Longwave

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For other uses, see Longwave (disambiguation).
The tuning dial on a 1940s radio, showing longwave frequencies from 150 to 375 kHz

In radio, longwave refers to parts of the radio spectrum with relatively long wavelengths. The term is a historic one dating from the early 20th century, when the radio spectrum was considered to consist of long, medium and short wavelengths. Most modern radio systems and devices use wavelengths which would then have been considered 'ultra-short'.

In contemporary usage, the term longwave is not defined precisely and its meaning varies across the world. The most common definition is the radio band with wavelengths greater than 1000 meters (frequencies less than 300 kHz),[1][2][3] which would include the ITUs low frequency (LF) (30–300 kHz) and very low frequency (VLF) (3–30 kHz) bands, but sometimes part of the medium frequency (MF) band (300–3000 kHz) is included.[4] In all cases it includes the entire LF band.

In Europe, Africa and large parts of Asia (ITU Region 1), where a range of frequencies between 148.5 and 283.5 kHz is used for AM broadcasting (in addition to the medium wave band), the term longwave usually refers specifically to this broadcasting band.

The Region 1 longwave broadcast band falls wholly within the low frequency band of the radio spectrum (30–300 kHz). Broader definitions of longwave may extend below and/or above it. In the US, the Longwave Club of America is interested in "frequencies below the AM broadcast band",[5] i.e., all frequencies below 535 kHz. (Lower frequencies correspond to longer wavelengths.)

Non-broadcast use[edit]

Non-directional beacons[edit]

Non-directional beacons transmit continuously for the benefit of radio direction finders in marine and aeronautical navigation. They identify themselves by a callsign in Morse Code. They can occupy any frequency in the range 190–1750 kHz. In North America they occupy 190–535 kHz. In ITU Region 1 the lower limit is 280 kHz.

Time signals[edit]

There are stations in the range 40–80 kHz that transmit time signals to radio clocks. For example:

Radio controlled clocks receive their time calibrations signal with built-in longwave receivers. They use longwave, rather than shortwave or mediumwave, because the accuracy of the clocks is not affected by changes in the time signal's travel from the transmitter to the ionosphere and to the receiver; as longwave travels by groundwave, rather than skywave, the propagation time does not vary.

Military communication[edit]

The United Kingdom, Russian Federation, United States, Germany, and Sweden use frequencies below 50 kHz to communicate with their submarines.

LowFER[edit]

In North America during the 1970s the frequencies 167, 179 and 191 kHz were assigned to the short-lived Public Emergency Radio of the United States. Nowadays the 160–190 kHz range is used in the United States for Part 15 LowFER amateur and experimental stations, and the 190–435 kHz band is used for navigational beacons.

Broadcasting[edit]

Longwave is used for broadcasting only within ITU Region 1. Most of the longwave broadcasters are in Europe, the former Soviet Union and Mongolia. The rest are located in Turkey, Algeria, Morocco, and Libya. Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates have vacant low powered broadcasting allocations.

Typically, a larger area can be covered by a longwave broadcast transmitter than a medium-wave one. This is because ground-wave propagation suffers less attenuation due to limited ground conductivity at lower frequencies.[6]

Carrier frequencies[edit]

Carrier frequencies are exact multiples of 9 kHz ranging from 153 to 279 kHz, except for two stations in Germany on 177 kHz and 183 kHz.

Until the 1970s, some longwave stations in northern and eastern Europe and the Soviet Union operated on frequencies as high as 433 kHz.[7]

Some stations, for instance Droitwich in the UK, derive their carrier frequencies from an atomic clock. They can be therefore used as frequency standards. Droitwich also broadcasts a low bit-rate data channel, using narrow-shift phase-shift keying of the carrier, for Radio Teleswitch Services.

In January 2014 Russia announced the imminent closure of most of its LW broadcasting stations.[8]

List of longwave broadcasting transmitters[edit]

Legend:

  Closed
  Non-standard frequency (not divisible by 9)

[9][10]

Freq. kHz Station name Country Location Aerial type Power kW Coordinates Remarks
153 Deutschlandfunk  Germany Donebach Directional aerial, two guyed steel lattice masts, 363 m high, fed at the top 500 49°33′40.25″N 9°10′22.76″E / 49.5611806°N 9.1729889°E / 49.5611806; 9.1729889 (Donebach transmitter, Mast 1)  ; 49°33′33.53″N 9°10′50.82″E / 49.5593139°N 9.1807833°E / 49.5593139; 9.1807833 (Donebach transmitter, Mast 2) Night: 250 kW
Antena Satelor / Radio Romania  Romania Brașov T-aerial on 2 guyed steel lattice masts with a height of 250 metres 200 45°45′22.27″N 25°36′26.77″E / 45.7561861°N 25.6074361°E / 45.7561861; 25.6074361 (Bod Transmitter, Mast 1) ; 45°45′13.16″N 25°36′25.15″E / 45.7536556°N 25.6069861°E / 45.7536556; 25.6069861 (Bod Transmitter, Mast 2)  
NRK Finnmark  Norway Ingoy Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 362 m height, fed at the top, ex-Omega equipment 100 71°4′17″N 24°5′14″E / 71.07139°N 24.08722°E / 71.07139; 24.08722 (Ingøy longwave transmitter)  
Chaine 1  Algeria Kenadsa / Bechar Three guyed steel lattice masts, height 357 m. 2000 31°34′5.08″N 2°20′55.14″W / 31.5680778°N 2.3486500°W / 31.5680778; -2.3486500 (Kenadsa longwave Mast 1) ; 31°34′11.82″N 2°20′42.02″W / 31.5699500°N 2.3450056°W / 31.5699500; -2.3450056 (Kenadsa longwave Mast 2) 31°34′18.53″N 2°20′28.91″W / 31.5718139°N 2.3413639°W / 31.5718139; -2.3413639 (Kenadsa longwave Mast 3)  
YuFM  Russia Taldom transmitter Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 257 m height 300 56°45′30.04″N 37°37′12.17″E / 56.7583444°N 37.6200472°E / 56.7583444; 37.6200472 (Taldom longwave transmitter, 153 kHz-mast)   Inactive at present (reportedly closed)
Radio Rossii  Russia Popova near Komsomolsk-na-Amure Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 257 m height 1200 50°39′16.75″N 136°54′46.9″E / 50.6546528°N 136.913028°E / 50.6546528; 136.913028 (Popova longwave transmitter)   closed
162 France Inter  France Allouis Two guyed lattice steel masts, height 350 m, fed on the top 2000 47°10′10.45″N 2°12′16.75″E / 47.1695694°N 2.2046528°E / 47.1695694; 2.2046528 (Allouis transmitter, Mast 1) ; 47°10′25.34″N 2°12′16.81″E / 47.1737056°N 2.2046694°E / 47.1737056; 2.2046694 (Allouis transmitter, Mast 2) Time signal phase-modulated
TRT 4  Turkey Agri Two guyed lattice steel masts, height 250 m 1000 39°46′23.11″N 43°02′14.55″E / 39.7730861°N 43.0373750°E / 39.7730861; 43.0373750 (Agri transmitter, Mast 1) ; 39°46′25.86″N 43°02′33.32″E / 39.7738500°N 43.0425889°E / 39.7738500; 43.0425889 (Agri transmitter, Mast 2)
Radio Rossii  Russia Norilsk Omnidirectional antenna, 205 m high antenna 150 69°22′46″N 87°6′26″E / 69.37944°N 87.10722°E / 69.37944; 87.10722 (Norilsk transmitter) ? Closed
Radio Yuldash, Radio Rossii  Russia Ufa 150 54°46′19.73″N 56°0′17.02″E / 54.7721472°N 56.0047278°E / 54.7721472; 56.0047278 (Ufa Radio Majak transmitter) closed
Kanal Uzbekiston  Uzbekistan near Tashkent Omnidirectional antenna, 235 m high antenna 150 41°19′11″N 69°14′59″E / 41.31972°N 69.24972°E / 41.31972; 69.24972 (Tashkent transmitter)
164 Radio Mongolyn 1  Mongolia Ulan-Bator 500 47°47′54.67″N 107°11′14.7″E / 47.7985194°N 107.187417°E / 47.7985194; 107.187417 (Ulan-Bator transmitter)
171 Medi 1  Morocco Nador Directional aerial consisting of three guyed steel lattice masts, 380 metres tall 2000 35°02′50.65″N 2°55′22.81″W / 35.0474028°N 2.9230028°W / 35.0474028; -2.9230028 (Nador transmitter, Mast 1); 35°02′30.27″N 2°55′16.16″W / 35.0417417°N 2.9211556°W / 35.0417417; -2.9211556 (Nador transmitter, Mast 2) ; 35°02′9.89″N 2°55′9.52″W / 35.0360806°N 2.9193111°W / 35.0360806; -2.9193111 (Nador transmitter, Mast 2)  
 Netherlands Lopik 500 closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Bolshakovo near Kaliningrad Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 600 54°54′42.62″N 21°43′2.32″E / 54.9118389°N 21.7173111°E / 54.9118389; 21.7173111 (Bolshakovo longwave transmitter)   closed
