Long jumper at the GE Money Grand Prix in Helsinki, July 2005.
|World||Mike Powell 8.95 m (29 ft 41⁄4 in) (1991)|
|Olympic||Bob Beamon 8.90 m (29 ft 21⁄4 in) (1968)|
|World||Galina Chistyakova 7.52 m (24 ft 8 in) (1988)|
|Olympic||Jackie Joyner 7.40 m (24 ft 31⁄4 in) (1988)|
The long jump (historically called the broad jump) is a track and field event in which athletes combine speed, strength, and agility in an attempt to leap as far as possible from a take off point. This event has a history in the Ancient Olympic Games and has been a modern Olympic event for men since the first Olympics in 1896 and for women since 1948.
- 1 Rules
- 2 History
- 3 Technique
- 4 Training
- 5 Culture
- 6 Records
- 7 All-time top 25 athletes
- 8 Olympic medalists
- 9 World Championships medalists
- 10 Season's bests
- 11 National records
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
At the elite level, competitors run down a runway (usually coated with the same rubberized surface as running tracks, crumb rubber also vulcanized rubber—known generally as an all-weather track) and jump as far as they can from a wooden board 20 cm or 8 inches wide that is built flush with the runway into a pit filled with finely ground gravel or sand. If the competitor starts the leap with any part of the foot past the foul line, the jump is declared a foul and no distance is recorded. A layer of plasticine is placed immediately after the board to detect this occurrence. An official (similar to a referee) will also watch the jump and make the determination. The competitor can initiate the jump from any point behind the foul line; however, the distance measured will always be perpendicular to the foul line to the nearest break in the sand caused by any part of the body or uniform. Therefore, it is in the best interest of the competitor to get as close to the foul line as possible. Competitors are allowed to place two marks along the side of the runway in order to assist them to jump accurately. At a lesser meet and facilities, the plasticine will likely not exist, the runway might be a different surface or jumpers may initiate their jump from a painted or taped mark on the runway. At a smaller meet, the number of attempts might also be limited to four or three.
Each competitor has a set number of attempts. That would normally be three trials, with three additional jumps being awarded to the best 8 or 9 (depending on the number of lanes on the track at that facility, so the event is equatable to track events) competitors. All legal marks will be recorded but only the longest legal jump counts towards the results. The competitor with the longest legal jump (from either the trial or final rounds) at the end of competition is declared the winner. In the event of an exact tie, then comparing the next best jumps of the tied competitors will be used to determine place. In a large, multi-day elite competition (like the Olympics or World Championships), a set number of competitors will advance to the final round, determined in advance by the meet management. A set of 3 trial round jumps will be held in order to select those finalists. It is standard practice to allow at a minimum, one more competitor than the number of scoring positions to return to the final round, though 12 plus ties and automatic qualifying distances are also potential factors. (For specific rules and regulations in United States Track & Field see Rule 185).
For record purposes, the maximum accepted wind assistance is two metres per second (m/s) (4.5 mph).
The long jump is the only known jumping event of Ancient Greece's original Olympics' pentathlon events. All events that occurred at the Olympic Games were initially supposed to act as a form of training for warfare. The long jump emerged probably because it mirrored the crossing of obstacles such as streams and ravines. After investigating the surviving depictions of the ancient event it is believed that unlike the modern day event, athletes were only allowed a short running start. The athletes carried a weight in each hand, which were called halteres (between 1 and 4.5 kg). These weights were swung forward as the athlete jumped in order to increase momentum. It is commonly believed that the jumper would throw the weights behind him in mid-air to increase his forward momentum; however, halteres were held throughout the duration of the jump. Swinging them down and back at the end of the jump would change the athlete's center of gravity and allow the athlete to stretch his legs outward, increasing his distance. The jump itself was made from the bater ("that which is trod upon"). It was most likely a simple board placed on the stadium track which was removed after the event. The jumpers would land in what was called a skamma ("dug-up" area). The idea that this was a pit full of sand is wrong. Sand in the jumping pit is a modern invention  The skamma was simply a temporary area dug up for that occasion and not something that remained over time. The long jump was considered one of the most difficult of the events held at the Games since a great deal of skill was required. Music was often played during the jump and Philostratus says that pipes at times would accompany the jump so as to provide a rhythm for the complex movements of the halteres by the athlete. Philostratos is quoted as saying, "The rules regard jumping as the most difficult of the competitions, and they allow the jumper to be given advantages in rhythm by the use of the flute, and in weight by the use of the halter." Most notable in the ancient sport was a man called Chionis, who in the 656BC Olympics staged a jump of 7.05 metres (23 feet and 1.7 inches).
