Long jump

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For the World War II plot, see Operation Long Jump. For the programming function, see longjmp.
Athletics
Long jump
Sdiri vole.jpg
Long jumper at the GE Money Grand Prix in Helsinki, July 2005.
Men's records
World Mike Powell 8.95 m (29 ft 414 in) (1991)
Olympic Bob Beamon 8.90 m (29 ft 214 in) (1968)
Women's records
World Galina Chistyakova 7.52 m (24 ft 8 in) (1988)
Olympic Jackie Joyner 7.40 m (24 ft 314 in) (1988)

The long jump (historically called the broad jump) is a track and field event in which athletes combine speed, strength, and agility in an attempt to leap as far as possible from a take off point. This event has a history in the Ancient Olympic Games and has been a modern Olympic event for men since the first Olympics in 1896 and for women since 1948.

Rules[edit]

An indicator of wind direction and a device for measuring wind speed (here +2.6 m/s) along a run-up track.

At the elite level, competitors run down a runway (usually coated with the same rubberized surface as running tracks, crumb rubber also vulcanized rubber—known generally as an all-weather track) and jump as far as they can from a wooden board 20 cm or 8 inches wide that is built flush with the runway into a pit filled with finely ground gravel or sand. If the competitor starts the leap with any part of the foot past the foul line, the jump is declared a foul and no distance is recorded. A layer of plasticine is placed immediately after the board to detect this occurrence. An official (similar to a referee) will also watch the jump and make the determination. The competitor can initiate the jump from any point behind the foul line; however, the distance measured will always be perpendicular to the foul line to the nearest break in the sand caused by any part of the body or uniform. Therefore, it is in the best interest of the competitor to get as close to the foul line as possible. Competitors are allowed to place two marks along the side of the runway in order to assist them to jump accurately. At a lesser meet and facilities, the plasticine will likely not exist, the runway might be a different surface or jumpers may initiate their jump from a painted or taped mark on the runway. At a smaller meet, the number of attempts might also be limited to four or three.

Each competitor has a set number of attempts. That would normally be three trials, with three additional jumps being awarded to the best 8 or 9 (depending on the number of lanes on the track at that facility, so the event is equatable to track events) competitors. All legal marks will be recorded but only the longest legal jump counts towards the results. The competitor with the longest legal jump (from either the trial or final rounds) at the end of competition is declared the winner. In the event of an exact tie, then comparing the next best jumps of the tied competitors will be used to determine place. In a large, multi-day elite competition (like the Olympics or World Championships), a set number of competitors will advance to the final round, determined in advance by the meet management. A set of 3 trial round jumps will be held in order to select those finalists. It is standard practice to allow at a minimum, one more competitor than the number of scoring positions to return to the final round, though 12 plus ties and automatic qualifying distances are also potential factors. (For specific rules and regulations in United States Track & Field see Rule 185).[1]

For record purposes, the maximum accepted wind assistance is two metres per second (m/s) (4.5 mph).

History[edit]

Halteres used in athletic games in ancient Greece.
Standing long jump, detail of a page from the Luzerner Chronik of 1513.

The long jump is the only known jumping event of Ancient Greece's original Olympics' pentathlon events. All events that occurred at the Olympic Games were initially supposed to act as a form of training for warfare. The long jump emerged probably because it mirrored the crossing of obstacles such as streams and ravines.[2] After investigating the surviving depictions of the ancient event it is believed that unlike the modern day event, athletes were only allowed a short running start.[2] The athletes carried a weight in each hand, which were called halteres (between 1 and 4.5 kg). These weights were swung forward as the athlete jumped in order to increase momentum. It is commonly believed that the jumper would throw the weights behind him in mid-air to increase his forward momentum; however, halteres were held throughout the duration of the jump. Swinging them down and back at the end of the jump would change the athlete's center of gravity and allow the athlete to stretch his legs outward, increasing his distance. The jump itself was made from the bater ("that which is trod upon"). It was most likely a simple board placed on the stadium track which was removed after the event.[3] The jumpers would land in what was called a skamma ("dug-up" area).[3] The idea that this was a pit full of sand is wrong. Sand in the jumping pit is a modern invention [4] The skamma was simply a temporary area dug up for that occasion and not something that remained over time. The long jump was considered one of the most difficult of the events held at the Games since a great deal of skill was required. Music was often played during the jump and Philostratus says that pipes at times would accompany the jump so as to provide a rhythm for the complex movements of the halteres by the athlete.[2] Philostratos is quoted as saying, "The rules regard jumping as the most difficult of the competitions, and they allow the jumper to be given advantages in rhythm by the use of the flute, and in weight by the use of the halter."[5] Most notable in the ancient sport was a man called Chionis, who in the 656BC Olympics staged a jump of 7.05 metres (23 feet and 1.7 inches).[6]

There has been some argument by modern scholars over the long jump. Some have attempted to recreate it as a triple jump. The images provide the only evidence for the action so it is more well received that it was much like today's long jump. The main reason some want to call it a triple jump is the presence of a source that claims there once was a fifty five ancient foot jump done by a man named Phayllos.[7]

The long jump has been part of modern Olympic competition since the inception of the Games in 1896. In 1914, Dr. Harry Eaton Stewart recommended the "running broad jump" as a standardized track and field event for women.[8] However, it was not until 1948 that the women's long jump was added to the Olympic athletics programme.

Technique[edit]

Emmanuelle Chazal competes in the women's heptathlon long jump final during the French Athletics Championships 2013 at Stade Charléty in Paris, 13 July 2013.