Ukrainian Radio  Ukraine Krasne near Lwów Omnidirectional antenna, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 150/75 49°54′12.85″N 24°41′15.22″E / 49.9035694°N 24.6875611°E / 49.9035694; 24.6875611 (Krasne longwave transmitter) inactive at present
Radio Rossii  Russia Raduga Omnidirectional antenna, 255 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 250 55°29′16″N 83°41′28″E / 55.48778°N 83.69111°E / 55.48778; 83.69111 (Raduga longwave transmitter)   closed
Radio 1  Russia Murmansk Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 150 69°00′59.07″N 32°55′57.17″E / 69.0164083°N 32.9325472°E / 69.0164083; 32.9325472 (Murmansk longwave transmitter) closed
Radio 1  Russia Noginsk Omnidirectional antenna, 242 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 150 55°50′0.89″N 38°20′35.18″E / 55.8335806°N 38.3431056°E / 55.8335806; 38.3431056 (Noginsk longwave transmitter) closed
Radio 1  Russia Ezhva near Syktyvkar Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 150 61°49′09.34″N 50°41′26.42″E / 61.8192611°N 50.6906722°E / 61.8192611; 50.6906722 (Zelenets longwave transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Tulagino near Yakutsk Omnidirectional antenna, circle antenna with 1 central and 6 ring masts 150 62°14′15.01″N 129°48′10.4″E / 62.2375028°N 129.802889°E / 62.2375028; 129.802889 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, central mast) ; 62°14′22.82″N 129°48′0.85″E / 62.2396722°N 129.8002361°E / 62.2396722; 129.8002361 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) ; 62°14′15.06″N 129°47′51.2″E / 62.2375167°N 129.797556°E / 62.2375167; 129.797556 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) ; 62°14′7.27″N 129°48′0.82″E / 62.2353528°N 129.8002278°E / 62.2353528; 129.8002278 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) ; 62°14′7.31″N 129°48′20″E / 62.2353639°N 129.80556°E / 62.2353639; 129.80556 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) ; 62°14′15.06″N 129°48′29.7″E / 62.2375167°N 129.808250°E / 62.2375167; 129.808250 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) ; 62°14′22.82″N 129°48′20″E / 62.2396722°N 129.80556°E / 62.2396722; 129.80556 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast)   closed
Radio Kavkaz  Russia Oktyabrskiy Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 1200 45°29′07.57″N 40°05′21.59″E / 45.4854361°N 40.0893306°E / 45.4854361; 40.0893306 (Oktjabrskij longwave transmitter)
177 Deutschlandradio Kultur  Germany Zehlendorf near Oranienburg Omnidirectional aerial, cage aerial mounted on 359.7 m high guyed mast, triangle aerial on 3 150 m high guyed steel lattice masts 500 52°47′41.87″N 13°23′9.5″E / 52.7949639°N 13.385972°E / 52.7949639; 13.385972 (Zehlendorf Longwave Mast) Since August 29, 2005 between 2 and 5 a.m. CET DRM-Mode
180 TRT 4  Turkey Polatli Omnidirectional antenna, 250 m high guyed latice steel mast 1200 39°45′22.46″N 32°25′6.24″E / 39.7562389°N 32.4184000°E / 39.7562389; 32.4184000 (Polatli Longwave Mast)
Radio Rossii  Russia Yelizovo near Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy Omnidirectional antenna, 255 m high guyed lattice steel mast 150 53°11′4.92″N 158°24′2.24″E / 53.1847000°N 158.4006222°E / 53.1847000; 158.4006222 (Yelizovo Longwave Mast)
Radio Mayak  Russia Kruchina near Chita Omnidirectional antenna, 200 m high guyed lattice steel mast 150 51°50′22.5″N 113°44′8.9″E / 51.839583°N 113.735806°E / 51.839583; 113.735806 (Chita Longwave Mast)
 Kazakhstan Alma-Ata 250 closed
 Kazakhstan Aktyubinsk 150 closed
 Kazakhstan Chimkent 50 closed
183 Europe 1  Germany Felsberg-Berus Directional aerial, four ground insulated steel lattice masts. Heights of 270 m, 276 m, 280 m and 282 m. Spare aerial: two ground insulated steel lattice masts of 234 m height. 2000 Main antenna: 49°17′4.2″N 6°40′57.73″E / 49.284500°N 6.6827028°E / 49.284500; 6.6827028 (Europe 1 Radio Mast 1) ; 49°16′55.86″N 6°40′46.16″E / 49.2821833°N 6.6794889°E / 49.2821833; 6.6794889 (Europe 1 Radio Mast 2) ; 49°16′47.55″N 6°40′34.48″E / 49.2798750°N 6.6762444°E / 49.2798750; 6.6762444 (Europe 1 Radio Mast 3) ; 49°16′39.18″N 6°40′22.72″E / 49.2775500°N 6.6729778°E / 49.2775500; 6.6729778 (Europe 1 Radio Mast 4), Spare antenna: 49°17′8.93″N 6°39′31.71″E / 49.2858139°N 6.6588083°E / 49.2858139; 6.6588083 (Europe 1 transmitter, backup antenna, mast 1) ; 49°17′1.54″N 6°39′23.6″E / 49.2837611°N 6.656556°E / 49.2837611; 6.656556 (Europe 1 transmitter, backup antenna, mast 2) French programme. The most powerful longwave transmitter in Germany. DRM Test after 00:00 UTC.