There has been some argument by modern scholars over the long jump. Some have attempted to recreate it as a triple jump. The images provide the only evidence for the action so it is more well received that it was much like today's long jump. The main reason some want to call it a triple jump is the presence of a source that claims there once was a fifty five ancient foot jump done by a man named Phayllos.
The long jump has been part of modern Olympic competition since the inception of the Games in 1896. In 1914, Dr. Harry Eaton Stewart recommended the "running broad jump" as a standardized track and field event for women. However, it was not until 1948 that the women's long jump was added to the Olympic athletics programme.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (August 2011)|
There are five main components of the long jump: the approach run, the last two strides, takeoff, action in the air, and landing. Speed in the run-up, or approach, and a high leap off the board are the fundamentals of success. Because speed is such an important factor of the approach, it is not surprising that many long jumpers also compete successfully in sprints. A classic example of this long jump / sprint doubling are performances by Carl Lewis.
The objective of the approach is to gradually accelerate to a maximum controlled speed at takeoff. The most important factor for the distance traveled by an object is its velocity at takeoff – both the speed and angle. Elite jumpers usually leave the ground at an angle of twenty degrees or less; therefore, it is more beneficial for a jumper to focus on the speed component of the jump. The greater the speed at takeoff, the longer the trajectory of the center of mass will be. The importance of a takeoff speed is a factor in the success of sprinters in this event.
The length of the approach is usually consistent distance for an athlete. Approaches can vary between 12 and 19 strides on the novice and intermediate levels, while at the elite level they are closer to between 20 and 22 strides. The exact distance and number of strides in an approach depends on the jumper's experience, sprinting technique, and conditioning level. Consistency in the approach is important as it is the competitor's objective to get as close to the front of the takeoff board as possible without crossing the line with any part of the foot.
Inconsistent approaches are a common problem in the event. As a result the approach is usually practiced by athletes about 6–8 times per jumping session (see Training below).
The last two strides
The objective of the last two strides is to prepare the body for takeoff while conserving as much speed as possible.
The penultimate stride is longer than the last stride. The competitor begins to lower his or her center of gravity to prepare the body for the vertical impulse. The final stride is shorter because the body is beginning to raise the center of gravity in preparation for takeoff.
The last two strides are extremely important because they determine the velocity with which the competitor will enter the jump; the greater the velocity, the better the jump.
The objective of the takeoff is to create a vertical impulse through the athlete's center of gravity while maintaining balance and control.
This phase is one of the most technical parts of the long jump. Jumpers must be conscious to place the foot flat on the ground, because jumping off either the heels or the toes negatively affects the jump. Taking off from the board heel-first has a braking effect, which decreases velocity and strains the joints. Jumping off the toes decreases stability, putting the leg at risk of buckling or collapsing from underneath the jumper. While concentrating on foot placement, the athlete must also work to maintain proper body position, keeping the torso upright and moving the hips forward and up to achieve the maximum distance from board contact to foot release.
There are four main styles of takeoff: the kick style, double-arm style, sprint takeoff, and the power sprint or bounding takeoff.
The kick style takeoff is where the athlete actively cycles the leg before a full impulse has been directed into the board then landing into the pit. This requires great strength in the hamstrings. This causes the jumper to jump to large distances.
The double-arm style of takeoff works by moving both arms in a vertical direction as the competitor takes off. This produces a high hip height and a large vertical impulse.
The sprint takeoff is the style most widely instructed by coaching staff. This is a classic single-arm action that resembles a jumper in full stride. It is an efficient takeoff style for maintaining velocity through takeoff.
Power sprint or bounding
The power sprint takeoff, or bounding takeoff, is one of the more common elite styles. Very similar to the sprint style, the body resembles a sprinter in full stride. However, there is one major difference. The arm that pushes back on takeoff (the arm on the side of the takeoff leg) fully extends backward, rather than remaining at a bent position. This additional extension increases the impulse at takeoff.
The "correct" style of takeoff will vary from athlete to athlete.
Action in the air and landing
There are three major flight techniques for the long jump: the hang, the sail, and the hitch-kick. Each technique is to combat the forward rotation experienced from take-off but is basically down to preference from the athlete. It is important to note that once the body is airborne, there is nothing that the athlete can do to change the direction they are traveling and consequently where they are going to land in the pit. However, it can be argued that certain techniques influence an athlete's landing, which can have an impact on distance measured. For example, if an athlete lands feet first but falls back because they are not correctly balanced, a lower distance will be measured. In the 1970s some jumpers did a forward somersault, that was subsequently made illegal.
The long jump generally requires training in a variety of areas. These areas include: speed work, jumping, over distance running, weight training, plyometric traini .
Speed work is essentially short distance speed training where the athlete would be running at top or near top speeds. The distances for this type of work would vary between indoor and outdoor season but are usually around 30–60 m for indoors and up to 100 m for outdoors.
Long Jumpers tend to practice jumping 1–2 times a week. Approaches, or run-throughs, are repeated sometimes up to 6–8 times per session. Short approach jumps are common for jumpers to do, as it allows for them to work on specific technical aspects of their jumps in a controlled environment. Using equipment such as low hurdles and other obstacles are common in long jump training, as it helps the jumper maintain and hold phases of their jump. As a common rule, it is important for the jumper to engage in full approach jumps at least once a week, as it will prepare the jumper for competition.
Over-distance running workouts helps the athlete jump a further distance than their set goal. For example, having a 100 m runner practice by running 200 m repeats on a track. This is specifically concentrated in the season when athletes are working on building endurance. Specific over-distance running workouts are performed 1–2 times a week. This is great for building sprint endurance, which is required in competitions where the athlete is sprinting down the runway 3–6 times. Typical workouts would include 5×150 m. Preseason workouts may be longer, including workouts like 6×300 m
During pre-season training and early in the competition season weight training tends to play a major role in the sport. It is customary for a long jumper to weight train up to 4 times a week, focusing mainly on quick movements involving the legs and trunk. Some athletes perform Olympic lifts in training. Athletes use low repetition and emphasize speed to maximize the strength increase while minimizing adding additional weight to their frame. Important lifts for a long jumper include the back squat, front squat, power cleans and hang cleans. The emphasis on these lifts should be on speed and explosive as those are crucial in the long jump take off phase.
Plyometrics, including running up and down stairs and hurdle bounding, can be incorporated into workouts, generally twice a week. This allows an athlete to work on agility and explosiveness. Other plyometric workouts that are common for long jumpers are box jumps. Boxes of various heights are set up spaced evenly apart and jumpers can proceed jumping onto them and off moving in a forward direction. They can vary the jumps from both legs to single jumps. Alternatively, they can set up the boxes in front of a high jump mat if allowed, and jump over a high jump bar onto the mat mimicking a landing phase of the jump. These plyometric workouts are typically performed at the end of a workout.
Bounding is any sort of continuous jumping or leaping. Bounding drills usually require single leg bounding, double-leg bounding, or some variation of the two. The focus of bounding drills is usually to spend as little time on the ground as possible and working on technical accuracy, fluidity, and jumping endurance and strength. Technically, bounding is part of plyometrics, as a form of a running exercise such as high knees and butt kicks.
Flexibility is an often forgotten tool for long jumpers. Effective flexibility prevents injury, which can be important for high impact events such as the long jump. It also helps the athlete sprint down the runway. Hip and groin injuries are common for long jumpers who may neglect proper warm up and stretching. Hurdle mobility drills are a common way that jumpers use to improve flexibility. Common hurdle drills include setting up about 5–7 hurdles are appropriate heights and having athletes walk over them in a continuous fashion. Other variations of hurdle mobility drills are used as well including hurdle skips. This is a crucial part of a jumper's training since they perform most exercises for a very short period of time and often aren't aware of their form and technique. A common tool in many long jump workouts is the use of video taping. This enables the athlete to go back and watch their own progress as well as letting the athlete compare their own footage to that of some of the world class jumpers.
Training styles, duration, and intensity varies immensely from athlete to athlete and is based on the experience and strength of the athlete as well as on their coaching style.
Track and field events have been selected as a main motif in numerous collectors' coins. One of the recent samples is the €10 Greek Long Jump commemorative coin, minted in 2003 to commemorate the 2004 Summer Olympics. The obverse of the coin portrays a modern athlete at the moment he is touching the ground, while the ancient athlete in the background is shown while starting off his jump, as he is seen on a black-figure vase of the 5th century BC.