There are five main components of the long jump: the approach run, the last two strides, takeoff, action in the air, and landing. Speed in the run-up, or approach, and a high leap off the board are the fundamentals of success. Because speed is such an important factor of the approach, it is not surprising that many long jumpers also compete successfully in sprints. A classic example of this long jump / sprint doubling are performances by Carl Lewis.

The approach[edit]

The objective of the approach is to gradually accelerate to a maximum controlled speed at takeoff. The most important factor for the distance traveled by an object is its velocity at takeoff – both the speed and angle. Elite jumpers usually leave the ground at an angle of twenty degrees or less; therefore, it is more beneficial for a jumper to focus on the speed component of the jump. The greater the speed at takeoff, the longer the trajectory of the center of mass will be. The importance of a takeoff speed is a factor in the success of sprinters in this event.

The length of the approach is usually consistent distance for an athlete. Approaches can vary between 12 and 19 strides on the novice and intermediate levels, while at the elite level they are closer to between 20 and 22 strides. The exact distance and number of strides in an approach depends on the jumper's experience, sprinting technique, and conditioning level. Consistency in the approach is important as it is the competitor's objective to get as close to the front of the takeoff board as possible without crossing the line with any part of the foot.

Inconsistent approaches are a common problem in the event. As a result the approach is usually practiced by athletes about 6–8 times per jumping session (see Training below).

The last two strides[edit]

The objective of the last two strides is to prepare the body for takeoff while conserving as much speed as possible.

The penultimate stride is longer than the last stride. The competitor begins to lower his or her center of gravity to prepare the body for the vertical impulse. The final stride is shorter because the body is beginning to raise the center of gravity in preparation for takeoff.

The last two strides are extremely important because they determine the velocity with which the competitor will enter the jump; the greater the velocity, the better the jump.

Takeoff[edit]

The objective of the takeoff is to create a vertical impulse through the athlete's center of gravity while maintaining balance and control.

This phase is one of the most technical parts of the long jump. Jumpers must be conscious to place the foot flat on the ground, because jumping off either the heels or the toes negatively affects the jump. Taking off from the board heel-first has a braking effect, which decreases velocity and strains the joints. Jumping off the toes decreases stability, putting the leg at risk of buckling or collapsing from underneath the jumper. While concentrating on foot placement, the athlete must also work to maintain proper body position, keeping the torso upright and moving the hips forward and up to achieve the maximum distance from board contact to foot release.

There are four main styles of takeoff: the kick style, double-arm style, sprint takeoff, and the power sprint or bounding takeoff.

Kick[edit]

The kick style takeoff is where the athlete actively cycles the leg before a full impulse has been directed into the board then landing into the pit. This requires great strength in the hamstrings. This causes the jumper to jump to large distances.

Double-arm[edit]

The double-arm style of takeoff works by moving both arms in a vertical direction as the competitor takes off. This produces a high hip height and a large vertical impulse.

Sprint[edit]

The sprint takeoff is the style most widely instructed by coaching staff. This is a classic single-arm action that resembles a jumper in full stride. It is an efficient takeoff style for maintaining velocity through takeoff.

Power sprint or bounding[edit]

The power sprint takeoff, or bounding takeoff, is one of the more common elite styles. Very similar to the sprint style, the body resembles a sprinter in full stride. However, there is one major difference. The arm that pushes back on takeoff (the arm on the side of the takeoff leg) fully extends backward, rather than remaining at a bent position. This additional extension increases the impulse at takeoff.

The "correct" style of takeoff will vary from athlete to athlete.

Multi-eventer Jessica Ennis during a long jump, preparing to land

Action in the air and landing[edit]

There are three major flight techniques for the long jump: the hang, the sail, and the hitch-kick. Each technique is to combat the forward rotation experienced from take-off but is basically down to preference from the athlete. It is important to note that once the body is airborne, there is nothing that the athlete can do to change the direction they are traveling and consequently where they are going to land in the pit. However, it can be argued that certain techniques influence an athlete's landing, which can have an impact on distance measured. For example, if an athlete lands feet first but falls back because they are not correctly balanced, a lower distance will be measured. In the 1970s some jumpers did a forward somersault,[9] that was subsequently made illegal.

Training[edit]

The long jump generally requires training in a variety of areas. These areas include: speed work, jumping, over distance running, weight training, plyometric training, bounding and flexibility.

Speed work[edit]

Speed work is essentially short distance speed training where the athlete would be running at top or near top speeds. The distances for this type of work would vary between indoor and outdoor season but are usually around 30-60m for indoors and up to 100m for outdoors.

Jumping[edit]

Long Jumpers tend to practice jumping 1–2 times a week. Approaches, or run-throughs, are repeated sometimes up to 6–8 times per session. Short approach jumps are common for jumpers to do, as it allows for them to work on specific technical aspects of their jumps in a controlled environment. Using equipment such as low hurdles and other obstacles are common in long jump training, as it helps the jumper maintain and hold phases of their jump. As a common rule, it is important for the jumper to engage in full approach jumps at least once a week, as it will prepare the jumper for competition.