189 RÚV  Iceland Gufuskalar near Hellissandur Slight oval bi-directivity aerial, top loaded parallel connected triangular loops, mast as a common member, all guys insulated except two radiating diametrically opposed grounded top guys, loops closed by copper straps in the ground from two conducting guy grounding points to base of the guyed steel lattice mast insulated against ground, height 412m 300 64°54′26″N 23°55′19.5″W / 64.90722°N 23.922083°W / 64.90722; -23.922083 (Hellissandur Longwave Mast) RÚV national programs 1 and 2 Rás 1 and Rás 2
RAI  Italy Caltanissetta Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, height 282 m 10 37°29′53.05″N 14°04′04.08″E / 37.4980694°N 14.0678000°E / 37.4980694; 14.0678000 (Caltanissetta transmitter) Inactive since August 2004
SR  Sweden Orlunda 300 58°25′37″N 14°58′38″E / 58.42694°N 14.97722°E / 58.42694; 14.97722 (Orlunda radio transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Kostantinogradovka near Blagoveshchensk Omnidirectional aerial, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 1200 50°30′23.58″N 128°18′32.9″E / 50.5065500°N 128.309139°E / 50.5065500; 128.309139 (Blagoveschensk transmitter) Closed
 Georgia Dusheti 250 42°03′1.76″N 44°40′37.56″E / 42.0504889°N 44.6771000°E / 42.0504889; 44.6771000 (Dusheti transmitter) inactive
198 BBC Radio 4  United Kingdom Droitwich (SFN) T-aerial on 2 guyed steel lattice masts insulated against ground with a height of 213 metres 500 52°17′46.9″N 2°6′24.32″W / 52.296361°N 2.1067556°W / 52.296361; -2.1067556 (Droitwich Mast 1) ; 52°17′40.4″N 2°6′20.62″W / 52.294556°N 2.1057278°W / 52.294556; -2.1057278 (Droitwich Mast 2) All three transmitters carry Radio teleswitch PSK data. Droitwich relays BBC World Service after the end of Radio 4 programmes.
Burghead (SFN) Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, height 154 m 50 57°41′57.9″N 3°28′4.78″W / 57.699417°N 3.4679944°W / 57.699417; -3.4679944 (Burghead Transmitter, Main Mast)
Westerglen (SFN) Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, height 152 m 50 55°58′33″N 3°48′58.8″W / 55.97583°N 3.816333°W / 55.97583; -3.816333 (Westerglen Mast)
Chaine 1  Algeria Berkaoui / Ouargla Three guyed steel lattice masts. 2000 31°55′14.5″N 5°4′31.53″E / 31.920694°N 5.0754250°E / 31.920694; 5.0754250 (Ouargla longwave transmitter, Mast 1) ; 31°55′4.41″N 5°4′31.77″E / 31.9178917°N 5.0754917°E / 31.9178917; 5.0754917 (Ouargla longwave transmitter, Mast 2) ; 31°54′54.24″N 5°4′32″E / 31.9150667°N 5.07556°E / 31.9150667; 5.07556 (Ouargla longwave transmitter, Mast 3)  
Polskie Radio Parlament/Radio Polonia  Poland Raszyn Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast insulated against ground, 335 m high 200 52°4′21.72″N 20°53′2.15″E / 52.0727000°N 20.8839306°E / 52.0727000; 20.8839306 (Raszyn Radio Mast)
Radio Mayak  Russia Saint Petersburg - Olgino Omnidirectional aerial, 205 m high guyed steel lattice mast 150 59°59′30.01″N 30°07′38.81″E / 59.9916694°N 30.1274472°E / 59.9916694; 30.1274472 (Olgino Radio Mast)
Radio Mayak  Russia Angarsk Before 2001: T-antenna spun between 2 205 m tall guyed steel lattice mast 250 52°31′51.95″N 103°52′9.46″E / 52.5310972°N 103.8692944°E / 52.5310972; 103.8692944 (Angarsk Radio Mast), possibly 52°26′10.17″N 103°41′1.05″E / 52.4361583°N 103.6836250°E / 52.4361583; 103.6836250 (Irkutsk Radio Mast) closed
Radio Mayak  Russia Avsyunino Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 150 55°35′13.75″N 39°09′57.84″E / 55.5871528°N 39.1660667°E / 55.5871528; 39.1660667 (Avsyunino Radio Mast)
Radio Mayak  Russia Ufa 150 54°46′19.73″N 56°0′17.02″E / 54.7721472°N 56.0047278°E / 54.7721472; 56.0047278 (Ufa Radio Majak transmitter) closed