Jesse Owens set a long jump world record 8.13 m (26 ft 8 in) that was not broken for 25 years and 2 months, until 1960 by Ralph Boston. At the 1968 Summer Olympics Bob Beamon jumped 8.90 m (29 ft 21⁄4 in) at an altitude of 7,349 feet (2,240 m), a jump not exceeded for 23 years, and which remains the second longest legal jump of all time. On August 30, 1991 Mike Powell of the United States set the current men's world record at the World Championships in Tokyo. It was in a well-known show down against Carl Lewis, who also beat Beamon's record that day but with an aiding wind (thus not legal for record purposes). Powell's record 8.95 m (29 ft 41⁄4 in) has now stood for nearly 24 years.
Some jumps over 8.95 m (29 ft 41⁄4 in) have been officially recorded. 8.99 m (29 ft 53⁄4 in) was recorded by Mike Powell himself (wind-aided +4.4) set at high altitude in Sestriere, Italy in 1992. A potential world record of 8.96 m (29 ft 43⁄4 in) was recorded by Iván Pedroso, with a "legal" wind reading also at Sestriere, but the jump was not validated because videotape revealed someone was standing in front of the wind gauge, invalidating the reading (and costing Pedroso a Ferrari valued at $130,000—the prize for breaking the record at that meet). Lewis himself jumped 8.91m moments before Powell's record-breaking jump with the wind exceeding the maximum allowed. This jump remains the longest ever not to win an Olympic or World Championship gold medal, or any competition in general.
All-time top 25 athletes
|1||8.95 m (29 ft 41⁄4 in)||0.3||Mike Powell (USA)||Tokyo||August 30, 1991|
|2||8.90 m (29 ft 21⁄4 in) A||2.0||Bob Beamon (USA)||Mexico City||October 18, 1968|
|3||8.87 m (29 ft 1 in)||−0.2||Carl Lewis (USA)||Tokyo||August 30, 1991|
|4||8.86 m (29 ft 03⁄4 in) A||1.9||Robert Emmiyan (URS)||Tsakhkadzor||May 22, 1987|
|5=||8.74 m (28 ft 8 in)||1.4||Larry Myricks (USA)||Indianapolis||July 18, 1988|
|5=||8.74 m (28 ft 8 in) A||2.0||Erick Walder (USA)||El Paso||April 2, 1994|
|5=||8.74 m (28 ft 8 in)||−1.2||Dwight Phillips (USA)||Eugene||June 7, 2009|
|8||8.73 m (28 ft 71⁄2 in)||1.2||Irving Saladino (PAN)||Hengelo||May 24, 2008|
|9||8.71 m (28 ft 63⁄4 in)||1.9||Iván Pedroso (CUB)||Salamanca||July 18, 1995|
|10||8.66 m (28 ft 43⁄4 in)||1.6||Louis Tsatoumas (GRE)||Kalamata||June 2, 2007|
|11||8.63 m (28 ft 33⁄4 in)||0.5||Kareem Streete-Thompson (USA)||Linz||June 4, 1994|
|12||8.62 m (28 ft 31⁄4 in)||0.7||James Beckford (JAM)||Orlando||April 5, 1997|
|13=||8.56 m (28 ft 1 in)||1.3||Yago Lamela (ESP)||Torino||June 24, 1999|
|13=||8.56 m (28 ft 1 in)||0.2||Aleksandr Menkov (RUS)||Moscow||August 16, 2013|
|15=||8.54 m (28 ft 0 in)||0.9||Lutz Dombrowski (GDR)||Moscow||July 28, 1980|
|15=||8.54 m (28 ft 0 in)||1.7||Mitchell Watt (AUS)||Stockholm||July 29, 2011|
|17||8.53 m (27 ft 113⁄4 in)||1.2||Jaime Jefferson (CUB)||Havana||May 12, 1990|
|18||8.52 m (27 ft 111⁄4 in)||0.7||Savanté Stringfellow (USA)||Palo Alto||June 21, 2002|
|19=||8.51 m (27 ft 11 in)||1.7||Roland McGhee (USA)||Sao Paulo||May 14, 1995|
|19=||8.51 m (27 ft 11 in)||1.7||Greg Rutherford (GBR)||Chula Vista||April 24, 2014|
|21=||8.50 m (27 ft 101⁄2 in)||0.2||Llewellyn Starks (USA)||Rhede||July 7, 1991|
|21=||8.50 m (27 ft 101⁄2 in)||1.3||Godfrey Khotso Mokoena (RSA)||Madrid||July 4, 2009|
|23=||8.49 m (27 ft 101⁄4 in)||2.0||Melvin Lister (USA)||Baton Rouge||May 13, 2000|
|23=||8.49 m (27 ft 101⁄4 in)||0.6||Jai Taurima (AUS)||Sydney||September 28, 2000|
|23=||8.49 m (27 ft 101⁄4 in)||1.6||Sebastian Bayer (GER)||Ulm||July 4, 2009|
|23=||8.49 m (27 ft 101⁄4 in)||0.7||Christian Reif (GER)||Weinheim||May 31, 2014|
Any jump with a following wind of more than 2.0 metres per second does not count for record purposes. Below are wind assisted jumps over 8.70 m that are equal or superior to legal bests.
- Mike Powell (USA) jumped 8.99 m (+4,.4) on July 21, 1992 and 8.95 m (+3.9) on July 31, 1994, both at altitude in Sestriere.
- Ivan Pedroso (CUB) jumped 8.96 m with a wind of +1.2 on July 29, 1995 at altitude in Sestriere. The jump was ruled invalid (obstructed wind-gauge). Pedroso also jumped 8.79 m (+3.0) in 1992 and 8.73 m (+4.8) in 1995.
- Carl Lewis (USA) jumped 8.91 m (+3.0) on August 30, 1991 at the World Championships in Tokyo.
- Fabrice Lapierre (AUS) jumped 8.78 m (+3.1) on April 18, 2010 at the Australian Championships in Perth. His legal best is 8.40 m (+0.5) in 2010.
|1||7.52 m (24 ft 8 in)||1.4||Galina Chistyakova (URS)||Leningrad||June 11, 1988|
|2||7.49 m (24 ft 63⁄4 in)||1.3||Jackie Joyner-Kersee (USA)||New York||May 22, 1994|
|3||7.48 m (24 ft 61⁄4 in)||1.2||Heike Drechsler (GDR)||Neubrandenburg||July 9, 1988|
|4||7.43 m (24 ft 41⁄2 in)||1.4||Anişoara Cuşmir (ROM)||Bucharest||June 4, 1983|
|5||7.42 m (24 ft 4 in)||2.0||Tatyana Kotova (RUS)||Annecy||June 23, 2002|
|6||7.39 m (24 ft 23⁄4 in)||0.5||Yelena Belevskaya (URS)||Bryansk||July 18, 1987|
|7||7.37 m (24 ft 2 in)||N/A||Inessa Kravets (UKR)||Kiev||June 13, 1992|
|8||7.33 m (24 ft 01⁄2 in)||0.4||Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS)||Tula||July 31, 2004|
|9=||7.31 m (23 ft 113⁄4 in)||1.5||Olena Khlopotnova (URS)||Alma Ata||September 12, 1985|
|9=||7.31 m (23 ft 113⁄4 in)||−0.1||Marion Jones (USA)||Zürich||August 12, 1998|
|11||7.27 m (23 ft 10 in)||−0.4||Irina Meleshina (RUS)||Tula||July 31, 2004|
|12||7.26 m (23 ft 93⁄4 in)A||1.8||Maurren Higa Maggi (BRA)||Bogota||July 26, 1999|
|13||7.25 m (23 ft 91⁄4 in)||1.6||Brittney Reese (USA)||Doha||May 10, 2013|
|14||7.24 m (23 ft 9 in)||1.0||Larisa Berezhnaya (URS)||Granada||May 25, 1991|
|15=||7.21 m (23 ft 73⁄4 in)||1.6||Helga Radtke (GDR)||Dresden||July 26, 1984|
|15=||7.21 m (23 ft 73⁄4 in)||1.9||Lyudmila Kolchanova (RUS)||Sochi||May 27, 2007|
|17=||7.20 m (23 ft 71⁄4 in)||−0.5||Vali Ionescu-Constantin (ROU)||Bucharest||August 11, 1982|
|17=||7.20 m (23 ft 71⁄4 in)||2.0||Irena Ozenko (URS)||Budapest||September 12, 1986|
|17=||7.20 m (23 ft 71⁄4 in)||0.8||Yelena Sinchukova (URS)||Budapest||June 20, 1991|
|17=||7.20 m (23 ft 71⁄4 in)||0.7||Irina Mushailova (RUS)||Saint-Petersburg||July 14, 1994|
|21||7.17 m (23 ft 61⁄4 in)||1.8||Irina Valyukevich (URS)||Bryansk||July 18, 1987|
|22=||7.16 m (23 ft 53⁄4 in)||N/A||Iolanda Chen (URS)||Moscow||July 30, 1988|
|22=||7.16 m (23 ft 53⁄4 in)A||−0.1||Elva Goulbourne (JAM)||Mexico City||May 22, 2004|
|24=||7.14 m (23 ft 5 in)||1.8||Nijole Medvedeva (URS)||Riga||June 4, 1988|
|24=||7.14 m (23 ft 5 in)||1.2||Mirela Dulgheru-Renda (ROU)||Sofia||July 5, 1992|
- Heike Drechsler (GER) jumped 7.63 m (+2.1) on July 21, 1992 at altitude in Sestriere.
World Championships medalists
- "i" denotes indoor performance.
- As of August 2013[update]
|United States||8.95 m (29 ft 41⁄4 in)||Mike Powell||Tokyo||1991-08-30|
| Soviet Union/
|8.86 m (29 ft 03⁄4 in)||Robert Emmiyan||Tsakhkadzor||1987-05-22|
|Panama||8.73 m (28 ft 71⁄2 in)||Irving Saladino||Hengelo||2008-05-24|
|Cuba||8.71 m (28 ft 63⁄4 in)||Iván Pedroso||Salamanca||1995-07-18|
|Greece||8.66 m (28 ft 43⁄4 in)||Louis Tsatoumas||Kalamata||2007-06-02|
|Jamaica||8.62 m (28 ft 31⁄4 in)||James Beckford||Orlando||1997-04-05|
|Spain||8.56 m (28 ft 1 in)||Yago Lamela||Turin||1999-06-24|
|Russia||8.56 m (28 ft 1 in)||Aleksandr Menkov||Moscow||2013-08-16|||
| East Germany/
|8.54 m (28 ft 0 in)||Lutz Dombrowski||Moscow||1980-07-28|
|Australia||8.54 m (28 ft 0 in)||Mitchell Watt||Stockholm||2011-07-29|
|United Kingdom||8.51 m (27 ft 11 in)||Greg Rutherford||Chula Vista||2014-04-24|
|South Africa||8.50 m (27 ft 101⁄2 in)||Godfrey Mokoena||Madrid||2009-07-04|
|Saudi Arabia||8.48 m (27 ft 93⁄4 in)||Mohamed Salman Al-Khuwalidi||Sotteville-lès-Rouen||2006-07-02|
|Italy||8.47 m (27 ft 91⁄4 in)||Andrew Howe||Osaka||2007-08-30|
|Mexico||8.46 m (27 ft 9 in)||Luis Rivera||Kazan||2013-07-12|||
|Senegal||8.46 m (27 ft 9 in)||Cheikh Tidiane Touré||Bad Langensalza||1997-06-15|
|8.45 m (27 ft 81⁄2 in)||Nenad Stekić||Montreal||1975-07-25|
|Ghana||8.43 m (27 ft 73⁄4 in)||Ignisious Gaisah||Rome||2006-07-14|
|France||8.42 m (27 ft 71⁄4 in)||Salim Sdiri||Pierre-Bénite||2009-06-12|
|Bahamas||8.41 m (27 ft 7 in)||Craig Hepburn||Nassau||1993-06-17|
|Zimbabwe||8.40 m (27 ft 61⁄2 in)||Ngonidzashe Makusha||Des Moines||2011-06-09|
|Brazil||8.40 m (27 ft 61⁄2 in)||Douglas de Souza||São Paulo||1995-02-15|
|Slovenia||8.40 m (27 ft 61⁄2 in)||Gregor Cankar||Celje||1997-05-18|
|People's Republic of China||8.40 m (27 ft 61⁄2 in)||Lao Jianfeng||Zhaoqing||1997-05-28|
|Morocco||8.40 m (27 ft 61⁄2 in)||Yahya Berrabah||Beyrouth||2009-10-02|
|Romania||8.37 m (27 ft 51⁄2 in)||Bogdan Tudor||Bad Cannstatt||1995-07-09|
|Portugal||8.36 m (27 ft 5 in)||Carlos Calado||Lisbon||1997-06-20|
|Ukraine||8.35 m (27 ft 41⁄2 in)||Sergey Layevskiy
|Taiwan||8.34 m (27 ft 41⁄4 in)||Nai Huei-Fang||Shanghai||1993-05-14|
|Venezuela||8.34 m (27 ft 41⁄4 in)||Victor Castillo||Cochabamba||2004-05-30|
|Bulgaria||8.33 m (27 ft 33⁄4 in)||Ivaylo Mladenov||Seville||1995-06-03|
|Belarus||8.33 m (27 ft 33⁄4 in)||Aleksandr Glovatskiy||Sestriere||1996-08-07|
|Egypt||8.31 m (27 ft 3 in)||Hassine Hatem Moursal||Oslo||1999-06-30|
|Hungary||8.30 m (27 ft 23⁄4 in)||László Szalma||Budapest||1985-07-07|
|Austria||8.30 m (27 ft 23⁄4 in)||Andreas Steiner||Innsbruck||1988-06-04|
|Netherlands||8.29 m (27 ft 21⁄4 in)||Ignisious Gaisah||Moscow||2013-08-16|
|Mauritius||8.28 m (27 ft 13⁄4 in)||Jonathan Chimier||Athens||2004-08-24|
|Poland||8.28 m (27 ft 13⁄4 in)||Grzegorz Marciniszyn||Mals||2001-07-14|
|Nigeria||8.27 m (27 ft 11⁄2 in)||Yussuf Alli||Lagos||1989-08-08|
|Botswana||8.27 m (27 ft 11⁄2 in)||Gable Garenamotse||Rhede||2006-08-20|
|Algeria||8.26 m (27 ft 1 in)||Issam Nima||Zaragoza||2007-07-28|