Over-distance running[edit]

Over-distance running workouts helps the athlete jump a further distance than their set goal. For example, having a 100m runner practice by running 200m repeats on a track. This is specifically concentrated in the season when athletes are working on building endurance. Specific over-distance running workouts are performed 1–2 times a week. This is great for building sprint endurance, which is required in competitions where the athlete is sprinting down the runway 3–6 times. Typical workouts would include 5x150m. Preseason workouts may be longer, including workouts like 6x300m

Weight training[edit]

During pre-season training and early in the competition season weight training tends to play a major role in the sport. It is customary for a long jumper to weight train up to 4 times a week, focusing mainly on quick movements involving the legs and trunk. Some athletes perform Olympic lifts in training. Athletes use low repetition and emphasize speed to maximize the strength increase while minimizing adding additional weight to their frame. Important lifts for a long jumper include the back squat, front squat, power cleans and hang cleans. The emphasis on these lifts should be on speed and explosive as those are crucial in the long jump take off phase.

Plyometrics[edit]

Plyometrics, including running up and down stairs and hurdle bounding, can be incorporated into workouts, generally twice a week. This allows an athlete to work on agility and explosiveness. Other plyometric workouts that are common for long jumpers are box jumps. Boxes of various heights are set up spaced evenly apart and jumpers can proceed jumping onto them and off moving in a forward direction. They can vary the jumps from both legs to single jumps. Alternatively, they can set up the boxes in front of a high jump mat if allowed, and jump over a high jump bar onto the mat mimicking a landing phase of the jump. These plyometric workouts are typically performed at the end of a workout.

Bounding[edit]

Bounding is any sort of continuous jumping or leaping. Bounding drills usually require single leg bounding, double-leg bounding, or some variation of the two. The focus of bounding drills is usually to spend as little time on the ground as possible and working on technical accuracy, fluidity, and jumping endurance and strength. Technically, bounding is part of plyometrics, as a form of a running exercise such as high knees and butt kicks.

Flexibility[edit]

Flexibility is an often forgotten[citation needed] tool for long jumpers. Effective flexibility prevents injury, which can be important for high impact events such as the long jump. It also helps the athlete sprint down the runway. Hip and groin injuries are common for long jumpers who may neglect proper warm up and stretching. Hurdle mobility drills are a common way that jumpers use to improve flexibility. Common hurdle drills include setting up about 5-7 hurdles are appropriate heights and having athletes walk over them in a continuous fashion. Other variations of hurdle mobility drills are used as well including hurdle skips. This is a crucial part of a jumper's training since they perform most exercises for a very short period of time and often aren't aware of their form and technique. A common tool in many long jump workouts is the use of video taping. This enables the athlete to go back and watch their own progress as well as letting the athlete compare their own footage to that of some of the world class jumpers.

Training styles, duration, and intensity varies immensely from athlete to athlete and is based on the experience and strength of the athlete as well as on their coaching style.

Culture[edit]

Track and field events have been selected as a main motif in numerous collectors' coins. One of the recent samples is the €10 Greek Long Jump commemorative coin, minted in 2003 to commemorate the 2004 Summer Olympics. The obverse of the coin portrays a modern athlete at the moment he is touching the ground, while the ancient athlete in the background is shown while starting off his jump, as he is seen on a black-figure vase of the 5th century BC.

Records[edit]

Jesse Owens set a long jump world record 8.13 m (26 ft 8 in) that was not broken for 25 years and 2 months, until 1960 by Ralph Boston. At the 1968 Summer Olympics Bob Beamon jumped 8.90 m (29 ft 214 in) at an altitude of 7,349 feet (2,240 m), a jump not exceeded for 23 years, and which remains the second longest legal jump of all time. On August 30, 1991 Mike Powell of the United States set the current men's world record at the World Championships in Tokyo. It was in a well-known show down against Carl Lewis, who also beat Beamon's record that day but with an aiding wind (thus not legal for record purposes). Powell's record 8.95 m (29 ft 414 in) has now stood for over 22 years.

Some jumps over 8.95 m (29 ft 414 in) have been officially recorded. 8.99 m (29 ft 534 in) was recorded by Mike Powell himself (wind-aided +4.4) set at high altitude in Sestriere, Italy in 1992. A potential world record of 8.96 m (29 ft 434 in) was recorded by Iván Pedroso,[10] with a "legal" wind reading also at Sestriere, but the jump was not validated because videotape revealed someone was standing in front of the wind gauge, invalidating the reading (and costing Pedroso a Ferrari valued at $130,000—the prize for breaking the record at that meet).[11][12] Lewis himself jumped 8.91m moments before Powell's record-breaking jump with the wind exceeding the maximum allowed. This jump remains the longest ever not to win an Olympic or World Championship gold medal, or any competition in general.

The current world record for women is held by Galina Chistyakova of the former Soviet Union who leapt 7.52 m (24 ft 8 in) in Leningrad on June 11, 1988, a mark that has stood for nearly 26 years.