 Kyrgyzstan Krasnaya Rechka near Bishkek 150 42°52′51.9″N 74°59′43.79″E / 42.881083°N 74.9954972°E / 42.881083; 74.9954972 (Krasnorechenka transmitter) closed
207 RÚV  Iceland Eiðar near Egilsstaðir Omnidirectional aerial, steel lattice mast insulated against ground, height 221 m 100 65°22′22.93″N 14°20′27.29″E / 65.3730361°N 14.3409139°E / 65.3730361; 14.3409139 (Eiðar Longwave Mast) RÚV national programs 1 and 2 Rás 1 and Rás 2
Deutschlandfunk  Germany Aholming Directional aerial, two guyed steel lattice masts, 265 m high, fed at the top 500 48°43′50.55″N 12°55′47.04″E / 48.7307083°N 12.9297333°E / 48.7307083; 12.9297333 (Aholming transmitter, Mast 1)  ; 48°43′38.46″N 12°56′2.06″E / 48.7273500°N 12.9339056°E / 48.7273500; 12.9339056 (Aholming transmitter, Mast 2) Night: 250 kW
RNE Todo Noticias  Spain Logroño Directional antenna, 300 metres tall. >100 closed
Ukrainian Radio  Ukraine Brovary Omnidirectional antenna, 259.6 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 600 50°29′48.8″N 30°48′9.2″E / 50.496889°N 30.802556°E / 50.496889; 30.802556 (Brovary Longwave Mast) closed
 Morocco Azilal 400 31°53′54.24″N 6°33′17″W / 31.8984000°N 6.55472°W / 31.8984000; -6.55472 (Azilal Longwave Mast)
 Jordan Al Karanah  ? 31°45′55.47″N 36°28′44.97″E / 31.7654083°N 36.4791583°E / 31.7654083; 36.4791583 (Al Karanah Longwave Mast) ; 31°45′29.66″N 36°28′59.11″E / 31.7582389°N 36.4830861°E / 31.7582389; 36.4830861 (Al Karanah Longwave Mast) closed
Radio Mayak  Russia Tynda Omnidirectional aerial, steel lattice mast insulated against ground, height 244 m 150 55°05′19.31″N 124°43′9.7″E / 55.0886972°N 124.719361°E / 55.0886972; 124.719361 (Tynda Longwave Mast)
209  Mongolia Choibalsan 75 48°01′21.02″N 114°33′3.73″E / 48.0225056°N 114.5510361°E / 48.0225056; 114.5510361 (Choibalsan transmitter)
 Mongolia Dalanzadgad 75 43°31′54.38″N 104°24′4.16″E / 43.5317722°N 104.4011556°E / 43.5317722; 104.4011556 (Dalanzadgad transmitter)
 Mongolia Olgii Omnidirectional antenna, 352.5 metres high guyed mast 30 48°57′24.52″N 89°58′13.15″E / 48.9568111°N 89.9703194°E / 48.9568111; 89.9703194 (Olgii transmitter)
216 Radio Monte Carlo  Monaco Roumoules Directional aerial, 3 300 metre high guyed steel lattice masts, 330 metre high guyed steel lattice mast as backup aerial 1200 43°47′41.45″N 6°8′48.41″E / 43.7948472°N 6.1467806°E / 43.7948472; 6.1467806 (Roumoules Longwave Transmitter, Mast 1) ; 43°47′34.56″N 6°8′59.09″E / 43.7929333°N 6.1497472°E / 43.7929333; 6.1497472 (Roumoules Longwave Transmitter, Mast 2); 43°47′27.7″N 6°9′9.85″E / 43.791028°N 6.1527361°E / 43.791028; 6.1527361 (Roumoules Longwave Transmitter, Mast 3), Backup antenna: 43°47′36.29″N 6°9′30.61″E / 43.7934139°N 6.1585028°E / 43.7934139; 6.1585028 (Roumoules transmitter, longwave backup mast) The transmitter site is located in France.
 Norway Lambertseter near Oslo 200 closed
Azerbaijani Radio 1  Azerbaijan Ganja 600 40°36′50″N 46°20′0″E / 40.61389°N 46.33333°E / 40.61389; 46.33333 (Ganja Longwave Transmitter)
Radio Rossii  Russia Krasnoyarsk Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 210 m tall 150 56°02′02.97″N 92°45′32.31″E / 56.0341583°N 92.7589750°E / 56.0341583; 92.7589750 (Krasnoyarsk Longwave Transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Atamanovka Directional antenna 150 51°50′02″N 113°43′10″E / 51.83389°N 113.71944°E / 51.83389; 113.71944 (Atamanovka Longwave Transmitter) Closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Birobidzhan 2 guyed masts, 260 m high 30 48°44′19.37″N 132°48′3.95″E / 48.7387139°N 132.8010972°E / 48.7387139; 132.8010972 (Birobidzhan Longwave Transmitter) ; 48°44′14.71″N 132°48′32.6″E / 48.7374194°N 132.809056°E / 48.7374194; 132.809056 (Birobidzhan Longwave Transmitter) closed
225 Polskie Radio Program 1  Poland Solec Kujawski Directional aerial, 2 guyed radio masts fed on the top, heights 330 m and 289 m 1000 53°1′21.01″N 18°15′32.63″E / 53.0225028°N 18.2590639°E / 53.0225028; 18.2590639 (Solec Kujawski transmitter, 330 metres tall mast) 53°1′12.83″N 18°15′44.06″E / 53.0202306°N 18.2622389°E / 53.0202306; 18.2622389 (Solec Kujawski transmitter, 289 metres tall mast) Earlier transmitter site Konstantynów ( 52°22′3.91″N 19°48′7.04″E / 52.3677528°N 19.8019556°E / 52.3677528; 19.8019556 (Konstantynów Radio Mast ( destroyed)) )
 Turkey Van Omnidirectional antenna, 250 m high guyed lattice steel mast 600 38°35′11.47″N 43°15′59.17″E / 38.5865194°N 43.2664361°E / 38.5865194; 43.2664361 (Van transmitter)
Radio Rossii  Russia Surgut Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 1000 61°23′35″N 72°53′20″E / 61.39306°N 72.88889°E / 61.39306; 72.88889 (Surgut transmitter) Closed
227  Mongolia Altai 75 46°19′25.52″N 96°15′31.2″E / 46.3237556°N 96.258667°E / 46.3237556; 96.258667 (Altai transmitter)
234 RTL  Luxembourg Beidweiler Directional aerial, 3 guyed grounded steel lattice masts, 290 m high, with vertical cage aerials 2000 49°43′42.57″N 6°19′4.29″E / 49.7284917°N 6.3178583°E / 49.7284917; 6.3178583 (Beidweiler Radio Mast) ; 49°43′49.2″N 6°19′15.02″E / 49.730333°N 6.3208389°E / 49.730333; 6.3208389 (Beidweiler Radio Mast) ; 49°43′55.81″N 6°19′25.67″E / 49.7321694°N 6.3237972°E / 49.7321694; 6.3237972 (Beidweiler Radio Mast) Spare transmitter site Junglinster ( 49°43′0.35″N 6°15′28.9″E / 49.7167639°N 6.258028°E / 49.7167639; 6.258028 (Junglinster Radio Tower) ; 49°43′6.56″N 6°15′40.27″E / 49.7184889°N 6.2611861°E / 49.7184889; 6.2611861 (Junglinster Radio Tower) ; 49°43′12.75″N 6°15′51.44″E / 49.7202083°N 6.2642889°E / 49.7202083; 6.2642889 (Junglinster Radio Tower) )
 Moldova Grigoriopol 1000 closed
 Libya Yafran near Tripoli 1000 closed
Radio 1  Russia Krasny Bor transmitter near Sankt-Peterburg Omnidirectional aerial, 271.5 metres tall guyed mast with cage antenna 1200 59°39′12.32″N 30°41′50.12″E / 59.6534222°N 30.6972556°E / 59.6534222; 30.6972556 (Krasny Bor transmitter) closed
 Russia Koskovo near Murmansk Omnidirectional aerial, 210 m tall guyed mast 250 64°21′35.83″N 41°23′4.01″E / 64.3599528°N 41.3844472°E / 64.3599528; 41.3844472 (Koskovo transmitter) inactive
Radio 1  Russia Novosemeykino near Samara Four 205 metres tall towers insulated against ground arranged in a square 2000 53°22′59.44″N 50°20′13.84″E / 53.3831778°N 50.3371778°E / 53.3831778; 50.3371778 (Novosemeykino transmitter) ; 53°22′59.53″N 50°20′19.23″E / 53.3832028°N 50.3386750°E / 53.3832028; 50.3386750 (Novosemeykino transmitter) ; 53°22′56.2″N 50°20′13.94″E / 53.382278°N 50.3372056°E / 53.382278; 50.3372056 (Novosemeykino transmitter) ; 53°22′56.31″N 50°20′19.32″E / 53.3823083°N 50.3387000°E / 53.3823083; 50.3387000 (Novosemeykino transmitter) closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Raduzhnyy near Magadan Omnidirectional aerial, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 1000 59°42′51.14″N 150°11′29.9″E / 59.7142056°N 150.191639°E / 59.7142056; 150.191639 (Raduzhnyy transmitter) Closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Odinsk near Irkutsk Omnidirectional aerial, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 500 52°24′57.43″N 103°42′0.29″E / 52.4159528°N 103.7000806°E / 52.4159528; 103.7000806 (Odinsk transmitter) Closed
Radio 1  Russia Koskovo near Arkhangelsk Omnidirectional aerial, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 500 64°21′50.92″N 41°24′41.8″E / 64.3641444°N 41.411611°E / 64.3641444; 41.411611 (Koskovo transmitter) closed
Radio 1  Armenia Gavar Omnidirectional aerial, 259.4 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 500 40°25′32.68″N 45°12′16.15″E / 40.4257444°N 45.2044861°E / 40.4257444; 45.2044861 (Gavar transmitter)
243 DR Langbølge  Denmark Kalundborg Semi-directional Alexanderson antenna 153/333 degrees, two grounded 118 m steel lattice radiating towers with interconnecting top wire capacitance 70 55°40′39.27″N 11°4′8.6″E / 55.6775750°N 11.069056°E / 55.6775750; 11.069056 (Kalundborg Transmitter Longwave Tower 1) ; 55°40′32.91″N 11°4′14.33″E / 55.6758083°N 11.0706472°E / 55.6758083; 11.0706472 (Kalundborg Transmitter Longwave Tower 2) AM suspended 15 February 2007 – 16 June 2011, now transmitting in time slots only. DRM tests from 3 October 2008.
 Turkey Erzurum Omnidirectional antenna, 185 m high guyed lattice steel mast 200 39°59′53.59″N 41°06′40.95″E / 39.9982194°N 41.1113750°E / 39.9982194; 41.1113750 (Erzurum Transmitter) Off air since 13 October 2008.
Radio Rossii  Russia Razdolnoye near Ussuriysk Omnidirectional antenna, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 1000 43°32′18″N 131°55′46″E / 43.53833°N 131.92944°E / 43.53833; 131.92944 (Razdoly'ne Transmitter) closed
 Kazakhstan Karaganda Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 254 m height 1000 49°47′32.45″N 73°01′40.15″E / 49.7923472°N 73.0278194°E / 49.7923472; 73.0278194 (Karaganda Transmitter) closed
 Kazakhstan Alma-Ata 1000 closed
252 Chaine 3  Algeria Tipaza Omnidirectional aerial, single guyed lattice steel mast, height 355 m 1500 36°33′58.14″N 2°28′50.3″E / 36.5661500°N 2.480639°E / 36.5661500; 2.480639 (Tipaza Longwave transmitter) French programme; during night-time half transmitter-power
YLE  Finland Lahti 200 60°58′48″N 25°38′39″E / 60.980137°N 25.644195°E / 60.980137; 25.644195 (Lahti longwave transmitter), 60°58′43″N 25°38′57″E / 60.978747°N 25.649155°E / 60.978747; 25.649155 (Lahti longwave transmitter) closed
RTÉ Radio 1  Ireland Clarkstown Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, insulated against ground, height 248 m 300 53°27′46″N 6°40′39″W / 53.46278°N 6.67750°W / 53.46278; -6.67750 (Clarkstown longwave mast) The only AM transmitter for RTÉ Radio 1. Decreases power at night to 100 kW. On 23 September 2014 RTÉ announced the closure of Radio 1's longwave service on 27 October 2014.[11]
Radio Rossii  Russia Kazan Omnidirectional aerial, 152 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 100 55°49′6.3″N 49°10′24.64″E / 55.818417°N 49.1735111°E / 55.818417; 49.1735111 (Kazan longwave mast) Closed
 Tajikistan Yangi-Yul 150 38°28′41.69″N 68°48′19.53″E / 38.4782472°N 68.8054250°E / 38.4782472; 68.8054250 (Boshkengash longwave mast) ; 38°28′44.64″N 68°48′24.42″E / 38.4790667°N 68.8067833°E / 38.4790667; 68.8067833 (Boshkengash longwave mast) ; 38°28′46.65″N 68°48′22.56″E / 38.4796250°N 68.8062667°E / 38.4796250; 68.8062667 (Boshkengash longwave mast) ; 38°28′43.7″N 68°48′17.66″E / 38.478806°N 68.8049056°E / 38.478806; 68.8049056 (Boshkengash longwave mast)
261 Transmitter Burg  Germany Burg Omnidirectional aerial, cage aerial on 324 m high guyed, grounded steel lattice mast, 210 m high steel tube mast, insulated against ground 200 52°17′12.93″N 11°53′50.52″E / 52.2869250°N 11.8973667°E / 52.2869250; 11.8973667 (Burg transmitter, main mast) Inactive at the moment, formerly used by Radio Wolga and Radioropa Info
Radio Rossii  Russia Taldom Omnidirectional antenna, circle antenna with 1 central and 5 ring masts, height of central mast 275 m 2500 56°43′59.86″N 37°39′47.51″E / 56.7332944°N 37.6631972°E / 56.7332944; 37.6631972 (Taldom transmitter, Central Mast) ; 56°44′10.32″N 37°39′46.53″E / 56.7362000°N 37.6629250°E / 56.7362000; 37.6629250 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast) ; 56°44′2.54″N 37°39′29.17″E / 56.7340389°N 37.6581028°E / 56.7340389; 37.6581028 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast) ; 56°43′51.09″N 37°39′37.2″E / 56.7308583°N 37.660333°E / 56.7308583; 37.660333 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast) ; 56°43′51.76″N 37°39′59.6″E / 56.7310444°N 37.666556°E / 56.7310444; 37.666556 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast) ; 56°44′3.64″N 37°40′5.34″E / 56.7343444°N 37.6681500°E / 56.7343444; 37.6681500 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast) Was most powerful transmitter in the world. Closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Kruchina near Chita Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 260 m high 150 51°50′22.5″N 113°44′8.9″E / 51.839583°N 113.735806°E / 51.839583; 113.735806 (Chita Longwave Mast) closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Tyumen Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 220 m high 150 closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Vorkuta Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 220 m high 50 closed
Radio Horizont  Bulgaria Vakarel One of the few Blaw-Knox Towers in Europe, 215 m high 75 42°34′35.18″N 23°41′55.52″E / 42.5764389°N 23.6987556°E / 42.5764389; 23.6987556 (Vakarel Transmitter)
270 ČRO 1 - Radiožurnál  Czech Republic Topolná Directional aerial (maximum of radiation in East-West direction), two grounded 257 m high guyed steel lattice mast with cage aerials 50 49°7′32.88″N 17°30′45.97″E / 49.1258000°N 17.5127694°E / 49.1258000; 17.5127694 (Topolná transmitter, Mast 1) ; 49°7′18.85″N 17°30′41.78″E / 49.1219028°N 17.5116056°E / 49.1219028; 17.5116056 (Topolná transmitter, Mast 2) Mo-Fr 5:00-24:00, Sa-Su 6:00-24:00 CZ time
Radio Rossii  Russia Orenburg Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 137 m height 25 51°46′44.37″N 55°06′23.01″E / 51.7789917°N 55.1063917°E / 51.7789917; 55.1063917 (Orenburg transmitter) closed
Radio 1  Russia Khabarovsk 2 guyed steel lattice masts, height: 164 m 150 48°30′43.48″N 135°07′02.24″E / 48.5120778°N 135.1172889°E / 48.5120778; 135.1172889 (Chabarovsk transmitter) ; 48°30′48.75″N 135°07′18.15″E / 48.5135417°N 135.1217083°E / 48.5135417; 135.1217083 (Chabarovsk transmitter) closed
Radio Slovo  Russia from Novosibirsk moved to Raduga Omnidirectional aerial, 209 metres tall guyed mast with cage antenna 150 55°07′38.48″N 82°59′19.03″E / 55.1273556°N 82.9886194°E / 55.1273556; 82.9886194 (Novosibirsk transmitter)  
279 Belaruskaje Radyjo 1 (BR1)  Belarus Sasnovy 500 53°24′31″N 28°31′57″E / 53.40861°N 28.53250°E / 53.40861; 28.53250 (Sasnovy transmitter)  
Radio Rossii  Russia Gorno-Altaisk Omnidirectional antenna, 143m high guyed lattice steel mast 50 51°58′1.12″N 85°54′54.68″E / 51.9669778°N 85.9151889°E / 51.9669778; 85.9151889 (Gorno-Altaisk transmitter)   closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Selenginsk Omnidirectional aerial, 260 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna (ARRT-antenna) 150 52°02′17.52″N 106°56′25.6″E / 52.0382000°N 106.940444°E / 52.0382000; 106.940444 (Selenginsk transmitter)   closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Vestochka near Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 258 m high 1000 46°50′35″N 142°53′44″E / 46.84306°N 142.89556°E / 46.84306; 142.89556 (Vestochka transmitter)   closed
Radio Rossii  Russia Yekaterinburg Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 256 m height, fed at the top 150 56°53′22.46″N 60°41′30.22″E / 56.8895722°N 60.6917278°E / 56.8895722; 60.6917278 (Yekaterinburg longwave transmitter)   closed
 Turkmenistan Ashgabat 150 37°51′14.89″N 58°21′57.99″E / 37.8541361°N 58.3661083°E / 37.8541361; 58.3661083 (Ashgabat transmitter)  
Height diagram of the antenna towers and antenna masts of longwave broadcasting stations


Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ "long wave". Cambridge Online Dictionary. Cambridge Univ. Press, UK. 2011. Retrieved December 29, 2012. 
  2. ^ "long wave". MacMillan Online Dictionary. MacMillan Publishers. 2009. Retrieved December 29, 2012. 
  3. ^ Graf, Rudolf F. Graf (1999). Modern Dictionary of Electronics, 7th Ed.. US: Newnes. p. 437. ISBN 0750698667. 
  4. ^ The World Book Dictionary. US: World Book, Inc. 2003. p. 1232. ISBN 0716602997. 
  5. ^ "About LWCA". Longwave Club of America. Retrieved 2010-01-05. 
  6. ^ Ground-wave propagation curves for frequencies between 10 kHz and 30 MHz. ITU-R Recommendation P.368-9
  7. ^ Guide to Broadcasting Stations (17th ed.). Butterworth. 1973. p. 18. ISBN 0-592-00081-8. 
  8. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/blogs-news-from-elsewhere-25683656
  9. ^ http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Langwellenrundfunk
  10. ^ World Radio TV Handbook
  11. ^ "RTÉ Radio 1 Moves from Longwave Transmission". RTÉ Commercial Enterprises. 2014. Retrieved 23 September 2014. 

See also[edit]

External links[edit]