|Czech Republic||8.25 m (27 ft 03⁄4 in)||Milan Mikuláš||Prague||1988-07-16|
|Republic of Moldova||8.25 m (27 ft 03⁄4 in)||Sergey Podgainiy||Chisinau||1990-08-18|
|Japan||8.25 m (27 ft 03⁄4 in)||Masaki Morinaga||Shizuoka||1992-05-05|
|Belgium||8.25 m (27 ft 03⁄4 in)||Erik Nys||Hechtel||1996-07-06|
|Denmark||8.25 m (27 ft 03⁄4 in)||Morten Jensen||Gothenburg||2005-07-03|
|Namibia||8.24 m (27 ft 01⁄4 in)||Stephan Louw||Germiston||2008-01-12|
|Croatia||8.23 m (27 ft 0 in)||Siniša Ergotić||Zagreb||2002-06-05|
|Sweden||8.22 m (26 ft 111⁄2 in)||Michel Tornéus||Kuortane||2012-07-22|
|Bermuda||8.22 m (26 ft 111⁄2 in)||Tyrone Smith||Mayagüez||2010-07-26|
|Finland||8.22 m (26 ft 111⁄2 in)||Tommi Evilä||Gothenburg||2008-06-28|
|Korea||8.20 m (26 ft 103⁄4 in)||Kim Deok Hyeon||Belgrade||2009-07-12|
|Canada||8.20 m (26 ft 103⁄4 in)||Edrick Floreal||Sherbrooke||1991-07-20|
|Kazakhstan||8.16 m (26 ft 91⁄4 in)||Sergey Vasilenko||Alma Ata||1988-06-18|
|Qatar||8.13 m (26 ft 8 in)||Abdulrahman Faraj Al-Nubi||Manila||2003-09-21|
|Estonia||8.10 m (26 ft 63⁄4 in)||Erki Nool||Götzis||1995-05-27|
|Peru||8.10 m (26 ft 63⁄4 in)||Jorge McFarlane||Sucre||2009-11-23|
|Uzbekistan||8.10 m (26 ft 63⁄4 in)||Aleksandr Pototskiy||Bryansk||1992-06-04|
|India||8.09 m (26 ft 61⁄2 in)||Kumaravel Premkumar||New Delhi||2013-08-05|||
|Turkey||8.08 m (26 ft 6 in)||Mesut Yavaş||Istanbul||2000-06-24|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||8.08 m (26 ft 6 in)||Clayton Latham||Hamburg, NY||2008-07-29|
|New Zealand||8.05 m (26 ft 43⁄4 in)||Bob Thomas||Whangarei||1968-01-20|
|Latvia||8.05 m (26 ft 43⁄4 in)||Juris Tone||Moscow||1983-06-21|
|Thailand||8.04 m (26 ft 41⁄2 in)||Supanara Sukhasvasti||Banglore||2010-06-05|
|Norway||8.02 m (26 ft 31⁄2 in)||Kristen Fløgstad||Bislett||1973-08-04|
|Philippines||7.99 m (26 ft 21⁄2 in)||Henry Dagmil||Eagle Rock||2008-06-07|||
|Israel||7.99 m (26 ft 21⁄2 in)||Yochai Halevi||Tel Aviv||2010-05-15|
|Uruguay||7.94 m (26 ft 01⁄2 in)||Emiliano Lasa||Santiago||2014-03-14|||
|Viet Nam||7.90 m (25 ft 11 in)||Nguyen Ngoc Quan||Hanoi||1997-05-02|
|Malaysia||7.88 m (25 ft 10 in)||Josbert Tinus||Bangkok||2007-10-05|
|Indonesia||7.85 m (25 ft 9 in)||Agus Reza Irawan||Jakarta||1995-09-21|
|United Arab Emirates||7.79 m (25 ft 61⁄2 in)||Mousbeh Ali Said||Latakia||1992-09-06|
|Singapore||7.62 m (25 ft 0 in)||Matthew Goh Yujie||Vientiane||2009-12-05|
|Bahrain||7.47 m (24 ft 6 in)||Mohamed Imam Bakhash||Manama||2003-10-16|
|Lebanon||7.43 m (24 ft 41⁄2 in)||Marc Habib||Lebanon||2004-07-22|
|Jersey||7.21 m (23 ft 73⁄4 in)||Ross Jeffs||Jersey||2012-07-01|
|Laos||7.20 m (23 ft 71⁄4 in)||Phouphet Singbandith||Norwalk||1990-05-07|
|Afghanistan||7.05 m (23 ft 11⁄2 in)||Mohammed Anwar||Kabul||1940|
|Brunei||7.04 m (23 ft 1 in)||Daniel Chung||Kota Kinabalu||1993-08-07|
- "USATF – 2006 Competition Rules". USA Track & Field. Retrieved 2006-10-29.
- See Rule 185 in Article III
- Swaddling, Judith. The Ancient Olympic Games. University of Texas Pres. ISBN 0292777515.
- Stephen G. Miller, Ancient Greek Athletics. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004, p.66