All-time top 25 athletes[edit]

Men[edit]

Rank Mark Wind (m/s) Athlete Venue Date
1 8.95 m (29 ft 414 in) 0.3  Mike Powell (USA) Tokyo August 30, 1991
2 8.90 m (29 ft 214 in) A 2.0  Bob Beamon (USA) Mexico City October 18, 1968
3 8.87 m (29 ft 1 in) −0.2  Carl Lewis (USA) Tokyo August 30, 1991
4 8.86 m (29 ft 034 in) A 1.9  Robert Emmiyan (URS) Tsakhkadzor May 22, 1987
5= 8.74 m (28 ft 8 in) 1.4  Larry Myricks (USA) Indianapolis July 18, 1988
5= 8.74 m (28 ft 8 in) A 2.0  Erick Walder (USA) El Paso April 2, 1994
5= 8.74 m (28 ft 8 in) −1.2  Dwight Phillips (USA) Eugene June 7, 2009
8 8.73 m (28 ft 712 in) 1.2  Irving Saladino (PAN) Hengelo May 24, 2008
9 8.71 m (28 ft 634 in) 1.9  Iván Pedroso (CUB) Salamanca July 18, 1995
10 8.66 m (28 ft 434 in) 1.6  Louis Tsatoumas (GRE) Kalamata June 2, 2007
11 8.63 m (28 ft 334 in) 0.5  Kareem Streete-Thompson (USA) Linz June 4, 1994
12 8.62 m (28 ft 314 in) 0.7  James Beckford (JAM) Orlando April 5, 1997
13= 8.56 m (28 ft 1 in) 1.3  Yago Lamela (ESP) Torino June 24, 1999
13= 8.56 m (28 ft 1 in) 0.2  Aleksandr Menkov (RUS) Moscow August 16, 2013
15= 8.54 m (28 ft 0 in) 0.9  Lutz Dombrowski (GDR) Moscow July 28, 1980
15= 8.54 m (28 ft 0 in) 1.7  Michael Watt (AUS) Stockholm July 29, 2011
17 8.53 m (27 ft 1134 in) 1.2  Jaime Jefferson (CUB) Havana May 12, 1990
18 8.52 m (27 ft 1114 in) 0.7  Savanté Stringfellow (USA) Palo Alto June 21, 2002
19= 8.51 m (27 ft 11 in) 1.7  Roland McGhee (USA) Sao Paulo May 14, 1995
19= 8.51 m (27 ft 11 in) 1.7  Greg Rutherford (GBR) Chula Vista April 24, 2014
21= 8.50 m (27 ft 1012 in) 0.2  Llewellyn Starks (USA) Rhede July 7, 1991
21= 8.50 m (27 ft 1012 in) 1.3  Godfrey Khotso Mokoena (RSA) Madrid July 4, 2009
23= 8.49 m (27 ft 1014 in) 2.0  Melvin Lister (USA) Baton Rouge May 13, 2000
23= 8.49 m (27 ft 1014 in) 0.6  Jai Taurima (AUS) Sydney September 28, 2000
23= 8.49 m (27 ft 1014 in) 1.6  Sebastian Bayer (GER) Ulm July 4, 2009
23= 8.49 m (27 ft 1014 in) 0.7  Christian Reif (GER) Weinheim May 31, 2014

Women[edit]

Rank Mark Wind (m/s) Athlete Venue Date
1 7.52 m (24 ft 8 in) 1.4  Galina Chistyakova (URS) Leningrad June 11, 1988
2 7.49 m (24 ft 634 in) 1.3  Jackie Joyner-Kersee (USA) New York May 22, 1994
3 7.48 m (24 ft 614 in) 1.2  Heike Drechsler (GDR) Neubrandenburg July 9, 1988
4 7.43 m (24 ft 412 in) 1.4  Anişoara Cuşmir (ROM) Bucharest June 4, 1983
5 7.42 m (24 ft 4 in) 2.0  Tatyana Kotova (RUS) Annecy June 23, 2002
6 7.39 m (24 ft 234 in) 0.5  Yelena Belevskaya (URS) Bryansk July 18, 1987
7 7.37 m (24 ft 2 in) N/A  Inessa Kravets (UKR) Kiev June 13, 1992
8 7.33 m (24 ft 012 in) 0.4  Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS) Tula July 31, 2004
9= 7.31 m (23 ft 1134 in) 1.5  Olena Khlopotnova (URS) Alma Ata September 12, 1985
9= 7.31 m (23 ft 1134 in) −0.1  Marion Jones (USA) Zürich August 12, 1998
11 7.27 m (23 ft 10 in) −0.4  Irina Meleshina (RUS) Tula July 31, 2004
12 7.26 m (23 ft 934 in)A 1.8  Maurren Higa Maggi (BRA) Bogota July 26, 1999
13 7.25 m (23 ft 914 in) 1.6  Brittney Reese (USA) Doha May 10, 2013
14 7.24 m (23 ft 9 in) 1.0  Larisa Berezhnaya (URS) Granada May 25, 1991
15= 7.21 m (23 ft 734 in) 1.6  Helga Radtke (GDR) Dresden July 26, 1984
15= 7.21 m (23 ft 734 in) 1.9  Lyudmila Kolchanova (RUS) Sochi May 27, 2007
17= 7.20 m (23 ft 714 in) −0.5  Vali Ionescu-Constantin (ROU) Bucharest August 11, 1982
17= 7.20 m (23 ft 714 in) 2.0  Irena Ozenko (URS) Budapest September 12, 1986
17= 7.20 m (23 ft 714 in) 0.8  Yelena Sinchukova (URS) Budapest June 20, 1991
17= 7.20 m (23 ft 714 in) 0.7  Irina Mushailova (RUS) Saint-Petersburg July 14, 1994
21 7.17 m (23 ft 614 in) 1.8  Irina Valyukevich (URS) Bryansk July 18, 1987
22= 7.16 m (23 ft 534 in) N/A  Iolanda Chen (URS) Moscow July 30, 1998
22= 7.16 m (23 ft 534 in)A -0.1  Elva Goulbourne (JAM) Mexico City May 22, 2004
24= 7.14 m (23 ft 5 in) 1.8  Nijole Medvedeva (URS) Riga June 4, 1988
24= 7.14 m (23 ft 5 in) 1.2  Mirela Dulgheru-Renda (ROU) Sofia July 5, 1992

