|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Pregnancy cat.||C (US)|
|Legal status||POM (UK) ℞-only (US)|
|Half-life||5 to 6 hours|
|ATC code||J05 (with ritonavir)|
|Mol. mass||628.810 g/mol|
|(what is this?)|
Lopinavir (ABT-378) is an antiretroviral of the protease inhibitor class. It is used against HIV infections as a fixed-dose combination with another protease inhibitor, ritonavir, under the trade names Kaletra (high-income countries) and Aluvia (low-income countries).
Lopinavir is highly bound to plasma proteins (98–99%).
Reports are contradictory regarding lopinavir penetration into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Anecdotal reports state that lopinavir cannot be detected in the CSF; however, a study of paired CSF-plasma samples from 26 patients receiving lopinavir/ritonavir found lopinavir CSF levels above the IC50 in 77% of samples.
Side effects, interactions, and contraindications have only be evaluated in the drug combination lopinavir/ritonavir.
A 2014 study indicates that lopinavir is effective against the human papilloma virus (HPV). The study used the equivalent of one tablet twice a day applied topically to the cervixes of women with high grade and low grade pre-cancerous conditions. After three months of treatment, 82.6% of the women who had high-grade disease had normal cervical conditions, confirmed by smears and biopsies.
- KALETRA (lopinavir/ritonavir) capsules; (lopinavir/ritonavir) oral solution. Prescribing information. April 2009
- Capparelli E, Holland D, Okamoto C, et al. (2005). "Lopinavir concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid exceed the 50% inhibitory concentration for HIV". AIDS (London, England) 19 (9).
- HIV drug used to reverse effects of virus that causes cervical cancer University of Manchester, 17 February 2014.