- Stephen G. Miller, Ancient Greek Athletics. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004 p.66
- Stephen G. Miller, Ancient Greek Athletics. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004, p.67
- "Ancient Origins". The Times/The Sunday Times. Archived from the original on 2007-03-11. Retrieved 2006-10-29.
- Stephen G. Miller, Ancient Greek Athletics. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004, p.68
- Tricard, Louise Mead (1996-07-01). American Women's Track & Field: A History, 1895 Through 1980. McFarland & Company. pp. 60–61. ISBN 0-7864-0219-9.
- Reid, Ron (July 29, 1974) The Flip That Led To A Flap. SIVault
- 100 Metres – men – senior – outdoor. iaaf.org. Retrieved on 2013-04-20.
- Pedroso may lose record. The Victoria Advocate (August 4, 1995).
- Athlete profile for Iván Pedroso. Iaaf.org (1972-12-17). Retrieved on 2013-04-20.
- Long Jump – men – senior – outdoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
- Long Jump – women – senior – outdoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
- http://onceuponatimeinthevest.blogspot.com/2013/03/june-1963-and-new-440-wr-by-adolph.html Note: This article indicates they were measuring in Imperial at Modesto in 1963 (and probably most other years in this era). Particularly notable is that this measurement under windy conditions is likely the best wind legal, but not even the winning jump of the competition (Phil Shinnick 27'4") or Boston's best jump that day
- Note: Olympic Trials measured metrically. Also did 8.49w that day
- Town / City With Most World Records. trackandfieldnews.com. April 2013
- Board index ‹ Things Not T&F. trackandfieldnews.com
- "Long Jump Series Result – 14th IAAF World Championships". IAAF. 16 August 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
- "27th Summer Universiade in Kazan, July 6–17 2013 – Luis Alberto Rivera". kazan2013.ru. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
- "Luis Rivera es el número uno del ranking mundial". mediotiempo.com. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
- National Records. JAAF
- Jonathan Selvaraj (6 August 2013). "Premkumar jumps 8.09 m, breaks nine-year-old long jump mark". The Indian Express. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
- 2008 SCA Jim Bush Championships. Scausatf.org (2008-06-07). Retrieved on 2013-04-20.
- Eduardo Biscayart (15 March 2014). "Henriques speeds to 45.03 400 m among a plethora of ODESUR Games records". IAAF. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- Stephen G. Miller, Ancient Greek Athletics. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004.
- Guthrie, Mark (2003). Coach Track & Field Successfully. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics. pp. 149–155. ISBN 0-7360-4274-1.
- Rogers, Joseph L. (2000). USA Track & Field Coaching Manual. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics. pp. 141–157. ISBN 0-88011-604-8.
- Ernie Gregoire, Larry Myricks (1991). World Class Track & Field Series: Long Jump (VHS). Ames, IA: Championship Books & Video Productions.
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