Olympic medalists[edit]

Men[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1896 Athens
details
 Ellery Clark (USA)  Robert Garrett (USA)  James Connolly (USA)
1900 Paris
details
 Alvin Kraenzlein (USA)  Myer Prinstein (USA)  Patrick Leahy (GBR)
1904 St. Louis
details
 Myer Prinstein (USA)  Daniel Frank (USA)  Robert Stangland (USA)
1908 London
details
 Frank Irons (USA)  Daniel Kelly (USA)  Calvin Bricker (CAN)
1912 Stockholm
details
 Albert Gutterson (USA)  Calvin Bricker (CAN)  Georg Åberg (SWE)
1920 Antwerp
details
 William Petersson (SWE)  Carl Johnson (USA)  Erik Abrahamsson (SWE)
1924 Paris
details
 DeHart Hubbard (USA)  Edward Gourdin (USA)  Sverre Hansen (NOR)
1928 Amsterdam
details
 Ed Hamm (USA)  Silvio Cator (HAI)  Al Bates (USA)
1932 Los Angeles
details
 Ed Gordon (USA)  Lambert Redd (USA)  Chuhei Nambu (JPN)
1936 Berlin
details
 Jesse Owens (USA)  Lutz Long (GER)  Naoto Tajima (JPN)
1948 London
details
 Willie Steele (USA)  Theo Bruce (AUS)  Herb Douglas (USA)
1952 Helsinki
details
 Jerome Biffle (USA)  Meredith Gourdine (USA)  Ödön Földessy (HUN)
1956 Melbourne
details
 Gregory Bell (USA)  John Bennett (USA)  Jorma Valkama (FIN)
1960 Rome
details
 Ralph Boston (USA)  Irvin Roberson (USA)  Igor Ter-Ovanesyan (URS)
1964 Tokyo
details
 Lynn Davies (GBR)  Ralph Boston (USA)  Igor Ter-Ovanesyan (URS)
1968 Mexico City
details
 Bob Beamon (USA)  Klaus Beer (GDR)  Ralph Boston (USA)
1972 Munich
details
 Randy Williams (USA)  Hans Baumgartner (FRG)  Arnie Robinson (USA)
1976 Montreal
details
 Arnie Robinson (USA)  Randy Williams (USA)  Frank Wartenberg (GDR)
1980 Moscow
details
 Lutz Dombrowski (GDR)  Frank Paschek (GDR)  Valeriy Podluzhniy (URS)
1984 Los Angeles
details
 Carl Lewis (USA)  Gary Honey (AUS)  Giovanni Evangelisti (ITA)
1988 Seoul
details
 Carl Lewis (USA)  Mike Powell (USA)  Larry Myricks (USA)
1992 Barcelona
details
 Carl Lewis (USA)  Mike Powell (USA)  Joe Greene (USA)
1996 Atlanta
details
 Carl Lewis (USA)  James Beckford (JAM)  Joe Greene (USA)
2000 Sydney
details
 Iván Pedroso (CUB)  Jai Taurima (AUS)  Roman Shchurenko (UKR)
2004 Athens
details
 Dwight Phillips (USA)  John Moffitt (USA)  Joan Lino Martínez (ESP)
2008 Beijing
details
 Irving Saladino (PAN)  Khotso Mokoena (RSA)  Ibrahim Camejo (CUB)
2012 London
details
 Greg Rutherford (GBR)  Mitchell Watt (AUS)  Will Claye (USA)

Women[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1948 London
details
 Olga Gyarmati (HUN)  Noemí Simonetto (ARG)  Ann-Britt Leyman (SWE)
1952 Helsinki
details
 Yvette Williams (NZL)  Aleksandra Chudina (URS)  Shirley Cawley (GBR)
1956 Melbourne
details
 Elżbieta Krzesińska (POL)  Willye White (USA)  Nadezhda Khnykina-Dvalishvili (URS)
1960 Rome
details
 Vera Krepkina (URS)  Elżbieta Krzesińska (POL)  Hildrun Claus (EUA)
1964 Tokyo
details
 Mary Rand (GBR)  Irena Kirszenstein (POL)  Tatyana Shchelkanova (URS)
1968 Mexico City
details
 Viorica Viscopoleanu (ROU)  Sheila Sherwood (GBR)  Tatyana Talysheva (URS)
1972 Munich
details
 Heide Rosendahl (FRG)  Diana Yorgova (BUL)  Eva Šuranová (TCH)
1976 Montreal
details
 Angela Voigt (GDR)  Kathy McMillan (USA)  Lidiya Alfeyeva (URS)
1980 Moscow
details
 Tatyana Kolpakova (URS)  Brigitte Wujak (GDR)  Tatyana Skachko (URS)
1984 Los Angeles
details
 Anişoara Cuşmir-Stanciu (ROU)  Valy Ionescu (ROU)  Sue Hearnshaw (GBR)
1988 Seoul
details
 Jackie Joyner-Kersee (USA)  Heike Drechsler (GDR)  Galina Chistyakova (URS)
1992 Barcelona
details
 Heike Drechsler (GER)  Inessa Kravets (EUN)  Jackie Joyner-Kersee (USA)
1996 Atlanta
details
 Chioma Ajunwa (NGR)  Fiona May (ITA)  Jackie Joyner-Kersee (USA)
2000 Sydney
details
 Heike Drechsler (GER)  Fiona May (ITA)  Tatyana Kotova (RUS)
2004 Athens
details
 Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS)  Irina Meleshina (RUS)  Tatyana Kotova (RUS)
2008 Beijing
details
 Maurren Higa Maggi (BRA)  Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS)  Blessing Okagbare (NGR)
2012 London
details
 Brittney Reese (USA)  Elena Sokolova (RUS)  Janay DeLoach (USA)

