Longissimus

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Longissimus
Longissimus.png
Deep muscles of the back - longissimus capitis visible at top right, longisimus cervicis visible at center upper right, and longissimus dorsi visible at center right
Details
Latin musculus longissimus
transverse process
transverse process
lateral sacral artery
posterior branch of spinal nerve
Actions Laterally: Flex the head and neck to the same side. Bilaterally: Extend the vertebral column.
Rectus abdominis muscle
Identifiers
Gray's p.399
TA A04.3.02.010
FMA FMA:77178
Anatomical terms of muscle

The longissimus is the muscle lateral to the semispinalis. It is the longest subdivision of the sacrospinalis that extends forward into the transverse processes of the posterior cervical vertebrae.

Structure[edit]

Longissimus thoracis[edit]

The longissimus thoracis is the intermediate and largest of the continuations of the sacrospinalis.

In the lumbar region, where it is as yet blended with the iliocostalis lumborum, some of its fibers are attached to the whole length of the posterior surfaces of the transverse processes and the accessory processes of the lumbar vertebræ, and to the anterior layer of the lumbodorsal fascia.

In the thoracic region, it is inserted, by rounded tendons, into the tips of the transverse processes of all the thoracic vertebræ, and by fleshy processes into the lower nine or ten ribs between their tubercles and angles.

Longissimus cervicis[edit]

The longissimus cervicis (transversalis cervicis), situated medial to the longissimus dorsi, arises by long, thin tendons from the summits of the transverse processes of the upper four or five thoracic vertebræ, and is inserted by similar tendons into the posterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae from the second to the sixth inclusive.

Longissimus capitis[edit]

The longissimus capitis (trachelomastoid muscle) lies medial to the longissimus cervicis, between it and the semispinalis capitis.

It arises by tendons from the transverse processes of the upper four or five thoracic vertebræ, and the articular processes of the lower three or four cervical vertebrae, and is inserted into the posterior margin of the mastoid process, beneath the splenius capitis and sternocleidomastoideus.

It is almost always crossed by a tendinous intersection near its insertion.

See also[edit]

This article uses anatomical terminology; for an overview, see anatomical terminology.

External links[edit]

References[edit]

This article incorporates text from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy.