valve locks, and valve keepers. Flathead engines include the valve train if it didn't come with the short block.
Camshaft in most engines. On many engines with timing gears, the camshaft is timed.