World Championships medalists[edit]

Men[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki  Carl Lewis (USA)  Jason Grimes (USA)  Mike Conley (USA)
1987 Rome  Carl Lewis (USA)  Robert Emmiyan (URS)  Larry Myricks (USA)
1991 Tokyo  Mike Powell (USA)  Carl Lewis (USA)  Larry Myricks (USA)
1993 Stuttgart  Mike Powell (USA)  Stanislav Tarasenko (RUS)  Vitaliy Kyrylenko (UKR)
1995 Gothenburg  Iván Pedroso (CUB)  James Beckford (JAM)  Mike Powell (USA)
1997 Athens  Iván Pedroso (CUB)  Erick Walder (USA)  Kirill Sosunov (RUS)
1999 Seville  Iván Pedroso (CUB)  Yago Lamela (ESP)  Gregor Cankar (SLO)
2001 Edmonton  Iván Pedroso (CUB)  Savanté Stringfellow (USA)  Carlos Calado (POR)
2003 Saint-Denis  Dwight Phillips (USA)  James Beckford (JAM)  Yago Lamela (ESP)
2005 Helsinki  Dwight Phillips (USA)  Ignisious Gaisah (GHA)  Tommi Evilä (FIN)
2007 Osaka  Irving Saladino (PAN)  Andrew Howe (ITA)  Dwight Phillips (USA)
2009 Berlin  Dwight Phillips (USA)  Godfrey Khotso Mokoena (RSA)  Mitchell Watt (AUS)
2011 Daegu  Dwight Phillips (USA)  Mitchell Watt (AUS)  Ngonidzashe Makusha (ZIM)
2013 Moscow  Aleksandr Menkov (RUS)  Ignisious Gaisah (NED)  Luis Rivera (MEX)

Women[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki  Heike Daute (GDR)  Anişoara Cuşmir (ROM)  Carol Lewis (USA)
1987 Rome  Jackie Joyner-Kersee (USA)  Yelena Belevskaya (URS)  Heike Drechsler (GDR)
1991 Tokyo  Jackie Joyner-Kersee (USA)  Heike Drechsler (GER)  Larysa Berezhna (URS)
1993 Stuttgart  Heike Drechsler (GER)  Larysa Berezhna (UKR)  Renata Nielsen (DEN)
1995 Gothenburg  Fiona May (ITA)  Niurka Montalvo (CUB)  Irina Mushayilova (RUS)
1997 Athens  Lyudmila Galkina (RUS)  Niki Xanthou (GRE)  Fiona May (ITA)
1999 Seville  Niurka Montalvo (ESP)  Fiona May (ITA)  Marion Jones (USA)
2001 Edmonton  Fiona May (ITA)  Tatyana Kotova (RUS)  Niurka Montalvo (ESP)
2003 Saint-Denis  Eunice Barber (FRA)  Tatyana Kotova (RUS)  Anju Bobby George (IND)
2005 Helsinki  Tianna Madison (USA)  Tatyana Kotova (RUS)  Eunice Barber (FRA)
2007 Osaka  Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS)  Lyudmila Kolchanova (RUS)  Tatyana Kotova (RUS)
2009 Berlin  Brittney Reese (USA)  Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS)  Karin Mey Melis (TUR)
2011 Daegu  Brittney Reese (USA)  Olga Kucherenko (RUS)  Ineta Radēviča (LAT)
2013 Moscow  Brittney Reese (USA)  Blessing Okagbare (NGA)  Ivana Španović (SRB)

Season's bests[edit]

  • "i" denotes indoor performance.

National records[edit]

Men[edit]

