Long nineteenth century
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The long 19th century, defined by Eric Hobsbawm, a British Marxist historian and author, refers to the period between the years 1789 and 1914. Hobsbawm lays out his analysis in The Age of Revolution: Europe, 1789–1848; The Age of Capital: 1848–1875; and, The Age of Empire: 1875–1914. The concept is influenced by Fernand Braudel's idea of the "long 16th century" (c. 1450–1640).
According to Hobsbawn, the long 19th century begins with the French Revolution that established a republic in Europe and ends with the start of World War I, upon the conclusion of which in 1918 the long-enduring European power balance of the 19th century proper (1801–1900) was eliminated.
A sequel to the above-mentioned trilogy, The Age of Extremes: The Short Twentieth Century, 1914–1991, details the short 20th century beginning with World War I and ending with the fall of the Soviet Union.
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