Nation Distance Athlete Location Date Ref.
 United States 8.95 m (29 ft 414 in) Mike Powell Tokyo 1991-08-30
 Soviet Union/
 Armenia
8.86 m (29 ft 034 in) Robert Emmiyan Tsakhkadzor 1987-05-22
 Panama 8.73 m (28 ft 712 in) Irving Saladino Hengelo 2008-05-24
 Cuba 8.71 m (28 ft 634 in) Iván Pedroso Salamanca 1995-07-18
 Greece 8.66 m (28 ft 434 in) Louis Tsatoumas Kalamata 2007-06-02
 Jamaica 8.62 m (28 ft 314 in) James Beckford Orlando 1997-04-05
 Spain 8.56 m (28 ft 1 in) Yago Lamela Turin 1999-06-24
 Russia 8.56 m (28 ft 1 in) Aleksandr Menkov Moscow 2013-08-16 [19]
 East Germany/
 Germany
8.54 m (28 ft 0 in) Lutz Dombrowski Moscow 1980-07-28
 Australia 8.54 m (28 ft 0 in) Mitchell Watt Stockholm 2011-07-29
 United Kingdom 8.51 m (27 ft 11 in) Greg Rutherford Chula Vista 2014-04-24
 South Africa 8.50 m (27 ft 1012 in) Godfrey Mokoena Madrid 2009-07-04
 Saudi Arabia 8.48 m (27 ft 934 in) Mohamed Salman Al-Khuwalidi Sotteville-lès-Rouen 2006-07-02
 Italy 8.47 m (27 ft 914 in) Andrew Howe Osaka 2007-08-30
 Mexico 8.46 m (27 ft 9 in) Luis Rivera Kazan 2013-07-12 [20][21]
 Senegal 8.46 m (27 ft 9 in) Cheikh Tidiane Touré Bad Langensalza 1997-06-15
 Yugoslavia/
 Serbia
8.45 m (27 ft 812 in) Nenad Stekić Montreal 1975-07-25
 Ghana 8.43 m (27 ft 734 in) Ignisious Gaisah Rome 2006-07-14
 France 8.42 m (27 ft 714 in) Salim Sdiri Pierre-Bénite 2009-06-12
 Bahamas 8.41 m (27 ft 7 in) Craig Hepburn Nassau 1993-06-17
 Zimbabwe 8.40 m (27 ft 612 in) Ngonidzashe Makusha Des Moines 2011-06-09
 Brazil 8.40 m (27 ft 612 in) Douglas de Souza São Paulo 1995-02-15
 Slovenia 8.40 m (27 ft 612 in) Gregor Cankar Celje 1997-05-18
 People's Republic of China 8.40 m (27 ft 612 in) Lao Jianfeng Zhaoqing 1997-05-28
 Morocco 8.40 m (27 ft 612 in) Yahya Berrabah Beyrouth 2009-10-02
 Romania 8.37 m (27 ft 512 in) Bogdan Tudor Bad Cannstatt 1995-07-09
 Portugal 8.36 m (27 ft 5 in) Carlos Calado Lisbon 1997-06-20
 Ukraine 8.35 m (27 ft 412 in) Sergey Layevskiy
Roman Shchurenko
Dnepropetrovsk
Kiev
1988-07-16
2000-07-25
 Taiwan 8.34 m (27 ft 414 in) Nai Huei-Fang Shanghai 1993-05-14
 Venezuela 8.34 m (27 ft 414 in) Victor Castillo Cochabamba 2004-05-30
 Bulgaria 8.33 m (27 ft 334 in) Ivaylo Mladenov Seville 1995-06-03
 Belarus 8.33 m (27 ft 334 in) Aleksandr Glovatskiy Sestriere 1996-08-07
 Egypt 8.31 m (27 ft 3 in) Hassine Hatem Moursal Oslo 1999-06-30
 Hungary 8.30 m (27 ft 234 in) László Szalma Budapest 1985-07-07
 Austria 8.30 m (27 ft 234 in) Andreas Steiner Innsbruck 1988-06-04
 Netherlands 8.29 m (27 ft 214 in) Ignisious Gaisah Moscow 2013-08-16
 Mauritius 8.28 m (27 ft 134 in) Jonathan Chimier Athens 2004-08-24
 Poland 8.28 m (27 ft 134 in) Grzegorz Marciniszyn Mals 2001-07-14
 Nigeria 8.27 m (27 ft 112 in) Yussuf Alli Lagos 1989-08-08
 Botswana 8.27 m (27 ft 112 in) Gable Garenamotse Rhede 2006-08-20
 Algeria 8.26 m (27 ft 1 in) Issam Nima Zaragoza 2007-07-28
 Czech Republic 8.25 m (27 ft 034 in) Milan Mikuláš Prague 1988-07-16
 Republic of Moldova 8.25 m (27 ft 034 in) Sergey Podgainiy Chisinau 1990-08-18
 Japan 8.25 m (27 ft 034 in) Masaki Morinaga[22] Shizuoka 1992-05-05
 Belgium 8.25 m (27 ft 034 in) Erik Nys Hechtel 1996-07-06
 Denmark 8.25 m (27 ft 034 in) Morten Jensen Gothenburg 2005-07-03
 Namibia 8.24 m (27 ft 014 in) Stephan Louw Germiston 2008-01-12
 Croatia 8.23 m (27 ft 0 in) Siniša Ergotić Zagreb 2002-06-05
 Sweden 8.22 m (26 ft 1112 in) Michel Tornéus Kuortane 2012-07-22
 Bermuda 8.22 m (26 ft 1112 in) Tyrone Smith Mayagüez 2010-07-26
 Finland 8.22 m (26 ft 1112 in) Tommi Evilä Gothenburg 2008-06-28
 Korea 8.20 m (26 ft 1034 in) Kim Deok Hyeon Belgrade 2009-07-12
 Canada 8.20 m (26 ft 1034 in) Edrick Floreal Sherbrooke 1991-07-20
 Kazakhstan 8.16 m (26 ft 914 in) Sergey Vasilenko Alma Ata 1988-06-18
 Qatar 8.13 m (26 ft 8 in) Abdulrahman Faraj Al-Nubi Manila 2003-09-21
 Estonia 8.10 m (26 ft 634 in) Erki Nool Götzis 1995-05-27
 Peru 8.10 m (26 ft 634 in) Jorge McFarlane Sucre 2009-11-23
 Uzbekistan 8.10 m (26 ft 634 in) Aleksandr Pototskiy Bryansk 1992-06-04
 India 8.09 m (26 ft 612 in) Kumaravel Premkumar New Delhi 2013-08-05 [23]
 Turkey 8.08 m (26 ft 6 in) Mesut Yavaş Istanbul 2000-06-24
Template:Country data St. Vincent & The Grenadines 8.08 m (26 ft 6 in) Clayton Latham Hamburg, NY 2008-07-29
 New Zealand 8.05 m (26 ft 434 in) Bob Thomas Whangarei 1968-01-20
 Latvia 8.05 m (26 ft 434 in) Juris Tone Moscow 1983-06-21
 Thailand 8.04 m (26 ft 412 in) Supanara Sukhasvasti Banglore 2010-06-05
 Norway 8.02 m (26 ft 312 in) Kristen Fløgstad Bislett 1973-08-04
 Philippines 7.99 m (26 ft 212 in) Henry Dagmil Eagle Rock 2008-06-07 [24]
 Israel 7.99 m (26 ft 212 in) Yochai Halevi Tel Aviv 2010-05-15
 Uruguay 7.94 m (26 ft 012 in) Emiliano Lasa Santiago 2014-03-14 [25]
 Viet Nam 7.90 m (25 ft 11 in) Nguyen Ngoc Quan Hanoi 1997-05-02
 Malaysia 7.88 m (25 ft 10 in) Josbert Tinus Bangkok 2007-10-05
 Indonesia 7.85 m (25 ft 9 in) Agus Reza Irawan Jakarta 1995-09-21
 United Arab Emirates 7.79 m (25 ft 612 in) Mousbeh Ali Said Latakia 1992-09-06
 Singapore 7.62 m (25 ft 0 in) Matthew Goh Yujie Vientiane 2009-12-05
 Bahrain 7.47 m (24 ft 6 in) Mohamed Imam Bakhash Manama 2003-10-16
 Lebanon 7.43 m (24 ft 412 in) Marc Habib Lebanon 2004-07-22
 Jersey 7.21 m (23 ft 734 in) Ross Jeffs Jersey 2012-07-01
 Laos 7.20 m (23 ft 714 in) Phouphet Singbandith Norwalk 1990-05-07
 Afghanistan 7.05 m (23 ft 112 in) Mohammed Anwar Kabul 1940
 Brunei 7.04 m (23 ft 1 in) Daniel Chung Kota Kinabalu 1993-08-07

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "USATF – 2006 Competition Rules". USA Track & Field. Retrieved 2006-10-29. 
  2. ^ a b c Swaddling, Judith. The Ancient Olympic Games. University of Texas Pres. ISBN 0292777515. 
  3. ^ a b Stephen G. Miller, Ancient Greek Athletics. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004, p.66
  4. ^ Stephen G. Miller, Ancient Greek Athletics. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004 p.66
  5. ^ Stephen G. Miller, Ancient Greek Athletics. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004, p.67
  6. ^ "Ancient Origins". The Times/The Sunday Times. Archived from the original on 2007-03-11. Retrieved 2006-10-29. 
  7. ^ Stephen G. Miller, Ancient Greek Athletics. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004, p.68
  8. ^ Tricard, Louise Mead (1996-07-01). American Women's Track & Field: A History, 1895 Through 1980. McFarland & Company. pp. 60–61. ISBN 0-7864-0219-9. 
  9. ^ http://si.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1088829/index.htm
  10. ^ 100 Metres – men – senior – outdoor. iaaf.org. Retrieved on 2013-04-20.
  11. ^ Pedroso may lose record. The Victoria Advocate (August 4, 1995).
  12. ^ Athlete profile for Iván Pedroso. Iaaf.org (1972-12-17). Retrieved on 2013-04-20.
  13. ^ Long Jump - men - senior - outdoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  14. ^ Long Jump - women - senior - outdoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  15. ^ http://onceuponatimeinthevest.blogspot.com/2013/03/june-1963-and-new-440-wr-by-adolph.html Note: This article indicates they were measuring in Imperial at Modesto in 1963 (and probably most other years in this era). Particularly notable is that this measurement under windy conditions is likely the best wind legal, but not even the winning jump of the competition (Phil Shinnick 27'4") or Boston's best jump that day
  16. ^ Note: Olympic Trials measured metrically. Also did 8.49w that day
  17. ^ Note: Measured in Imperial
  18. ^ measured imperial
  19. ^ "Long Jump Series Result - 14th IAAF World Championships". IAAF. 16 August 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2013. 
  20. ^ "27th Summer Universiade in Kazan, July 6-17 2013 - Luis Alberto Rivera". kazan2013.ru. Retrieved 14 July 2013. 
  21. ^ "Luis Rivera es el número uno del ranking mundial". mediotiempo.com. Retrieved 14 July 2013. 
  22. ^ National Records. JAAF
  23. ^ Jonathan Selvaraj (6 August 2013). "Premkumar jumps 8.09 m, breaks nine-year-old long jump mark". The Indian Express. Retrieved 8 August 2013. 
  24. ^ 2008 SCA Jim Bush Championships. Scausatf.org (2008-06-07). Retrieved on 2013-04-20.
  25. ^ Eduardo Biscayart (15 March 2014). "Henriques speeds to 45.03 400m among a plethora of ODESUR Games records". IAAF. Retrieved 15 March 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Stephen G. Miller, Ancient Greek Athletics. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004.
  • Guthrie, Mark (2003). Coach Track & Field Successfully. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics. pp. 149–155. ISBN 0-7360-4274-1. 
  • Rogers, Joseph L. (2000). USA Track & Field Coaching Manual. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics. pp. 141–157. ISBN 0-88011-604-8. 
  • Ernie Gregoire, Larry Myricks (1991). World Class Track & Field Series: Long Jump (VHS). Ames, IA: Championship Books & Video Productions. 

External links[edit]